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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'kilpailu'.

Category: Article

article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7398, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1949). Männiköiden ja kuusikoiden juurisuhteista I. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 7398. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7398
English title: On the horizontal roots in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the amount, quality and distribution by layers of depth of horizontal roots in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland. The sample plots included stands on soil varying from sandy to stony, and stands of  varying ages from seedling stands to an old stand, in Myrtillus and Vaccinium type forests.

In a Norway spruce stand, the amount of roots increases rapidly and reaches its maximum, about 450 meters/m3, at an age of 100-110 years. In a Scots pine stand the maximum, about 370 m/m3, is reached earlier, at an age of 60-70 years. The root system of pine expands more rapidly than that of spruce. The total length of the horizontal root system of pine amounts to 1,000 m soon after 40 years of growth, of spruce at the age of 60. Later the situation changes, and at the age of 110 the root systems of both species are about the same size, but older trees of spruce have more extensive root system.

Majority of horizontal roots are under 1 mm in diameter. Of the horizontal roots of spruce stands the majority lie in the humus layer and in the topmost mineral soil stratum. Over half of horizontal spruce roots are, thus, at a maximum depth of 5 cm, while majority of the roots of Scots pine lie at maximum in depth of 10 cm. At the same layer grow also the roots of the ground vegetation, which may affect the competition between the species.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7370, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1942). Männyn taimien juurien suhtautumisesta emäpuun juuriin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 17 article id 7370. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7370
English title: Roots of a seedling in relation to roots of the mother tree.

The study is based on observations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on a dry upland forest site in Karhumäki, where a 10-15-year old seedling stand grew under a hold-overs of larger trees that had been left in the site in a previous felling. The root systems of 80-120 cm tall seedlings growing around single mother trees were unearthed. Root maps were drawn of the root systems of 120 seedlings.

No seedlings grew around old, large hold-overs. It seems that seedlings could not compete with their root system. If the hold-overs were stunted in their growth, seedlings grew also under the canopy of the mother tree. 90% of the seedlings had a tap root. Rest of the roots grew horisontally in the topsoil. Around a vigorous mother tree, the seedlings grew their roots away from the mother tree. Hold-overs that had belonged originally to the lower canopy layer of the old forest did not have similar effect on the root orientation of the seedlings. Their roots had been previously affected by trees of higher canopy layer, later removed in the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7359, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1942). Muutamia kasvukokeita puuntaimilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7359
English title: Growth studies on tree seedlings.

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of growth conditions on germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Germination of seeds becomes markedly slower as the soil temperature decreases. It seems that low temperatures affect more Norway spruce than Scots pine. When temperature rises, the fresh weight of the seedlings increases more in pine seedlings than in spruce seedlings. Accordingly, lower temperatures affect less the weight growth of spruce seedling than that of pine seedlings.

An experiment testing how root competition affect germination showed that adjacent seedlings decrease germination of seeds more than shading with branches. The effect was strongest on pine and spruce seedlings when the shading tree species was fast growing birch (Betula sp.). On the other hand, shading affected most height growth of birch seedlings. Growing space can vary in relatively large range without it affecting greatly tree growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7330, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330
English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland.

Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7325, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1936). Kuusi männyn kilpailijana kasvupaikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 8 article id 7325. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7325
English title: Norway spruce as competitor in the sites typical for Scots pine.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is a species that becomes in Finland over time the dominant species in the sites that are suitable for it. The reason that it covers only a quarter of the forest areas in Finland depends mainly on forest fires. The aim of this review was to discuss the biological factors that affect competition between Scots pine and Norway spruce.

Especially important is the ability to regenerate and grow past seedling stage. There does not seem to be significant differences in the number of good seed and seedling years of the species. Spruce regenerates better on moss covered forest floor than pine. On the other hand, pine seedlings grow faster than spruce seedlings, and tolerate better dry conditions. Consequently, one of the defining biological differences is that Norway spruce needs more humid conditions than Scots pine. Spruce is shown to have greater transpiration than pine. Spruce also has higher site requirements, however, growing as undergrowth, it seems to be better able to compete of the nutrients with the larger trees than pine. It also tolerates shading better. Spruce is less frost tolerant than pine.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5200, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Timo Nevalainen. (1983). Näkökohtia puuston tiheyden ja puiden koon välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5200. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15183
English title: Relationship between stand density on tree size.

Two Japanese models regarding the within-stand competition have been reviewed on the basis of relevant literature. Competition-density and 3/2 th power models seem to be applicable also into tree stands. The latter model has been applied into the material obtained from literature. Computations showed consistancy with the results obtained elsewhere in the world. It is concluded that also in Finnish conditions the 3/2 th power law may have great potentials in describing the effects of stand density on tree size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nevalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7684, category Article
Pekka Mäkinen. (1993). Puutavaran kuljetusyritysten menestymisen strategiat. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 238 article id 7684. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7684
English title: Strategies used by timber truck companies to ensure business success.

The aim of the study was to determine how timber truck transport business succeeds in the competition within its sector, and the effect it has on profitability structure of the sector. Furthermore, strategic groups were looked at in depth, as well as the competitive strategies of the most successful companies and groups of companies. The theoretical competitive strategy was operationalized.

A total of 53 timber truck transport entrepreneurs were interviewed. The average age of the entrepreneurs was 51 years. Of the businesses, 35% were partnership companies, 6% open companies, and 59% self-employed. The business owned an average 1.5 trucks, and at the time of interviewing their average age was four years. Nearly nine out of ten entrepreneurs had no schooling for the line of business, and four out of five had no short-term training. The attitude of the timber truckers toward their activities was more like that of self-employed persons than that of entrepreneurs. A total of 61.5% of them reporter that they carried on entrepreneurship simply to assure themselves a job.

The operational profitability of the sector has been good in the years 1984 to 1990, and the business profitability fairly good. The median equity ratio in the sector has remained at about 20% and the ratio of debts to turnover about 40%. The sector has been more profitable than forest machine contracting primarily due to the barriers to entry into the sector.

Cluster analysis, using Ward’s method, was used for seeking out strategic groups. The lengths of the customer relationships proved a significant barrier to mobility. The most successful business used the competitive strategy of cost weighted focussing. This was done through optimization of the capacity utilization rate and through choice of correct customers. The strategic position for successful business was judged to be good in the future. Success in the future will require above all activeness and innovation ability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7585, category Article
Jorma Ahvenainen. (1976). Suomen paperiteollisuuden kilpailukyky 1920- ja 1930-luvulla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 151 article id 7585. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7585
English title: The competitive position of the Finnish paper industry in the inter-war years.

The aim of the present study was to explain how the Finnish paper industry increased its production and its exports, broadened its markets and managed to show a profit in its activities during the period between the two world wars, despite the restrictive international commercial policies then prevailing, and despite the economic depression of the thirties. Newsprint has been treated as a subject for detailed examination.

The study is based on a comparative investigation of the price received by the paper mills for their paper and the costs of production. Since the market price of paper fell during the twenty years in question, one must examine how the mills responded to the reduction in selling price. Technically the study ranges from the valuation of the standing timber to the handing over of the finished product to the buyer. Between 1929 and 1933 the cost of producing newsprint fell by 387 marks per ton.

The most significant factor in maintaining competitive power was the technical development and increased output brought about in the mills. That alone accounted for half the savings achieved. The reduction in the buying price of wood and in delivery costs accounted for about a third of the difference in production costs, and other factors for the remaining fifth. In addition, the devaluation of the Finnish mark was crucial. Measures taken to reduce costs were effective in so far as the paper mills, with only one or two exceptions, maintained their competitiveness in international markets and managed not only to retain but also to extend their markets.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ahvenainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7560, category Article
Matti Palo. (1972). Kaivuriurakoitsijain välinen kilpailu ja metsäojan hinnan alueellinen vaihtelu. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 126 article id 7560. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7560
English title: Competition among tractor-digger contractors and regional variation of forest drain prices.

In Finland The Central Forestry Board Tapio conducts forest drainage operations on swamps owned mainly by private individuals. This drainage is almost totally financed by the Government either as loans or subsidies. The local contractors have left bids about new forest drainage projects, and the best bid has won the contract. The trend of the average price for forest drains has been declining during the last 11 years although digging costs have increased. The aim of this study was (1) to explain the regional price variation of forest drains made by tractor-diggers and (2) to describe competition among tractor-digger contractors and to measure its effect on prices.

Correlation and regression analyses support the hypothesis that competition among tractor-digger contractors has decreased forest drain prices, especially in 1967. In the course of the last two years this competition effect has been lessening. The most significant other variables explaining price variations were the proportion of winter drainage, length of drainage work done for each participant in the project, and density of drains.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7560, category Article
Matti Palo. (1972). Kaivuriurakoitsijain välinen kilpailu ja metsäojan hinnan alueellinen vaihtelu. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 126 article id 7560. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7560
English title: Competition among tractor-digger contractors and regional variation of forest drain prices.

In Finland The Central Forestry Board Tapio conducts forest drainage operations on swamps owned mainly by private individuals. This drainage is almost totally financed by the Government either as loans or subsidies. The local contractors have left bids about new forest drainage projects, and the best bid has won the contract. The trend of the average price for forest drains has been declining during the last 11 years although digging costs have increased. The aim of this study was (1) to explain the regional price variation of forest drains made by tractor-diggers and (2) to describe competition among tractor-digger contractors and to measure its effect on prices.

Correlation and regression analyses support the hypothesis that competition among tractor-digger contractors has decreased forest drain prices, especially in 1967. In the course of the last two years this competition effect has been lessening. The most significant other variables explaining price variations were the proportion of winter drainage, length of drainage work done for each participant in the project, and density of drains.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4574, category Article
Kurt Enkola. (1940). Tyrnipensas (Hippophaës rhamnoides L.) Rauman saaristossa : kasvimaantieteellinen tutkielma. Silva Fennica no. 53 article id 4574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9077
English title: Occurence of buckthorn in the coast of Rauma, Western Finland.

Occurence of buckthorn (Hippophaës rhamnoides L.) in the mainland coast and archipelago of Rauma in the Southwestern Finland was surveyed during 1934-1936. The species is coastal, growing most prominent in the islands of central zone of the archipelago, while it is rare in the outermost archipelago and loses competition to other vegetation in mainland. The main competitors in the innermost islands are black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in the outermost islands black alder and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.). Seawater and ice can cause damage to buckthorn, but it resists wind well. The species grows well both on fine and coarse gravel.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Enkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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