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Articles containing the keyword 'laho'.

Category: Article

article id 7400, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1949). Perä-Pohjolan koivikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 4 article id 7400. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7400
English title: Quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in the northernmost Finland.

The quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland is low due to the harsh environment, unsuitable sites for the species and unsatisfactory silvicultural state. A total of 236 sample trees were felled and measured in 8 sample plots. The trees were over 80 years old.

Only third of the stand volume of birch in the stands had adequate quality for merchantable timber. This is due to birch growing often in sites unsuitable for the species, the low density of the stands, the small average size of stems, and the low amount of large sized trees. These problems may contribute to the fact that birch seem to be susceptible to decay. The trees have often grown from sprouts, which leads often to poor stem form and decay. The volume and quality of both pure and mixed birch stands was sufficient only in the most fertile sites. Also, decay was more common in poor sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7389, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1947). Perä-Pohjolan kuusikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7389
English title: Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola in Northern Finland.

The different kinds of injuries in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands was studied in 52 sample plots in Peräpohjola in the northernmost Finland. The age classes of the stands varied from 100 years to over 220 years. Most of the stands were unevenaged, as is usual in the area.

In the younger age classes (121-160 years) majority of the trees were of normal quality or had smaller injuries in all forest types. In age classes over 160 years the trees of merchantable quality decreased markedly in all forest types. The quality of the trees decreases with the age especially because of butt rot, braking of trees and crooks, forks and heart and top decay caused by the injuries. To ensure future quality it would be important that the stand is healthy from the beginning. When old spruce stands of the area are in large extent diseased by the root rot, it is questionable if they can be regenerated using natural regeneration. The spruce stands of the area are also relatively branchy. This could be prevented by growing the young stands dense. Changing the dominant tree species to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the dry upland forest sites could be a way to improve the quality of the forests in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7340, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1938). Puiden vikanaisuuksien vaikutuksesta hakkuutulokseen Perä-Pohjolan havumetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 7340. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7340
English title: The effect of injuries of the stems to amount of merchantable timber in the northernmost Finland.

The effect of different kinds of injuries in the amount of merchantable timber was studied in 57 sample plots in the northernmost Finland. Without any injuries the yield of timber would have been 72.3% in Scots pine (Pinus sylverstris L.) and 89.9% in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Butting, and removal of parts of the stems due to Injuries decreased the volume by 10.4% in pine and 13.5% in spruce. The main cause for butting of pine was fire wounds, and butt rot in spruce. Also pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum) causes injuries in Scots pine. The better the forest site type, the smaller is the timber discarded due to injuries. In pine 54% and in spruce 53% of the trees and were healthy. The forests in the northernmost Finland are over-mature which increase the occurrence of fire wounds and decay. Thus, forest fire control and the felling or thinning of over-mature stands will improve the quality of the timber in the long run.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7314, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1935). Puiden vikanaisuuksista Pohjois-Suomen metsissä: tilastollis-metsäpatologinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 7314. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7314
English title: Injuries in different tree species in Northern Finland: A statistical-forest pathological study.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in different parts of the trees and the frequency of different kinds of injuries. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old forests in mineral soil sites and peatlands. All the trees over 1.5 m high were felled in the sample plots and the stem injuries were studied. The structure of the stand and the crown classes were recorded. The proportion of undamaged trees was largest in in dominant and codominant trees and increased towards the better forest site types. The typical injuries are listed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). H. Karst.) and Betula sp. stands. The injuries were divided in inner and outer form defects and injuries, and defined in more detail by the part of the stem and tree species. Defects caused by decay were analyzed separately.

Healing over of injuries was faster in the better sites. Form defects and other injuries were more common in birch stands than in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Decay was most common in birch stands. The pine stands were the healthiest, followed by spruce stands. Fire wound were most usual in pine, butt rot for spruce, and crooks and general decay for birch.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5004, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Haapatukkien lahoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5004. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14858
English title: Occurrence of decay in aspen logs.
Original keywords: haapa; tukki; laho; tyvitukit
English keywords: aspen; Populus tremula; logs; decay; butt logs

At three Finnish match factories 1,629 aspen logs were measured (see Kärkkäinen and Salmi 1978). When the estimation was based on the condition of the butt cross section of a log, less than half of the logs were sound without any discoloration or decay. Based on the condition of the top cross-section, the corresponding figure was a little higher than 50%. The logs with decay were bigger than those without it. There were relatively more butt logs among the logs with decay than among the totally sound logs.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4865, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Esimerkki kuusikon lahovikaisuuden Etelä-Suomessa aiheuttamasta taloudellisesta menetyksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4865. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14668
English title: An example on the economic loss caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber in Southern Finland.

A growing stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) marked for cutting was investigated in the winter of 1971–72 in Helsinki in Southern Finland in order to determine the economic loss caused by decay. Taking a sample from growing spruce trees with increment borer is not a reliable method of determining the frequency of decay. The decayed stems were twice measured for assortment cutting into lengths; the first time disregarding the decay and the second time doing the actual assortment cutting according to the grade of timber. The direct economic loss caused by decay was 13% of the price for standing timber. The indirect loss may be as great as the direct loss.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4865, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Esimerkki kuusikon lahovikaisuuden Etelä-Suomessa aiheuttamasta taloudellisesta menetyksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4865. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14668
English title: An example on the economic loss caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber in Southern Finland.

A growing stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) marked for cutting was investigated in the winter of 1971–72 in Helsinki in Southern Finland in order to determine the economic loss caused by decay. Taking a sample from growing spruce trees with increment borer is not a reliable method of determining the frequency of decay. The decayed stems were twice measured for assortment cutting into lengths; the first time disregarding the decay and the second time doing the actual assortment cutting according to the grade of timber. The direct economic loss caused by decay was 13% of the price for standing timber. The indirect loss may be as great as the direct loss.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4861, category Article
Tauno Kallio, Yrjö Norokorpi. (1972). Kuusikon tyvilahoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4861. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14664
English title: Butt rot in a Norway spruce stand.

The study was carried out in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand in Southern Finland which was to be clear-cut due to decay. The species composition and incidence of decay fungi were investigated from the cut surfaces of the stumps. In addition, the colour and size of the decayed spot was observed.

About 28% of the total number of trees were decayed. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) was the most common decay fungus. It was identified from 75% of the decayed trees, and was the sole agent in 43% of these trees. Armillaria mellea was the second commonest decay fungus. It decayed trees mostly in combination with Fomes annosus. The most common colours of the decay produced by F. annosus were reddish or yellowish brown. The decay caused by A. mellea was blackish brown. The causative agent cannot be reliably identified on the basis of the colour of the decayed part.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Norokorpi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4861, category Article
Tauno Kallio, Yrjö Norokorpi. (1972). Kuusikon tyvilahoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4861. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14664
English title: Butt rot in a Norway spruce stand.

The study was carried out in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand in Southern Finland which was to be clear-cut due to decay. The species composition and incidence of decay fungi were investigated from the cut surfaces of the stumps. In addition, the colour and size of the decayed spot was observed.

About 28% of the total number of trees were decayed. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) was the most common decay fungus. It was identified from 75% of the decayed trees, and was the sole agent in 43% of these trees. Armillaria mellea was the second commonest decay fungus. It decayed trees mostly in combination with Fomes annosus. The most common colours of the decay produced by F. annosus were reddish or yellowish brown. The decay caused by A. mellea was blackish brown. The causative agent cannot be reliably identified on the basis of the colour of the decayed part.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Norokorpi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4858, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Erään 10-vuotiaan hybridihaapametsikön lahovikaisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4858. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14661
English title: Decay in a ten-year old stand of hybrid aspen.
Original keywords: hybridihaapa; sienitaudit; laho; bakteerit

A ten-year old stand of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides), growing in Southern Finland on about 1.5 ha of Oxalis-Myrtillus type (OMT) soil and affected by crown blight, was examined in 1971. The study revealed that almost all trees, both those removed by thinning and the remaining growing stock, were decayed. A number of bacteria, Fungi imperfecti species and ascomycetous fungi were isolated from the discoloured heartwood of the affected trees. No fungus of the Bacidiomycetes was found in the discoloured wood material.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4848, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1971). Lahon leviäminen puunkorjuun aiheuttamista kuusen runko- ja juurivaurioista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4848. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14650
English title: Decay following logging injury in stems and roots of Norway spruce.

The material of 78 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees was gathered in Southern Finland in order to clarify the advance of decay. The harvesting which had caused the scars had been carried out 12 years earlier and at the moment of the investigation the growing stand was 110 years old. It was noticed that the variables used could explain only a few per cent of the variation of the advance of decay. It was concluded that the only important thing in practice is whether the injuries are in roots or in stems.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4785, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1969). Maannousemasieni yleismaailmallisena ongelmana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4785. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14571
English title: Fomes annosus – A universal problem. A review in recent literature.

Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. (now Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.)) has proved highly adaptable to varying conditions. Thus, the fungus is able to alter the pH as well as in alkalic as acid direction according to the original pH-grade. The fungus spreads mainly by basidiospores or by the sterile mycelium, but maybe also by the conidiospores. The fungus has spread through the temperate zone; in the tropical and sub-tropical zone it is found sporadically. There is a mention in the literature of at least 136 species in which it has been found. It is found in hardwoods but is most disastrous in conifers. The economic losses are considered biggest in England, Germany and Scandinavia.

The research has not been able to find a safe way to protect the trees growing on an infected site. The only way to limit the damage seems to be the use of mixed stands. Stump-protection has proved to be a relatively effective way to prevent the spread of the fungus to uninfected sites. The formerly used creosote has been mainly substituted by new chemicals, such as sodium nitrite. They act by altering the stump in a way that is favourable for antagonists to Fomes annosus, such as Trichoderma viride and Penicillium sp., or the recently presented Peniophora gigantea.

Although the fungus is found in many tree species, there is a difference in the relative resistance of different species. Among the conifers, the Abies-species (with exception of Abies grandis, A. alba and A. sachalienensis) are considered comparatively resistant. The species of Larix and Pseudotsuga are more resistant than those of Picea and Pinus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7592, category Article
Anna-Maija Hallaksela. (1977). Kuusen kantojen mikrobilajisto. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 158 article id 7592. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7592
English title: Microbial flora isolated from Norway spruce stumps.

The aim of the study was to identify the microbes which reach the cut surface of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stumps during the first year after felling by means of air born spores, determine their occurrence frequency and the combinations in which they occur, investigate the colour changes in the wood caused by microbes and identify the microbial species isolated from the sap- and heart-wood.

The material consisted of 360 spruce stumps. 300 of the stumps were innoculated with five different fungi (Phlebia gigantea, Botrytis cinerea, Gliocladium deliquescens, Trichoderma viride, Verticicladiella procera) in order to inhibit air-born attack by Heterobasidion annosum. 60 stumps were left untreated as controls.

The cultural characteristics of the following fungi isolated from the stumps have been described e.g.: Ceraceomerulius serpens, Chondrostereum purpureum, Cylindrobasidium evolvens, Peniophora pithya, Phlebia gigantea (Phlebiopsis gigantea) , P. subserialis, Sistotrema brinhmannii, Bjerkandera adusta, Coriolellus serialis, Trametes zonata, Armillariella mellea, Panellus mitis, Nectria fucheliana (microconidial-stage), Ascocoryne cylichnium (conidial-stage), Leptographium lundbergii, Acremonium butyri, Gliocladium deliquescens, Verticicladiella procera.

The proportion of Basidiomycotina fungi out of the whole material was 53 %, Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina fungi 37,6 % and bacteria 7,3 %.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hallaksela, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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