Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'laatuluokitus'.

Category: Article

article id 7167, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia rauduskoivikon karsimisen kannattavuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 2 article id 7167. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7167
English title: Studies on the profitability of pruning of common birch (Betula pendula) stands.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.

The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.

Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.

The PDF includes a summary English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7165, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia koivujen vikaisuuksista, niiden vaikutuksesta sorvaustulokseen sekä niiden huomioonottamisesta laatuluokituksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 3 article id 7165. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7165
English title: Studies on the defects of birch, their influence on the quality and quantity of rotary cut veneer, and their consideration in veneer birch grading.

The objective of this paper was to study the influence of defects of Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. on the quality, value and quantity of veneer cut produced by rotary cutting, to prepare grading rules for veneer birch and to determine the minimum quality for veneer birch, and to assess the quality and quantity of veneer yield in rotary cutting of bolts of different grades. Data for the study was collected in 1953-1963 from six plywood factories in Finland.

The effect of knot marks, knot bumps, dry and rotten knots, sound knots, sweep and crookedness, upright limbs, heart rot, open and overgrown scars and bark peeling defects in the bolt on the quality and yield of veneer is described. Recommendations for grading rules were defined on the basis of the result. The rules include three grades, for which certain defects are allowed. In the first grade are accepted bolts, which of the veneer yield included at least 30% of veneer of grades A and B when all jointing and end-clipped sheets were taken into account. In the second grade were accepted bolts, which of the main part of the veneer yield still is surface veneer on the basis of the wood quality. Of the third-grade bolts at least one third of the veneer yield ought to be surface veneer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4760, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Kuusitukkien laatuluokkajakautuma Etelä-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4760. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14544
English title: Grade distribution of Norway spruce logs in Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to find the factors influencing the distribution of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) logs on various grades with special stress on the effects of the grade on the value of logs. The material was obtained from ten sawmills located in Southern Finland by grading a total of 13,559 logs.

The results showed that knottiness in its different forms of appearance is the most important factor influencing the quality of spruce logs. Its significance is clearly greater in spruce than in Scots pine saw logs. Among the other defects, the most common are crooks. Even scars and decay occur to a considerable degree, but other defects seldom affect the grade. The quality of butt logs is markedly better than that of top logs. Both in butt and top logs the smallest logs in diameter are of poorer quality. However, in the largest diameter classes the quality begins again to decrease.

The difference in the quality of logs of the same grade at various sawmills is very small. The results of grading at varying times at the same sawmill show greater differences than can be observed between different sawmills. However, the logs of sawmills that procure the timber from coastal areas and islands are inferior to those which procure the timber from the mainland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4613, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laatuarvioinnin tarkkuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4613. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14009
English title: Accuracy of quality grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses accuracy of the quality grading of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs suggested by professor Ilmari Vuoristo based on a data collected by Valtiala. According to the study, greatest inaccuracies in the grading by visual inspection was caused by differences between the evaluators.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4612, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laadun mukaisista arvosuhteista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4612. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14008
English title: Value grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Quality grading has been rarely used in pricing of saw logs due to lack of knowledge on how the quality of logs affects the value of the sawn wood. This presentation discusses the subject based on unpublished data professor Ilmari Vuoristo collected in 1930s on effects of timber grading on the quality and value of sawn wood. The quality classification developed by professor Vuoristo is presented.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4611, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelulla saavutettavista eduista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14007
English title: Benefits of qualitative classification of saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes benefits of the qualitative classification of saw logs to forest owners and forest industry.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4610, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelutavat. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4610. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14006
English title: Methods of saw log classification according to quality.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the uses and principles of different kinds of grading of saw logs.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4609, category Article
F. E. Siimes. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelu sahatavarain käytön, lajittelun ja koesahausten valossa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4609. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14005
English title: Classification according to quality of saw logs in the light of use, grading and sawing tests of sawn timber.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the grading of sawn timber for export and domestic use, and suggests improvements to grading of the sawn products in the saw mills to better answer the needs of export.

  • Siimes, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4608, category Article
V. Pöyhönen. (1951). Teollisuuden raakapuun yleiset laatuvaatimukset. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4608. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14004
English title: General quality standards of industrial raw timber.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the development of standards for timber grades in Finland, and the present quality grades of raw timber for timber sales from state forests.

  • Pöyhönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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