Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'landscape'.

Category: Commentary

article id 6985, category Commentary
Eshetu Yirdaw, Markku Kanninen, Mohamed Elfadl, Daniel Tsegai. (2017). Special issue: Drought and Dryland Management – a commentary. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 6985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6985
  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kanninen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.kanninen@helsinki.fi
  • Elfadl, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mohamed.elfadl@helsinki.fi
  • Tsegai, UNCCD Secretariat, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: dtsegai@unccd.int

Category: Research article

article id 1207, category Research article
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Irina A. Chernyakova. (2014). Past human population history affects current forest landscape structure of Vodlozero National Park, Northwest Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1207
Highlights: In large scale (0–20 km), the proportion of spruce in forest stands was positively affected by distance from old villages. This relationship was non-linear with a threshold distance of 15 km; In small scale (0–5 km), old villages affected tree species composition and age structure of forests. Effect on age structure was the strongest on stands growing on mineral soils.
The information about location and size of past human settlements can give new insights into the analysis of landscape structures. Vodlozero National Park (NP) is one the largest strictly protected areas in Northwestern Europe. We mapped the location of historic villages, which were abandoned in 1958, and studied the effect of past human activity in the forest landscape in two different scales using forest survey data. We assessed the possible change in age, volume and tree species composition from the edge of open fields up to the distance of 5 km from villages. We made a larger landscape analysis using a grid of forest stands covering the whole northern part of the NP. The past human activity was clearly visible in the present forest landscape. Distance from villages affected age, volume and tree species composition of the forest stands. This effect was the strongest within the first two kilometers from the villages. At the level of whole northern NP, the proportion of spruce markedly increased after approximately 15 km from the nearest old village. The changes in the forests surrounding the villages were most likely the result of the intensive use of wood for different commodities needed in households and farming, in addition to short rotation slash and burn agriculture. If the occurrence of forest fires was more frequent closer to villages than in more remote areas, it can well explain the observed pattern in the abundance of spruce in the larger landscape that is less tolerant to fire than pine.
  • Tikkanen, Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland (Current: School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland) & Interdisciplinary Research and Educational Center of Cross-border Communication CARELICA, Institute of History, Political and Social Sciences, Petrozavodsk State University, 33 Lenin Prospectus, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: Olli-Pekka.Tikkanen@uef.fi (email)
  • Chernyakova, Interdisciplinary Research and Educational Center of Cross-border Communication CARELICA, Institute of History, Political and Social Sciences, Petrozavodsk State University, 33 Lenin Prospectus, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: irina.chernyakova@onego.ru
article id 151, category Research article
Janne Miettinen, Pekka Helle, Ari Nikula, Pekka Niemelä. (2010). Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) habitat characteristics in north-boreal Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 151. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.151
This study aimed to identify tools for taking capercaillie habitats into consideration in forest management. This would provide new alternatives for ecologically more sustainable forest management. Capercaillie summer and winter locations, from wildlife monitoring counts (1998–2004) in northern Finland, and reference, non-capercaillie locations were combined with forest planning data, and the area proportions of different landscape classes in an 800-m radius circle surrounding capercaillie and reference locations were compared. Thinning stands (in summer and winter) and spruce mires (in summer) were more abundant in capercaillie habitats than in reference landscapes, whereas e.g. seedling stands, mature stands and waste land areas were less abundant. The relative habitat use was highest in mean tree diameter (DBH) classes from 10.5 to 14.5 cm in summer habitats of adult capercaillie in heath forests, whereas in peatland forests, in brood habitats and in winter habitats it peaked in diameter classes 14.5 to 18.5 cm. The tree layer density was positively associated with the relative habitat use. A trend of lower habitat use was detected in the largest diameters (17–40 cm) in comparison to middle-sized diameters (10–16 cm) in heath forests, but not in peatland forests. Relatively young managed forests (age 30–40 years or more) can form suitable capercaillie habitats in north-boreal forests. However, this suitability is not necessarily permanent. Understorey management, longer rotations and multicohort forest management are suitable tools for capercaillie habitat management, because they can increase the available cover close to the ground, canopy cover, overall forest cover at the landscape scale and bilberry cover.
  • Miettinen, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.miettinen@rktl.fi (email)
  • Helle, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikula, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, University of Turku, Dept of Biology ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 182, category Research article
Janne Miettinen, Pekka Helle, Ari Nikula, Pekka Niemelä. (2009). Changes in landscape-scale habitat selection of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in managed north-boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 182. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.182
We studied changes in habitat selection of capercaillie in northern Finnish boreal forests at two spatial scales during two time periods, 1989–1992 and 2000–2003. We studied capercaillie densities and their changes between the study periods in relation to the landscape class proportions within 3-km buffer zones around the wildlife triangle center points. Furthermore, we compared the landscape class proportions in 800-meter buffer zones around capercaillie wildlife triangle count observations and around the counted wildlife triangle transects using t-tests and compositional analysis. At the local population scale (3 km) the change in adult density between the study periods was associated positively with the proportion of young thinning stands in 2003 and reversely with the mature stand (1992 and 2003) and clear-cut (1992) proportions. Capercaillie juvenile and pooled densities during 2000–2003 were positively associated with the advanced thinning stand proportion in 2003. At the capercaillie home range scale (800 m) habitats were rich in mature stands during 1989–1992 in relation to available habitats, but not during 2000–2003 when young thinning stands were more abundant in relation to available habitats. Relatively young managed forests can be suitable for capercaillie, but mature managed forests as capercaillie habitats may have deteriorated between the study periods. Spatial planning may help to form suitable areas that are large enough for the species, but the highest potential may lay in the forest stand scale, where increased cover on the ground could promote the habitat quality.
  • Miettinen, Kankurinhaka 14, FI-90450 Kempele, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.miettinen@rktl.fi (email)
  • Helle, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Tutkijantie 2 E, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikula, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Eteläranta 55, FI-99600 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, University of Turku, Department of Biology, FI-20014 University of Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 241, category Research article
Hailemariam Temesgen, Tara M. Barrett, Greg Latta. (2008). Estimating cavity tree abundance using Nearest Neighbor Imputation methods for western Oregon and Washington forests. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 241. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.241
Cavity trees contribute to diverse forest structure and wildlife habitat. For a given stand, the size and density of cavity trees indicate its diversity, complexity, and suitability for wildlife habitat. Size and density of cavity trees vary with stand age, density, and structure. Using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected in western Oregon and western Washington, we applied correlation analysis and graphical approaches to examine relationships between cavity tree abundance and stand characteristics. Cavity tree abundance was negatively correlated with site index and percent composition of conifers, but positively correlated with stand density, quadratic mean diameter, and percent composition of hardwoods. Using FIA data, we examined the performance of Most Similar Neighbor (MSN), k nearest neighbor, and weighted MSN imputation with three variable transformations (regular, square root, and logarithmic) and Classification and Regression Tree with MSN imputation to estimate cavity tree abundance from stand attributes. There was a large reduction in mean root mean square error from 20% to 50% reference sets, but very little reduction in using the 80% reference sets, corresponding to the decreases in mean distances. The MSN imputation using square root transformation provided better estimates of cavity tree abundance for western Oregon and western Washington forests. We found that cavity trees were only 0.25 percent of live trees and 13.8 percent of dead trees in the forests of western Oregon and western Washington, thus rarer and more difficult to predict than many other forest attributes. Potential applications of MSN imputation include selecting and modeling wildlife habitat to support forest planning efforts, regional inventories, and evaluation of different management scenarios.
  • Temesgen, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: hailemariam.temesgen@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Barrett, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Anchorage, AK, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Latta, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 474, category Research article
Tero Heinonen, Mikko Kurttila, Timo Pukkala. (2007). Possibilities to aggregate raster cells through spatial optimization in forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 474. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.474
This study divided the forest into raster cells and used these cells as calculation units in optimisation instead of predefined stand compartments. It was hypothesized that raster cells would result in feasible treatment units and more efficient utilization of the production potential of the forest when spatial optimisation is used to compile the plan. The optimization problems of this study included both ecological and economic objectives. The raster cells were hexagons (721 m2) and their data were derived from traditionally defined forest compartments. Three forest plans were developed by using the rasterized forest, and they were compared to the corresponding forest plans developed by using compartments. Cutting areas were aggregated in all plans, by maximizing the proportion of the boundaries between two adjacent calculation units that were both cut during the same management period, and by minimizing the proportion of cut-uncut boundaries. In the first plan, only cutting areas were aggregated. In the second and third plan, also old forests were aggregated by using two different spatial objectives. The first maximized the proportion of the boundary between adjacent calculation units that were both considered as old forest. The second objective maximized the mean of the neighbourhood minima of the calculation units’ old forest indices. The neighbourhood included the calculation unit itself and all the adjacent calculation units. The growing stock volume targets at the end of the 60-year planning period and the cutting volume targets of the three 20-year management periods were set to the same levels in all plans. The results showed that the raster approach was able to aggregate old forest patches and cutting areas similar in shape and size as the conventional approach. When the aggregation of old forest was a management objective, the total old forest area was larger in the raster forest but the mean size of the old forest patches was larger with predefined compartments. The trade-off curve between harvested volume and old forest area was further from the origin for the raster forest.
  • Heinonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tero.heinonen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kurttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 563, category Research article
Timo Pakkala, Ilkka Hanski, Erkki Tomppo. (2002). Spatial ecology of the three-toed woodpecker in managed forest landscapes. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 563. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.563
The effects of landscape structure and forestry on the abundance and dynamics of boreal forest bird species have been studied widely, but there are relatively few studies in which the spatial structure and quality of the landscape have been related to the spatial ecology of bird species. In this paper, we present methods to measure territory and landscape quality for the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and similar territorial forest bird species based on data from the Finnish multi-source national forest inventory and metapopulation theory. The three-toed woodpecker was studied with territory mapping within an area of 340 square km in southern Finland in 1987–2000. Altogether 195 breeding territory sites were observed. The spatial occurrence of the territories was aggregated, and the highest densities were observed in spruce-dominated old-growth forest areas. Both territory and landscape quality had significant consequences for the occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker. The spatial patterning and permanence of breeding and non-breeding territories were influenced by a combination of spatial dynamics of the species and the quality of the landscape, the latter being much influenced by forestry. The landscape-level spatial occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker in the study area may represent source-sink dynamics. The results of this paper suggest the presence of threshold values at different spatial scales, which may determine the occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker and similar species in managed forest landscapes.
  • Pakkala, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 17, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.pakkala@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Hanski, Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 47, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tomppo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 559, category Research article
Juho Pennanen. (2002). Forest age distribution under mixed-severity fire regimes – a simulation-based analysis for middle boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.559
A simulation model was used to study the age structure of unmanaged forest landscapes under different fire regimes. Stand age was defined as the age of the oldest tree cohort in a stand. When most fires are not stand-replacing, the theoretical equilibrium stand age distribution is either bell-shaped or bimodal and dominated by old age-classes. Old-growth forests (oldest cohort > 150 y) dominate the landscape unless fires are both frequent and severe. Simulation results and analytical calculations show that if a regime of frequent fires (about every 50 y) maintains landscapes dominated by old-growth forests, then old-growth dominance persists when the number of fires is decreased, despite the associated increase in fire severity. Simulation results were applied to Pinus sylvestris-dominated landscapes of middle boreal Fennoscandia, which according to empirical results were dominated by old-growth forests when fires were frequent during the 19th century. Since the changes in the fire regime can be plausibly explained by changes in the number of human-caused ignitions, old-growth forests have evidently also dominated the landscapes earlier when fires were less frequent. The simulation model is used to produce plausible age distributions of middle boreal Fennoscandian forest landscapes under different historical fire regimes. In summary, the frequency of large-scale disturbance alone predicts forest landscape dynamics poorly, and the roles played by fire severity and residual stands need to be considered carefully. Maintaining and restoring old-growth structures is essential to regaining the natural variability of Fennoscandian forest landscapes.
  • Pennanen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.pennanen@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Review article

article id 1673, category Review article
Eshetu Yirdaw, Mulualem Tigabu, Adrian Monge. (2017). Rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems – review. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1673
Highlights: The prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising; The forest landscape restoration concept can be used as the overarching rehabilitation framework; Development of process-based models that forecast rehabilitation outcomes is needed; Rehabilitation methodologies developed for moist areas are not necessarily suitable for drylands; More data is needed on cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions.

Land degradation is widespread and a serious threat affecting the livelihoods of 1.5 billion people worldwide of which one sixth or 250 million people reside in drylands. Globally, it is estimated that 10–20% of drylands are already degraded and about 12 million ha are degraded each year. Driven by unsustainable land use practices, adverse climatic conditions and population increase, land degradation has led to decline in provision of ecosystem services, food insecurity, social and political instability and reduction in the ecosystem’s resilience to natural climate variability. Several global initiatives have been launched to combat land degradation, including rehabilitation of degraded drylands. This review aimed at collating the current state-of-knowledge about rehabilitation of degraded drylands. It was found that the prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising using a suite of passive (e.g. area exclosure, assisted natural regeneration, rotational grazing) and active (e.g. mixed-species planting, framework species, maximum diversity, and use of nurse tree) rehabilitation measures. Advances in soil reclamation using biological, chemical and physical measures have been made. Despite technical advances, the scale of rehabilitation intervention is small and lacks holistic approach. Development of process-based models that forecast outcomes of the various rehabilitation activities will be useful tools for researchers and practitioners. The concept of forest landscape restoration approach, which operates at landscape-level, could also be adopted as the overarching framework for rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems. The review identified a data gap in cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions. However, the cost of rehabilitation and sustainable management of drylands is opined to be lower than the losses that accrue from inaction, depending on the degree of degradation. Thus, local communities’ participation, incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge, clear division of tasks and benefits, strengthening local institutions are crucial not only for cost-sharing, but also for the long-term success of rehabilitation activities.

  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Tigabu, Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Mulualem.Tigabu@slu.se
  • Monge, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: adrian.mongemonge@helsinki.fi
article id 390, category Review article
Bengt Gunnar Jonsson, Nicholas Kruys, Thomas Ranius. (2005). Ecology of species living on dead wood – lessons for dead wood management. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 390. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.390
Dead wood has been identified as a crucial component for forest biodiversity. Recent research has improved our understanding of habitat relations for many species associated with dead wood. However, the consequences for forest management are yet to be explored. In this review we build upon the growing volume of studies on dead wood dependent species, the dynamics of dead wood and ecological theory in order to identify the challenges for forest management at the landscape level. The review has a Fennoscandian focus, but the problems and challenges are similar in many forest ecosystems. We argue that it is necessary to 1) counteract the current shortage in availability of dead wood, 2) concentrate planning at the landscape level in order to minimize isolation and reduce edge effects, 3) create a variety of dead wood types, and 4) utilise available quantitative analytical tools. This calls for new approaches to management that to a large extent includes available knowledge, and to find platforms for planning forested landscapes with diverse holdings.
  • Jonsson, Mid Sweden University, Dept of Natural Sciences, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bengt-gunnar.jonsson@miun.se (email)
  • Kruys, SLU, Dept of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ranius, SLU, Dept of Entomology, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 553, category Review article
Yves Bergeron, Alain Leduc, Brian D. Harvey, Sylvie Gauthier. (2002). Natural fire regime: a guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 553. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.553
The combination of certain features of fire disturbance, notably fire frequency, size and severity, may be used to characterize the disturbance regime in any region of the boreal forest. As some consequences of fire resemble the effects of industrial forest harvesting, conventional forest management is often considered as a disturbance that has effects similar to those of natural disturbances. Although the analogy between forest management and fire disturbance in boreal ecosystems has some merit, it is important to recognise that it also has its limitations. Short fire cycles generally described for boreal ecosystems do not appear to be universal; rather, important spatial and temporal variations have been observed in Canada. These variations in the fire cycle have an important influence on forest composition and structure at the landscape and regional levels. Size and severity of fires also show a large range of variability. In regions where the natural matrix of the boreal forest remains relatively intact, maintenance of this natural variability should be targeted by forest managers concerned with biodiversity conservation. Current forest management tends to reduce this variability: for example, fully regulated, even-aged management will tend to truncate the natural forest age distribution and eliminate over-mature and old-growth forests from the landscape. We suggest that the development of strategic-level forest management planning approaches and silvicultural techniques designed to maintain a spectrum of forest compositions and structures at different scales in the landscape is one avenue to maintain this variability. Although we use the boreal forest of Quebec for our examples, it is possible to apply the approach to those portions of the boreal forest where the fire regime favours the development of even-aged stands in burns.
  • Bergeron, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail: bergeron.yves@uqam.ca (email)
  • Leduc, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harvey, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gauthier, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 136, category Research note
Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Michal Zmihorski, Katarzyna Abramowicz. (2010). Forest habitat loss and fragmentation in Central Poland during the last 100 years. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.136
The process of habitat fragmentation consists of two components – habitat loss and fragmentation per se. Both are thought to be among the most important threats to biodiversity. However, the biological consequences of this process such as species occurrence, abundance, or genetic structure of population are driven by current, as well as previous, landscape configurations. Therefore, historical analyses of habitat distribution are of great importance in explaining the current species distribution. In our analysis, we describe the forest fragmentation process for an area of 178 km2 in the northern part of Mazowsze region of central Poland. Topographical maps from the years 1890, 1957 and 1989 were used. Over the 100-year period, forest coverage in this area changed from 17% to 5.6%, the number of patches increased from 19 to 42, while the area of the forest interior decreased from 1933 ha to 371 ha. The two components of fragmentation were clearly separated in time. Habitat loss occurred mainly during the first period (1890–1957) and fragmentation per se in the second (1957–1989). Moreover, we recorded that only 47.7% of all the currently (in 1989) afforested areas constitute sites where forests previously occurred (in 1890 and 1957). For forest dwelling organisms characterized by low dispersal abilities, the effective forest coverage seems to be a half of the real forest area in the studied landscape. New afforestations should be planned especially to increase those patches which contain ancient forest, where various plants and animals sensitive to fragmentation may have survived.
  • Mazgajski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum & Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, PL 00-679 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: mazgaj@miiz.waw.pl (email)
  • Zmihorski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum & Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, PL 00-679 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Abramowicz, Department of Ecology, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, PL 02-097 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 527, category Discussion article
Jyrki Kangas, Ron Store. (2002). Socioecological landscape planning: an approach to multi-functional forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.527
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Store, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 573, category Discussion article
Matti Koivula, Jari Niemelä. (2002). Boreal carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in managed spruce forests – a summary of Finnish case studies. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.573
  • Koivula, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Division of Population Biology, P.O. Box 65, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.koivula@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Niemelä, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Division of Population Biology, P.O. Box 65, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5506, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Sauli Härkönen. (1993). Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing in young Scots pine stands in relation to the characteristics of their winter habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15667

Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing was studied in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands mixed with deciduous trees in high-density winter ranges. The proportional use of twig biomass decreased as the availability increased. The total as well as proportional biomass consumption were higher on the moist than on the dry type of forest. The per tree consumption of pine was higher on the moist type, where the availability of pine was lower. Deciduous trees were more consumed on the moist type, where their availability was relatively high. The consumption of pine saplings increased as the availability of birch increased. Pine stem breakages were most numerous when birch occurred as overgrowth above pine and at high birch densities. The availability of other deciduous tree species did not correlate with browsing intensity of Scots pine. Moose browsing had seriously inhibited the development of Scots pines in 6% of the stands, over 60% of available biomass having been removed. Rowan and aspen were commonly over-browsed and their height growth was inhibited, which occurred rarely by birch. There was no difference in the proportion of young stands in forest areas with high and low moose density. A high proportion of peatland forests was found to indicate relatively good feeding habitats in the high-density areas.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Härkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5492, category Article
Ismo Nousiainen, Timo Pukkala. (1992). Use of computer graphics for predicting the amenity of forest trails. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15653

Ten trails, one kilometre each, were evaluated by 15 persons for scenic beauty, recreational value and variety. All trails passed through commercially managed forests dominated by conifers. The trails were first evaluated by viewing computer simulations based on a series of graphical illustrations of forest landscapes, then from a slide show, and finally in the field. In the computer simulation and slide show, landscape pictures along the trail at an interval of 35–40 m were presented for 3–4 seconds. The ranks between slide show and field were slightly more similar than those between simulation and field. The mean correlation of 12 persons between the field ranking and assessment of either computer simulations or slide shows or graphics than scenic beauty or recreational value. Spearman’s rank correlations computed from median scores of a group of 12 peers were clearly better than the average of individual persons varying from 0.6 to 0.9.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Nousiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5346, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1988). Methods to incorporate the amenity of landscape into forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5346. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15503

The study presents methods that incorporate the amenity of a forest area into the management planning. The management plan is based on treatment schedules simulated for each compartment over the 20-year planning period. The best combination of treatment schedules is selected by multi-objective optimization. The amenity is divided into two parts: (1) within-stand amenity and (2) the amenity of landscape when viewed afar (distant scene). The within-stand amenity is expressed in terms of adjective sum which is estimated from stand characteristics. The adjective sum of the whole area in a selected year can be taken as an objective or constraining variable of optimization. The assessment of the distant scene is based on computer illustrations which show the predicted temporal change of landscape according to a particular management plan.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5335, category Article
Juhani Pallasmaa. (1987). Metsän arkkitehtuuri. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5335. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15492
English title: The architecture of the forest.

The paper presents aspects of town and forest architecture. A feature of the Finnish building tradition is that the forest is allowed to grow next to buildings. After the Second World War a new type of town was created in Finland, ”the forest town”. The most prominent feature of the history of Finnish architecture, from national romanticism to functionalism and up to the present day, is the modification of international ideals to a certain ”forest culture” style.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pallasmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5334, category Article
Aimo Reitala. (1987). Metsä suomalaisessa kuvataiteessa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5334. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15491
English title: Forests in Finnish art.

The Finnish forest was elevated into an appreciated artistic motif by Werner Holmberg with his picture ”The Finnish conifer forest” in 1858. The second significant period was during national romanticism in the 1980’s, when the decorative beauty of the winter forests was discovered. At the turn of the century, the forest obtained a central national symbolic significance, and many leading artists regarded increased cuttings as a rape of the forests. Since that period, individual artists have succeeded in bringing new features in the art history of our forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reitala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5329, category Article
Bo Lönnqvist. (1987). Kultivoitunut metsä - herraskartanon puisto. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15486
English title: Cultivated forests – the case of manor parks.

The earliest manor parks, which are a special form of cultivated forests, were created at the end of the 18th century. The surrounding of the main buildings was divided into two parts, an aesthetic park and yard serving household and economic purposes. Early in the 19th century, large parks were created which represented dominant aesthetic ideals but, on the other hand, formed a ”wild” counterpart to the structured inner world of the main building. A good example is Ratula Manor and its park, which represent the diversity of the cultivated forest of the 19th century manors.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lönnqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5328, category Article
Max Guignard. (1987). The tree in the Paris and Helsinki areas. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15485

The paper describes some examples from Paris and Helsinki areas, where trees are essential landscape elements. It is typical in France to plant trees around town squares, market places and along streets and roads. In Finland trees are almost always kept close to the house, together with other vegetation protecting the entrance and windows. These traditional uses of trees should be studied to serve landscape management.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Guignard, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5326, category Article
Matti Linkola. (1987). Metsä kulttuurimaisemana. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15483
English title: The forest as a cultural landscape.

The main features of the Finnish landscape are a result of preglacial erosion processes and the structural lines of the bedrock. The microstructure of the landscape was created by the Ice Age and its melting processes. Upon this base, human activities have created a palimpsest of cultural landscapes. The article describes the effects of slash-and-burn cultivation, tar production, cattle ranging and some other forest uses to the forest landscape. 

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5326, category Article
Matti Linkola. (1987). Metsä kulttuurimaisemana. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15483
English title: The forest as a cultural landscape.

The main features of the Finnish landscape are a result of preglacial erosion processes and the structural lines of the bedrock. The microstructure of the landscape was created by the Ice Age and its melting processes. Upon this base, human activities have created a palimpsest of cultural landscapes. The article describes the effects of slash-and-burn cultivation, tar production, cattle ranging and some other forest uses to the forest landscape. 

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5321, category Article
Aarne Reunala, Pekka Virtanen. (1987). Metsä suomalaisten elämässä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5321. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15478
English title: The forest as a Finnish cultural entity.

This publication consists of 16 papers on importance of forests to Finns, mainly from the viewpoint of various social and humanistic sciences. The articles are based on lectures given to a seminar organized in Helsinki, December 18-19, 1986.

This paper includes preface and list of the speeches in English.

  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5093, category Article
Ismo Karhu, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Väestön mielipiteet metsänhoidon vaikutuksesta maisemakuvaan Puolangan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5093. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15034
English title: Effects of silvicultural practises on the forest landscape. A study on attitudes among inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland.

The landscape preferences and attitudes of inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland, to the effects of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape were studied by a postal inquiry. The effect of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape was mainly negative. Birch (Betula sp.) stands and mixed coniferous and deciduous tree species were the most preferred by the Puolanka inhabitants. The landscape preferences were related to socio-economic background of the inhabitants. The quality of the living environment also influenced the preferences, since uncommon features in the living environment were favoured most.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karhu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5031, category Article
Tom Simons. (1979). Arkkitehdit ja metsänhoitajat Suomen metsäisen maiseman muotoilijoina. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5031. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14888
English title: The role of architects and foresters in shaping the forest landscape of Finland.

The article describes the two approaches which are evident in planning and management of nature and landscape. One is based on traditional architectural thinking, emphasizing the significance of subjective intuition and practical creative work. The other has evolved from the study of the economic utilization of natural resources, emphasizing the significance of rational thinking and scientific analysis.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Simons, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5031, category Article
Tom Simons. (1979). Arkkitehdit ja metsänhoitajat Suomen metsäisen maiseman muotoilijoina. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5031. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14888
English title: The role of architects and foresters in shaping the forest landscape of Finland.

The article describes the two approaches which are evident in planning and management of nature and landscape. One is based on traditional architectural thinking, emphasizing the significance of subjective intuition and practical creative work. The other has evolved from the study of the economic utilization of natural resources, emphasizing the significance of rational thinking and scientific analysis.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Simons, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5030, category Article
Camilla Rosengren. (1979). Luonnonkasvillisuus asuntoalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14886
English title: Natural vegetation within housing areas.

The article describes the results of the studies made in 24 Finnish housing areas. They show that the building density is not as important as the way of building and the site planning, in the view of preserving natural vegetation in the site. Building on slopes was difficult with modern building techniques because of the extensive earthwork required. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Rosengren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4875, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1973). Metsäammattimiesten maisemanhoidolliset arvostukset. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4875. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14705
English title: Landscape preferences of professional foresters.

This paper deals with the problem of optimal multiple use of forests. The concept of attractive visual environment is analysed following the framework of conditional reflexes and conditionalization of needs. Uniformity of landscape preferences among a group of persons, forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland, who have similar education and working environment is studied in empirical part of this paper. The sample of 154 persons were sent a sociological questionnaire.

The preference distribution of forest officers and forest technicians were found very similar. Only poor condition for wood production as a landscape feature was considered clearly negative. The answers show the demand for rational and active working environment as a factor directing the landscape preferences.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4875, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1973). Metsäammattimiesten maisemanhoidolliset arvostukset. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4875. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14705
English title: Landscape preferences of professional foresters.

This paper deals with the problem of optimal multiple use of forests. The concept of attractive visual environment is analysed following the framework of conditional reflexes and conditionalization of needs. Uniformity of landscape preferences among a group of persons, forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland, who have similar education and working environment is studied in empirical part of this paper. The sample of 154 persons were sent a sociological questionnaire.

The preference distribution of forest officers and forest technicians were found very similar. Only poor condition for wood production as a landscape feature was considered clearly negative. The answers show the demand for rational and active working environment as a factor directing the landscape preferences.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7617, category Article
Risto Savolainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Metsän maisemallinen arvostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 170 article id 7617. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7617
English title: Scenic value of forest landscape.

Two approaches were applied in measuring the scenic value of forest landscapes. In the field, the scenic value of forest lands representing clear cut areas, as well as young closed stands and mature stands with varying tree species composition, were assessed. In the laboratory, the scenic value of the same stands was measured with the help of photographs of the same stand. The same persons representing forest students (36 persons) and city dwellers (25 persons) made the evaluation.

Stands of moderate density containing individual tall trees and a coniferous undergrowth had the greatest scenic value, independently of the tree species composition. However, birch was preferred to Scots pine and Norway spruce. Measurements made in the field by means of interviews, and in the laboratory based on photographs, gave very similar results. Photographs seem to represent a reliable tool for estimating the scenic value of forest landscapes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Savolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7580, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1975). Forest stand preferences of recreationists. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 146 article id 7580. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7580

The environmental preferences of recreationists were studied at the forest stand level in this study. The hypothesis which has been drawn up on the basis of the literature has been studied by attempting to elucidate the environmental preferences of groups using two recreation areas owned by the City of Helsinki using interviews and questionnaires. The material consisted of 1,323 interviews supplemented by questionnaires.

The replies to the questionnaires showed that recreationists consider birch and Scots pine to be more beautiful than Norway spruce, and stands made up of several tree species to be more beautiful than stands of single tree species. They also consider mature stands to be more beautiful than young stands.

During the interviews, the attention of the recreationists was directed at the view formed by the interview stand. The scenic preferences for the stands were measured using adjectives which the interviewee was asked to use in describing his or her impression of the view which was pointed out. First of all, the results clearly indicated that from the point of view of the scenic value of the stand, the way in which the stand is organised to form a scenic aspect or a stand view is more important than its ecological structure. However, it is obvious that stands containing large sized trees in particular are in many ways more preferred than stands which are younger in their development stage. This should therefore be the case when changes in the stand view resulting from management measures are insignificant or difficult to see. The main tree species in the stand does not seem to have from the point of view of scenic preference as much significance as would have been expected judging by the questionnaire material.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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