Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'komiteanmietinnöt'.

Category: Article

article id 4713, category Article
Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea. (1963). Metsäalan organisaatiokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4713. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14271
  • Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4695, category Article
Hirvivahinkokomitea. (1960). Hirvivahinkokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 106 article id 4695. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9134
English title: Report of committee on damage by moose.

The increase in moose (Alces alces) population of Finland in 2000th century has caused significant damages in agriculture and forestry. Amendment was made to the Game Law to compensate damage by moose to agricultural crops from state funds. It has been suggested already in 1936 that compensations should be paid for the damages caused to the forests as well. Finally, in 1956 the Government appointed a committee to study the quality and quantity of the damages caused by moose to the young stands. The committee carried out an inquiry about the extent of the damage in 1956–1957, in which 12,000 private forest holdings were studied.

According to the study, moose cause damage mainly to young Scots pine stands in Southwestern Finland and Western Finland, and the districts of Uusimaa-Häme, East Häme, South Karelia and East Savo. However, the number of forest holdings suffering from damage was relatively low, about 5.6% in the whole country in 1951–1956. The damage is concentrated on Scots pine-, aspen, and birch-dominated young stands. The study of the level of the damage showed, that only 14% of the pine and 17% of stands of other tree species should be reforested due to the damage.

The committee suggests that compensation is paid for those damages that require reforestation. Reforestation would be affected with the help of State relief funds under the provision of the Act on Forest Improvement. The owner would also receive a tax reduction for a lost growing season. In addition, attention to moose damages in the forests should be taken into account when moose hunting permissions are issued.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hirvivahinkokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4729, category Article
Puutavaranmittauskomitea. (1966). Puutavaranmittauskomitean mietintö : Osamietintö I. Silva Fennica no. 118 article id 4729. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14287
English title: Report of timber scaling committee.

A Timber Scaling Committee was appointed by the Government of Finland in 1959, commissioned with the regulations concerning the scaling of timber and to draw a proposal for their amendments. The commission suggest revision of the regulations in their entire extent. The largest alterations should be made in the act which incorporates the provisions concerning the actual technical methods of procedure in measuring. Thus, also amendments were also posed for the Timber Scaling Law and the law concerning the scaling of timber for the purpose of paying wages.

The inclusion of the setting of the grades and quantities are considered important, since most of the disagreements occurring in measuring are concerned with quality of the timber. Inside of the sphere of application of the law would also be settling of the problems of the quality, and the measuring procedure, also when measuring for the purpose of paying wages.

According to the bill, the necessary number of official scalers and scaling boards would be appointed. The duties of the present officers would be changed. In the boards would be presented sellers, buyers, employers and employees besides the chairman. The freedom of contract in the scaling of timber will be preserved from the present law.

The report includes a bill for the Timber scaling Act, a draft for the timber scaling act, and a draft for an act which includes the timber scaling rules.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puutavaranmittauskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4722, category Article
Metsäverokomitea. (1965). Metsäverokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 116 article id 4722. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14280
English title: Report of the forest taxation committee.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; metsäverotus
English keywords: forest taxation; taxation; Finland

The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1959 to study the drawbacks of the present system of forest taxation, and to make recommendations for their elimination. It was not within the Committee’s terms of reference to decide whether the present taxation procedure, which is based on assessment per unit of area, should be replaced entirely by another system.

The committee made several proposals to mitigate the hardships entailed in the collective nature of Finnish forest taxation. It also proposed tax relief for areas which are to be the main target of forest improvement work. Among the other recommendations of the committee, can be mentioned simplification of the taxation in Northern Finland by having only two yield classes for that region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäverokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttölä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4685, category Article
Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea. (1959). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 98 article id 4685. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9126
English title: Report of the committee set out to revise the Law on Forest Management Associations.

The Law on Forest Management Associations was passed in 1950. According to the law, forest owners have to pay a forestry fee, which is used to finance local forest management associatons. The effect of the law on Finnish private forestry is considered to be significant.
The number of consulting forest officers has increased by 95% and the labour input by 107% since the law came into effect. Thus, the guidance available for forest owners has increased markedly. 85% of timber cut from private forests are marked by professional foresters, while the share was earlier less than 30%. The amount of forest management work, such as clearing of felling sites, sowing and care of plantations, has also increased.
On the other hand, experience has pointed out a need for revising some points of the law. To this aim, the Government of Finland appointed a committee to outline the ammendments. The present article contains the report of the committee.
The committee suggests that the forestry fee, that according to the present law is 2-6% of the net yield computed for communal income tax, will be changed to 2-5%. Further, forest holding in which the annual increment is less than 20 cu.m. are at the moment exempt from the fee. It is suggested that holdings with an annual increment of less than 30 cu.m. pay half a fee. In addition, the committee suggests some clarifying provisions to be adopted.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4670, category Article
Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea. (1957). Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävän komitean mietintö. 2. Käsittelee pääasiassa metsä- ja sivuansiotuloja. Silva Fennica no. 91 article id 4670. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9117
English title: Proceedings of the committee on economic status of the Finnish agricultural population.

The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1955 to analyse the economic status of the population living from agriculture. The present paper contains Part II of the proceedings of this committee. It discusses the earnings of the agricultural population from forestry and occasional work.

Agricultural population was defined as all people living from holdings of at least 2 hectares of agricultural land. Forestry income includes, besides the value of stumpage sold, earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts. Earnings from occasional work include wages for logging made to the account of someone else, as well as wages for agricultural work, floating, carpentry, road construction and maintenance work etc.

In 1951–1954, the farms in Finland received an average aggregate of 29 milliard Fmk for stumpage, 10 milliard Fmk of which consists of the value assigned to the timber consumed by the farms themselves. The average income from stumpage was 110,000 Fmk per farm. The earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts amounted to 3.3 milliard Fmk, and the earnings from occasional work to 6.7 milliard Fmk. The income from stumpage together with the earnings from delivery loggings amounted to 123,000 Fmk per farm. Adding the earnings from occasional forest work, an aggregate forestry income of 150,000 Fmk per farm has been obtained, 70–75% of which accounts for stumpage price.

The occasional earnings from sources other than forestry were on average 12–13 milliard Fmk, or 45,000–50,000 Fmk per farm. The agricultural income of the farms was 60.4 milliard Fmk, or 230,000 Fmk per farm. Thus, the aggregate income of the farms was 110 milliard Fmk, or 420,000 Fmk per farm.

The financial surplus from forestry per farm for the farms included in the study in 1951–1954 was on average 21, and the income from forestry 18 times as high as in 1934–39. The income from stumpage at the end of the same period was 18, and the earnings from occasional work 27 times as high as at the beginning of the period.

The agricultural income has the greatest relative importance in Southern Finland and Eastern Bothnia. The income from stumpage, in turn, has the greatest relative significance in supporting agriculture in the inner part of Finland, while the occasional income plays its most vital role in northeast Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4641, category Article
Metsänhoitolakikomitea. (1953). Metsänhoitolakikomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 83 article id 4641. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9104
English title: Report of the Forest Management Law Committee.

A Committee was appointed in 1946 by the government of Finland to draw a draft to substitute the 1928 Law on Private Forests. The article is a report of the committee, and gives a suggestion to a new Forest Management Law and Forest Management Decree.

The aim of the 1928 law was to prevent devastating fellings. The committee introduces a new concept, duty to tend forests in accord with the principle of progressive forestry. This principle is drafted in the first paragraph of the law: Forest should be so tended, protected and used that, as far as possible, the productive capacity of the soil will be fully utilized and economically profitable, and increasing yield secured.

The proposal also includes measures to prevent devastation, the concept of which has been changed from the previous law. For instance, a cutting which is in disproportion to the growing stock of the forestry holding is considered devastation. Responsibility for the measures to secure regeneration after felling rests with the forest owner if the felling has been carried out in line with sound silvicultural practice. The district forestry boards are suggested to be the organizations that supervise the observance of the law.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänhoitolakikomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4624, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1952). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1951 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 74 article id 4624. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9096
English title: The fuel question in Finland in 1951.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to make a suggestion of measures to be taken to arrange fuel supply during the heating season. The committee drafted also a plan to regulate and govern the fuel economy.

The committee estimated that the total consumption of coal, coke, firewood, waste wood and fuel peat, converted into pine firewood increased from 33.8 million eu.m in piled measure in heating period of 1952-53 to 42.9 million in 1955-56. According to the report, the demand of fuel is met increasingly through imported fuels, such as coal, coke and oil. The change is mainly due by their lower price and technically easy handling compared to domestic fuels.

The committee suggests that the production of domestic fuels, peat and firewood, should be increased and rationalized. In addition, financial support should be targeted to construct hydroelectric plants. Fuel peat industry should be developed further. The use of oil should be promoted, and boilers able to use different kinds of fuel should be constructed. To be prepared in changes in international situation, stocks of fuel are needed.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4623, category Article
Metsätalouskomitea. (1952). Puun maakuljetusolojen kehittäminen : vuoden 1949 metsätalouskomitean mietintö N:o 1. Silva Fennica no. 73 article id 4623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9095
English title: Development of land transportation of wood.

The government of Finland appointed in1949 a committee to draft a program to promote forestry and increase the production of forests in the immediate future. The committee regarded promotion of transportation of roundwood and fuel wood as the most urgent question of the assignment. A separate committee was assigned to give a report on floating.

The report gives a summary of timber transportation facilities. The importance of land transport, especially truck transport, has grown. This has influenced other means of long-distance transport, such as railways and floating. Building of truck roads can bring large areas of presently unaccessible forests accessible for forest industry.

The committee suggest improvements in road legislation. Improvements needed in the road system for better timber transport facilities are outlined. The committee gives a detailed list of roads, compiled by area. The total length of forest roads to be constructed is 5,584 km, and the estimated cost 6,702 million marks. Railroads would be built 1,453 km at the cost of 35,745 million marks.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Metsätalouskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4621, category Article
Metsähallintakomitea. (1951). Metsähallintoa koskevat säännökset : metsähallintokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 71 article id 4621. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9093
English title: Statutes of Forest Service.

The government of Finland appointed in 1949 a committee to compose new legislation for Forest Service. The article includes proposals for a Forest and Park Service Act and a Forest and Park Service Decree. The proposals are based on the previous decree on forest administration. The committee proposes changes in the sections of Forest Service. The management of peatlands and forests of the state will be in a same section, and all issues concerning the private forests in one section. State forests would be divided in three districts instead of the present four districts.

The committee will make a separate report on necessary reforms in the administration of Forest Service to ensure that the state forests of Finland will be managed effectively.

  • Metsähallintakomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4577, category Article
Metsäverotuksen uudistamiskomitea. (1942). Metsäverotuksen uudistamissuunnitelma. Silva Fennica no. 57 article id 4577. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9081
English title: Reform of forest taxation.

A committee was appointed in 1940 to prepare a proposal for reform of forest taxation. The taxation based on net income of forestry was considered to have limitations, and the actual net income had been observed to be markedly higher than the income that was used in taxation.

The report describes in detail the principles and shortcomings of taxation used since 1922. These include inaccuracies in the forest areas of a woodland estate, and weaknesses in classification of forest land and demand zones. The committee suggests several improvements in calculating the taxable income, which in the new calculations is based on yield on terms of value.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsäverotuksen uudistamiskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4469, category Article
Paperipuun-vientikomitea. (1933). Paperipuukysymys. Silva Fennica no. 28 article id 4469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9041
English title: The pulpwood question.

A Commission was appointed to examine the significance of pulpwood exports from the political-economic and social point of view. A survey was made of the development of woodworking industry in Finland. The article includes a detailed review on paper industry in Finland and abroad, pulpwood resources in Finland and outlook of the industry. The export of pulpwood was significant in 1925-1927, the most important country being Germany. The commission notes that It would be more profitable to refine the wood into more expensive products. It does, however, not see it necessary to restrict export of pulpwood. If restrictions are considered necessary, prohibition of export is a better way than export duties.

The best way to promote domestic paper industry is to increase the supply of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Measures are suggested to increase the productivity of the forests through forest improvement. The annual increment of spruce is calculated to cover the consumption in near future, provided the export of pulpwood does not amount to 600,000 m3, and the local demand of pulpwood does not exceed 7.8 million m3 annually. The Commission proposes that state ownership of forests is increased, forest management is intensified, and restrictions of forest industry to acquire forest land are removed.

It suggests also reliefs in taxation and import duties on fields related to transport, and equipment and raw materials needed by the paper industry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paperipuun-vientikomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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