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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'läpimitta'.

Category: Article

article id 5632, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Petteri Vanninen. (1997). An application of process-based modelling to the development of branchiness in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8534

A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5341, category Article
Hannu Hökkä, Jukka Laine. (1988). Suopuustojen rakenteen kehitys ojituksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5341. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15498
English title: Post-drainage development of structural characteristics in peatland forest stands.

The effect of drainage on structure of tree stands is analysed by comparing the average structural characteristics (e.g. diameter distribution) of stands in the data for different drainage age classes and selected site types. The material consists of ca. 4,400 relascope sample plots, which are part of a large drainage area inventory project. The uneven-aged structure of the virgin peatland forest is preserved for several decades after drainage. This is enhanced by the post-drainage increase of small-diameter trees, especially birch. The number of trees per hectare increased during a period of ca. 30 years and levelled off thereafter. The increase in the number of saw log stems is clearly related to the fertility of the site and its geographical location.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hökkä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5083, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1980). Havaintoja koivutukkien epäpyöreydestä ja pituusmittaeroista. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5083. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15024
English title: Observations on the out-of-roundness and deviations from nominal lengths of birch logs.
English keywords: Betula; birch; logs; roundness; diameter

A material of 478 birch logs were measured. The horizontal diameter was on average larger than the vertical one, the difference increasing with the increasing diameter. The reason was supposed to be the effect of sweep and out-of-roundness of logs. The difference between the actual and nominal length increased with the increasing lengths, but decreased with increasing diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4950, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Lisähavaintoja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4950. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14796
English title: Auxiliary observations on the measurement of the cross-sectional area of aspen logs.

In this study the area, 8 diameters, and 16 radii were measured of 174 discs representing aspen logs in a mill. The average difference between the largest and smallest diameter was 18 mm, or 7% of the longest diameter. The difference between the largest and smallest radius was 29 mm, or 22% of the longest radius. The diameter was on the average 2.4 mm longer than the two corresponding radii.

The exact area of each disc was measured using a planimeter. In comparison, the area based on the circle formula the diameter being the arithmetic mean of largest and smallest diameters overestimated the area by 1.7%. The results also indicated that the use of random direction in the measurement of diameter overestimated the cross-sectional area on the average by 1.8%.

The study is continuation of the earlier study where the bibliography is presented. As far as the results are comparable, they support each other.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4922, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Koivu- ja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14764
English title: Measurement of the cross-sectional area of birch and aspen logs.

The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the cross section of birch (Betula sp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) logs differ from a circle and to test some simple methods for measuring the cross-sectional area which can be used, for instance, for determining the volume of the logs. The material consisted of 420 debarked birch disks and 240 aspen disks which were representative of the logs arriving at two factories.

The convex deficit values for the material were very small, the cross-sectional area error being in general less than 1%. On the other hand, the other parameters deviated from the circular form to quite a large degree. It was also evident that the radii measured from the piths to the surface of the wood varied considerably more in the same disk, as regards length, than the diameters measured in different directions.

It was evident that the shape of the average cross-sectional area was not in general elliptical. It thus appears that any method for measuring the cross-sectional area which is based on elliptical formula is not suitable. The method which gave the best result was that in which the cross-sectional area was taken as the average of the area of the circle calculated from the smallest diameter and that calculated from the diameter passing at right angles to it. This method also appeared to be the best for disks which deviated to quite a large degree from the circular form. The suitability of this method is increased by the fact that the relative error is only slightly dependent on the size of the disk.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4874, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Runkojen järeys puunkorjuun monitoimikoneiden ajanmenekin ennustamisessa. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4874. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14704
English title: The size of stems in estimating the time consumption of processors.

The problem considered in this paper is how to analyse the usefulness of some average volume values of stems in predicting the average time consumption of some processors. In this connection, the usual arithmetic mean, the arithmetic mean weighted with volume and the geometric mean were used. The functions describing the dependence of time consumption per tree on the volume of the tree were obtained from previous studies, as were the stand properties.

The results were obtained with the aid of computer simulation techniques and the deterministic model described above. According to the results, the usual arithmetic mean is very applicable for predicting the time consumption. The geometric mean is nearly as good, or in some cases even better. However, as a rule its computation is much more tedious than that of the arithmetic average volume for the purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; sydänpuu; kuitupuu; läpimitta

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4864, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Havaintoja kuusen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4864. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14667
English title: Observations on the branchiness of Norway spruce.

The material comprised 12 Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from Central Finland, with 2,118 branches. The exact location of the branches on the stems, their diameter at the thick end, their length, and the green weight of all the branches was measured on two-metre lengths of the stem.

According to the results, the diameter of a branch can be estimated very accurately from its length. The variation of branch diameter along the stem was also very regular, although there were considerable differences from one tree to another. The greatest work requirement for trimming was in the middle and upper parts of the green crown. Branch variables per tree, such as the number and cross-section area o the branches, could be satisfactorily estimated from the volume or breast-height diameter of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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