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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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Articles containing the keyword 'juniper'.

Category: Research article

article id 1678, category Research article
Juan F. Jimenez, Pedro Sánchez-Gómez, Jose Luis Cánovas, Isabell Hensen, Miloud Aouissat. (2017). Influence of natural habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of Canarian populations of Juniperus turbinata. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1678
Highlights: Canarian populations of Juniperus turbinata exhibited levels of genetic diversity similar to those of mainland populations; Despite the historical geologic events occurred in Canary Islands, and the documented decrease of populations since the arrival of settlers, no genetic differentiation between islands has been observed; As it has been observed for other Macaronesian endemics, J. turbinata long dispersal ability seems to be the main force driving the genetic structure of populations.

Oceanic archipelagos provide an important platform from which to evaluate the effects of isolation and fragmentation on the genetic structure of species. As a result of oceanic isolation, such species usually show lower levels of genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than their mainland congeners. However, this is not necessarily the case for long distance dispersal species, whose genetic structure is not strictly defined by population isolation. We assessed the level and distribution of genetic diversity among Canarian populations of Juniperus turbinata in order to evaluate the influence of population isolation on its genetic structure. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers, we analyzed molecular diversity among 175 individuals from five populations occurring across the Canary Island and three Moroccan populations. Principal Coordinate Analysis, neighbor joining clustering, AMOVA and Bayesian-based analysis were applied to examine population structure. Despite the documented habitat loss and decline in Canarian populations, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers revealed levels of intra-population genetic diversity that were similar to those from mainland populations, and low levels of genetic differentiation. Bayesian analysis of population structure showed three main clusters, one comprising El Hierro population and a few individuals from several islands, a second cluster that grouped the remaining Canarian populations together, and a third cluster grouping Moroccan populations. Our results suggest that the main force driving the genetic structure of Canarian populations of J. turbinata is its capacity for long distance dispersal.

  • Jimenez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjimenez@um.es (email)
  • Sánchez-Gómez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6754-1512 E-mail: psgomez@um.es
  • Cánovas, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: joseluis.canovas@um.es
  • Hensen,  Institut für Biologie, Martin-Luther Universitat, 06099 Halle, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: isabell.hensen@botanik.uni-halle.de
  • Aouissat, Centre Universitaire Salhi Ahmed Naama, BP 66, Naâma, Algérie ORCID ID:E-mail: aouissatm@yahoo.fr
article id 1334, category Research article
Abolfazl Daneshvar, Mulualem Tigabu, Asaddollah Karimidoost, Per Christer Oden. (2015). Single seed Near Infrared Spectroscopy discriminates viable and non-viable seeds of Juniperus polycarpos. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1334. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1334
Highlights: Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy discriminates viable and non-viable (empty, insect-attacked and shriveled) seeds of J. polycarpos with 98% and 100% accuracy, respectively; The origins of spectral differences between non-viable and viable seeds were attributed to differences in seed coat chemical composition and storage reserves; The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy has great potential as seed sorting technology to ensure precision sowing.

A large quantity of non-viable (empty, insect-attacked and shriveled) seeds of Juniperus polycarpos (K. Koch) is often encountered during seed collection, which should be removed from the seed lots to ensure precision sowing in the nursery or out in the field. The aims of this study were to evaluate different modelling approaches and to examine the sensitivity of the change in detection system (Silicon-detector in the shorter vis-a-vis InGsAs-detector in the longer NIR regions) for discriminating non-viable seeds from viable seeds by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR reflectance spectra were collected from single seeds, and discriminant models were developed by Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) using the entire or selected NIR regions. Both modelling approaches resulted in 98% and 100% classification accuracy for viable and non-viable seeds in the test set, respectively. However, OPLS-DA models were superb in terms of model parsimony and information quality. Modelling in the shorter and longer wavelength region also resulted in similar classification accuracy, suggesting that prediction of class membership is insensitive to change in the detection system. The origins of spectral differences between non-viable and viable seeds were attributed to differences in seed coat chemical composition, mainly terpenoids that were dominant in non-viable seeds and storage reserves in viable seeds. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy has great potential as seed sorting technology to upgrade seed lot quality that ensures precision sowing.

  • Daneshvar, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden; (permanent address) Department of Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Shahid Fallahi Street, P.O. Box 163, Gonbad, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: abolfazl.daneshvar@slu.se
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Karimidoost, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Beheshti Ave. P.O. Box 4915677555, Gorgan, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: karimidoost@yahoo.com
  • Oden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.oden@slu.se
article id 206, category Research article
Qiaoying Zhang, Yunchun Zhang, Shaolin Peng, Eshetu Yirdaw, Ning Wu. (2009). Spatial structure of alpine trees in Mountain Baima Xueshan on the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.206
Most of the trees at treeline on the Tibetan Plateau are endemic to the Plateau. Yet little is known about these species. The study focused on the population structure, spatial patterns and associations of the treeline species Abies forestii var. georgei and Juniperus saltuaria at treeline and timberline in Mountain Baima Xueshan on the southeast Tibetan Plateau. These species form monodominant communities on the north- and south-facing slopes, respectively. Stem density, DBH-distribution, distribution pattern of different tree size classes, and intraspecific spatial association between different tree size classes of both species were analyzed. Spatial structure varied between A. forestii var. georgei and J. saltuaria, and for the same species, the spatial structures were also different from timberline to treeline. Stem density, mean tree height and young individuals of A. forestii var. georgei were significantly higher than those of J. saltuaria. For the same species, they were different from timberline to treeline, i.e., stem density and mean tree height of both species became lower. Size classes of both species were mainly clustered either at treeline or at timberline but at different scales, and spatial patterns of young J. saltuaria were mainly dominated by random patterns. Clumps of trees created more favorable microenvironments in harsh environments at treeline and timberline. Most tree size classes showed positive intraspecific spatial associations, but positive associations between size classes of J. saltuaria were not as significant as those of A. forestii var. georgei. The south-facing slope was usually subjected to varying intensities of pastoralism. Livestock disturbance greatly changed the microhabitat and reduced the number of young individuals. The potential of trees to regenerate was greatly inhibited, while A. forestii var. georgei showed greater regeneration potential. Spatial structures of J. saltuaria were also modified by this kind of human impact.
  • Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong Province, China; Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China ORCID ID:E-mail: lsspsl@mail.sysu.edu.cn (email)
  • Zhang, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan 250353, Shandong Province, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peng, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong Province, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wu, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5177, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Preliminary testing of the resistance of Finnish softwood timbers to Macrotermitinae termites. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5177. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15092

The resistance of Finnish softwood timbers to Macrotermitinae termites was tentatively tested under tropical conditions in Zambia using a field microtest method. Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Larix sibirica L. sapwood and heartwood, as well as Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood, and the sapwood of the locally grown Pinus kesiya, exhibited no natural termite resistance. On the other hand, Juniperus communis heartwood appeared to be virtually immune and the heartwood of P. Sylvestris had some resistance. There were also some differences in the resistance of the heartwood of the different P. Sylvestris individuals tested, which was correlated with the width of the annual rings in the wood samples. The termite species involved were Microtermes sp. and Odontotermes sp. The possibilities of using different types of Finnish softwood timber in the regions in the tropics where there is a risk of termite damage is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loisa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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