Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'kasvillisuus'.

Category: Article

article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7288, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1934). Metsä- ja suotyyppien esiintymisen keskinäisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 11 article id 7288. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7288
English title: The mutual relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.
English keywords: paludification; peatland; fertility

The relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types was studied using data collected in the national line survey of Finnish forests carried out in 1921‒1924. The majority of peatlands in Finland has been formed by forest land becoming paludificated. When the peat layer is thin, the fertility of the peatland depends on the underlying mineral soil, consequently, good swamp types occur on fertile subsoil and poor types on poor subsoil. When the peat layer becomes thicker, the relationship weakens. The surrounding mineral soils influence the quality of the peatland by the runoff from the catchment area. The direct comparison of forest site and swamp types is not possible, because for one forest site type there are several swamp types that have different levels of humidity. According to the study, a very distinct mutual relation can be seen between occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7057, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1921). Havaintoja Kuusamon ja sen eteläpuolisten kuusimetsäalueiden metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 5 article id 7057. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7057
English title: Observations of forest and peatland site types in Norway spruce areas in Kuusamo.
The forest and peatland site types can be identified based on the ground vegetation. Grazing, forest fires, fellings and other interferences, altitude and soil, however, change the species composition. In Kuusamo area, the land is mountaneous, but the moraine layer is mostly continuous. Thus, there is relatively little rocky sites. In addition, the calcareous soil is more fertile than in the most parts of the country. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is common on Hylocomium-myrtillus site type, where vegetation differs to some extent from the corresponding forest site types in the southern parts of the country. These changes seem to be caused by the thin stands in the north. In the southern parts of the Kuusamo area, the stands are denser which affects the vegetation. In areas that have been burned, the dominant tree species is mostly Betula sp., and Norway spruce may grow in understorey, and the ground vegetation is herb-rich. The forest become thinner, the higher the altitude. This changes also ground vegetation. Norway spruce is also dominant species in the spruce swamps and transition zones between spruce swamps and the open peatland types.
  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15384
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5157, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Vesa Aro-Heinilä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1982). Lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus männikön pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5157. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15072
English title: Effect of fertilization and irrigation on the ground vegetation of a Scots pine stand.

A mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a site of the Vaccinium type in Southern Finland was fertilized with nitrogen-rich NPK fertilizer at a level of 150 kg pure nitrogen per hectare. The sample plots were also irrigated during four growing seasons. The total amount of irrigation during this period was 1,200 mm. Fertilization alone increased the coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs. The culmination of the increase occurred during the second growing season after the start of the treatment. The rapid effect of irrigation on the coverage of ground vegetation was not so strong as that of fertilization. It was concluded on the basis of the developed growth model that the coverage of dwarf shrubs, especially Calluna vulgaris, was, however, increased with the fertilization treatment for a prolonged period. Fertilization and irrigation had no visible effect on the coverage of lichens and mosses.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aro-Heinilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7037, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia Pohjois-Suomen metsätyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 7037. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7037
English title: Studies on forest site types in Northern Finland.

The forest site classification system used in Finland is based on ground vegetation rather than the wood production capacity. A. K. Cajander has presented a detailed classification of different forest site classes in different parts of the country. This study focuses on the forest site types of Northern Finland, which are less well defined. The article presents detailed vegetation analysis and lists of plant species in different forest site types in Northern Finland. In contrast to southern parts of Finland, both the natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands are uneven-aged in the north. The forests are also relatively thin. There is a marked difference in height of trees between the richest and poorest sites, but the dominant trees of the same site type were of similar height both in the north and south part of the study area. The differences in the height of dominant trees seem to be smaller than in Southern Finland. Also, in windy areas prone to snow damage, climate conditions can affect tree growth more than the forest site type. In more sheltered areas forest site type determines forest growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hoogesteger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7019
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4912, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1975). Havaintoja metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4912. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14756
English title: Studies concerning the relationship between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of a forest stand.

The study deals with the relationship between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of Vaccinium and Calluna forest types. The results show that the biomass of the field layer on both forest types can predict satisfactorily in both coverage values of some the most important species and groups of species. Their total height per plot was used as independent variables. The explaining power of the models constructed for Vaccinium type increased to approximately 57% and for the Calluna type to approximately 74% of the total variation in the amount of dry matter. When the biomass of the bottom layer was predicted using the same kind of variables, the explaining power for the Vaccinium type increased to approximately 35% of the total variation and for the Calluna type approximately 53% of the total variation in the amounts of dry matter. The models for field layer of both Vaccinium and Calluna types were quite well suited for describing the test material. In the case of the bottom layer, the constructed models were not suitable for describing the test material.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4895, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1974). Metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4895. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14739
English title: The relation between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of forest stand.

The possibilities of using results of coverage analyses for estimating the dry matter content of the ground vegetation has been examined in this study. The material covers 150 sample areas, 400 m2 large, which represent ground vegetation of Myrtillus type in the final succession stage. When the material was subjected to linear regression analysis, the amount of dry matter in the field and ground layer has been used as dependant variables and the results of the coverage analysis as the independent variable.

The study shows that it is possible to predict satisfactorily the dry matter content of the ground vegetation by grouping the coverage, according to the coverage weight, into parts of equal size and the using them as independent explaining variables. In particular, the value of the prediction equation for the dry matter content of the field layer could be improved by using the height and density characteristics of the vegetation as explaining variables in addition to the coverage figures. Thus, slightly over 80% of the total variation of the dry matter content of the field layer could be predicted. In the case of the ground layer vegetation, the explaining power rose slightly above 70%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4880, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1973). Tallaamisen vaikutus mustikkatyypin kuusikon pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4880. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14716
English title: Ground cover response to trampling in a spruce stand of Myrtillus type.

The study deals with the trampling tolerance of forest vegetation in a Myrtillus type closed forest of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), based on the effects of simulated trampling on the coverage and biomass on the field and between layers of the vegetation. The reliability of the results from the simulated trampling was tested by comparing them with those obtained from real trampling.

According to the results, the trampling tolerance of the bottom layers is greater than that of the field layer. The trampling tolerance of different species varies, so that grasses and dwarf shrubs have a higher tolerance capacity than herbs. Even light trampling of short duration caused noticeable changes in the coverage and biomass of the ground vegetation. Despite certain deficiencies, the simulated trampling gave parallel results of those obtained for real trampling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4880, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1973). Tallaamisen vaikutus mustikkatyypin kuusikon pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4880. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14716
English title: Ground cover response to trampling in a spruce stand of Myrtillus type.

The study deals with the trampling tolerance of forest vegetation in a Myrtillus type closed forest of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), based on the effects of simulated trampling on the coverage and biomass on the field and between layers of the vegetation. The reliability of the results from the simulated trampling was tested by comparing them with those obtained from real trampling.

According to the results, the trampling tolerance of the bottom layers is greater than that of the field layer. The trampling tolerance of different species varies, so that grasses and dwarf shrubs have a higher tolerance capacity than herbs. Even light trampling of short duration caused noticeable changes in the coverage and biomass of the ground vegetation. Despite certain deficiencies, the simulated trampling gave parallel results of those obtained for real trampling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4687, category Article
V. Sukatsev. (1960). Metsätyyppien tutkimisen opas. Suomentanut Erkki Laitakari. Silva Fennica no. 99 article id 4687. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14125
English title: A guide to the study of forest types.

Professor V. Sukachev, a Soviet developer of the doctrine of forest types, published a guide to the study of forest types in 1931. He states in the introduction of the guide that his aim is to facilitate the work of beginners in determining forest types and to instruct them in developing methods for their description and classification.
This Finnish edition of the guide includes new picture material and has an extensive supplementary preface, written by the author, that presents his view on forest types. The guide describes the concept of forest types, methods of describing forest types, guidelines to material collected in the forests and principles of classification of the different forest types.

  • Sukatsev, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4672, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1957). Lettoräme ja sen metsäojituskelpoisuus. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4672. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9119
English title: Eutrophic pine bogs and their suitability for draining.

There are about 155,000 ha of fen-like pine swamps (eutrophic pine bogs) in Finland, major part of which are situated in Northern Finland. In the classification system for drainability of peatlands, this type of peatlands had been placed in the first class. The study presents a new evaluation for the peatland type, based on vegetation and tree growth.

According to a previous study, the vegetation of fen-like pine swamps can be characterised by distinctive plant communities that seem to reflect the fertility and high pH of the underlying soil. In this study, the fen-like pine swamps were divided in two subtypes based on the vegetation: proper fen-like pine swamps and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs. Both have distinctive vegetation, which is described in the article. The distribution of the subtypes seems to be different: fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs are more common in eastern parts of Northern Finland. The two subtypes could be divided in different drainability classes according to tree growth, proper fen-like pine swamps belonging to class 1 and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs to class 4.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4625, category Article
Olavi Huikari. (1952). Suotyypin määritys maa- ja metsätaloudellista käyttöarvoa silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 75 article id 4625. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9097
English title: Determination of peatland type considering their drainage value for agriculture and forestry.

Growth capacity of peatlands after draining depends largely on quality of the surface peat. The future growth capacity can be determined with considerable accuracy by the vegetation of the peatland. The aim of this study was to draw guidelines to identify the fertility of a peatland and its potential for draining based on its vegetation.

Certain species and plant associations were identified to describe the fertility of different peatland types. Brown mosses indicate an abundant nutrient content of the site, certain herbs moderately abundant nutrient content, sedges (Carex sp.) moderate nutrient content, shrubs poor nutrient content and vegetation indicating an oligotrophic peatland indicates excessively poor nutrient content. The article includes detailed descriptions of the vegetation of different peatland types.

Supplementary features, such as thin peat, flooded parts or abundance of Spangnum fuscum can be used as additional indications to determine the drainability of the site. The article describes an identification tool to determine the drainability of a peatland based on vegetation and the supplementary features of the peatland.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Huikari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4620, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1951). Eräs suokasvillisuuden analysoimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica no. 70 article id 4620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9092
English title: Determination method for peatland vegetation.

The aim of the study was to develop an determination method to define vegetation type of fen-like pine swamps, which are combinations of two peatland types, quagmire and pine swamp. Typical for this peatland type is that the vegetation is very heterogenous. Patches of different types of plant communities are found within a small area, but in a large scale, there are only few main types of plant communities. The commonly used way to use sample plots to study tree stands suit poorly to determine the type of this kind of heterogenous ground vegetation. The article compares strip survey and circular plot survey, of which circular plot survey is determined to be less time consuming. The article describes a way to choose the locations of sample points to achieve most correct areas for different plant communities.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4524, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1937). Havaintoja kasvillisuuden kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuloalueilla. Silva Fennica no. 44 article id 4524. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9069
English title: Observations on development of vegetation in burned areas in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to follow development of vegetation in dry upland forest sites after forest fire. The sample sites were situated in the counties of Muonio, Kolari, Sodankylä, Pelkosenniemi, Savukoski, Kemijärvi and Salla, in the northernmost Finland.
The growth of plant communities can arise either from the vegetation and seeds that survived the fire, or from seeds that spread from the surrounding areas. The development of vegetation in the burned areas was unexpectedly independent of the surrounding areas, which indicates that role of the seeds from the outside of the burned ares is small. The occurence of different species of lichens, moss, scale moss and vascular plants in the burned areas are described in detail. The development of vegetation was strongly dependent on the forest site type. The thin humus layer of Cladina site type burns usually evenly, and also the vegetation develops more evenly than in the more fresh site types. Vegetation typical for burned areas was fully developed within 10-15 years, and after 25 years it began to resemble the vegetation of Cladina site type forests. The ground vegetation of Calluna type burned area was more patchy. It developed quicker than in Cladina type. Absense of lichens made it seem more fertile than is usual for Calluna type. The humus layer of Empetrum-Myrtillus site type burned unevenly, and if the area was lightly burned, the vegetation recovered quickly. The vegetation was often patchy.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4522, category Article
A. V. Auer. (1937). Muhkurin kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 41 article id 4522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9067
English title: Vegetation in Muhkuri experimental area in southwest Finland.

A vegetation analysis was performed in Muhkuri experimental area of the Forest Research Institute. The area is located in southwest Finland near city of Turku. The dominant tree species of the area is oak (Quercus robur L.) which can be found in all the area. Common woody species are also aspen (Populus tremula L.), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), juniper (Juniperus communis L.) and mountain currant (Ribes alpinum L.). A total of 198 vascular plants were found in the area, 34 of which were common in most parts of the area. Typical vegetation of different parts of the area is described. Finally, a list of all plant species is presented in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4522, category Article
A. V. Auer. (1937). Muhkurin kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 41 article id 4522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9067
English title: Vegetation in Muhkuri experimental area in southwest Finland.

A vegetation analysis was performed in Muhkuri experimental area of the Forest Research Institute. The area is located in southwest Finland near city of Turku. The dominant tree species of the area is oak (Quercus robur L.) which can be found in all the area. Common woody species are also aspen (Populus tremula L.), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), juniper (Juniperus communis L.) and mountain currant (Ribes alpinum L.). A total of 198 vascular plants were found in the area, 34 of which were common in most parts of the area. Typical vegetation of different parts of the area is described. Finally, a list of all plant species is presented in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4478, category Article
Taimi Mäkelä. (1936). Lehdoista ja lehtokasvien leviämisestä Pohjois-Pirkkalan-Tyrvään alueella. Silva Fennica no. 37 article id 4478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9064
English title: Herb-rich forests and their vegetation in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland.

Vegetation inventory was made to study plant species growing in herb-rich forest in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland. The area belongs to a district that is rich in grass-herb forests, where the bedrock is calciferous. Six herb-rich forest site types were identified in the area. The species composition in the herb-rich forests was compared to those in Turku in southwest Finland, and in Ladogda Karelia in Eastern Finland.  The main characteristics of the plant associations were similar, but there were a few species that are common in Pirkkala-Tyrvää area that are rare in the other areas, and vice versa. The district rich in grass-herb forests of Pirkkala may extend more westwards than it has been assessed earlier. Finally, the article lists the plant species found in the herb-rich forests in the area and defines their distribution and abundance.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4475, category Article
Olavi Cajander. (1934). Viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta sekä lehtokasvillisuudesta ja -kasvistosta keskisen Längelmäveden seudulla. Silva Fennica no. 34 article id 4475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9047
English title: Distribution of fertile lands and vegetation indicative for herb-rich forest sites in Längelmävesi area in Southern Finland.

Typical for the area of Längälmävesi, in Satakunta in Southern Finland, are densely populated fertile lowland areas near the waterways and poorer sparcely populated upland areas. The changes in fertility of the land influence the vegetation, and has directed where the population has settled. A vegetation survey was made using specific plant species as indication to fertility. A detailed description of the species composition and distribution of the plant species indicative for fertile land is presented in the article.

Analyzing the fertility only based on the plant species indicative for rich soils underestimates the proportion of fertile lands. Farmlands, on the other hand, have been cleared also on less fertile soils, which would give an overestimate of the fertile lands. A map of fertile lands was drawn based on both vegetation and location of the fields. The changes in fertility influenced also bird species observed in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4473, category Article
Alfred Brandt. (1933). Hiisjärven luonnonpuiston kasvillisuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 32 article id 4473. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9045
English title: Vegetation in the Hiisjärvi protected area in Eastern Finland.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) decided to protect two areas around Hiisijärvi lake in Eastern Finland already in 1916. Later, a natural park was suggested to be established in the area. A survey of the vegetation in the area was composed in 1931-1932. The total land area of the protected area was 3.5 km3. A vegetation map was drawn based on a nature inventory. A detailed description of the forest site types, peatland types, aquatic flora and the vegetation of the area are included in the article. The calcareous soil promotes rich vegetation. Typical for the area are also rich fens. The area can be divided to a eutrophic and a oligotrophic part.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Brandt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4473, category Article
Alfred Brandt. (1933). Hiisjärven luonnonpuiston kasvillisuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 32 article id 4473. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9045
English title: Vegetation in the Hiisjärvi protected area in Eastern Finland.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) decided to protect two areas around Hiisijärvi lake in Eastern Finland already in 1916. Later, a natural park was suggested to be established in the area. A survey of the vegetation in the area was composed in 1931-1932. The total land area of the protected area was 3.5 km3. A vegetation map was drawn based on a nature inventory. A detailed description of the forest site types, peatland types, aquatic flora and the vegetation of the area are included in the article. The calcareous soil promotes rich vegetation. Typical for the area are also rich fens. The area can be divided to a eutrophic and a oligotrophic part.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Brandt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4473, category Article
Alfred Brandt. (1933). Hiisjärven luonnonpuiston kasvillisuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 32 article id 4473. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9045
English title: Vegetation in the Hiisjärvi protected area in Eastern Finland.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) decided to protect two areas around Hiisijärvi lake in Eastern Finland already in 1916. Later, a natural park was suggested to be established in the area. A survey of the vegetation in the area was composed in 1931-1932. The total land area of the protected area was 3.5 km3. A vegetation map was drawn based on a nature inventory. A detailed description of the forest site types, peatland types, aquatic flora and the vegetation of the area are included in the article. The calcareous soil promotes rich vegetation. Typical for the area are also rich fens. The area can be divided to a eutrophic and a oligotrophic part.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Brandt, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive