Current issue: 54(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'location'.

Category: Research article

article id 10074, category Research article
Sebastian Kühle, Alfred Teischinger, Manfred Gronalt. (2019). Optimal location of laminated beech production plants within the solid hardwood supply network in Austria. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10074.
Highlights: This paper provides data to the solid hardwood business and develops a mixed integer linear program model to design a laminated beech wood supply network; It covers the strategic decision where to locate a new production facility within the existing supply network with the lowest supply network cost; Sufficient sawn wood suppliers and potential facility locations are provided.

Due to changes in forest management in various European countries, hardwood forest areas and amounts will increase. Sustainable and individual utilization concepts have to be developed for the upcoming available resource. Studies conclude that there is low potential for hardwoods in the traditional appearance market thus the application areas have to be extended to new structural innovative products. This paper examines the extension to a future laminated beech wood supply network which would be a combination of already existing and new production facilities. For a better future use of hardwood raw materials it is necessary to consider the entire supply chain. This also better shows a total hardwood value chain. Therefore, this paper provides data to the solid hardwood business and develops a mixed integer linear programming to design a laminated beech wood supply network. The model is applied to Austria as the sample region. It covers the important strategic decisions where to locate a downstream facility within the existing production network with the lowest supply network cost. Fourteen scenarios are developed to examine various future network configurations. Results about optimal material flows and used sawmills as well as downstream production facilities are presented in form of material and financial performances. Two optimal laminated beech production locations are determined by the calculated scenarios results, and the impact of a new sawmill is analyzed which is focused on beech.

  • Kühle, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Material Science and Process Engineering, and Renewable Institute of Wood Technology Materials, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Teischinger, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Material Science and Process Engineering, and Renewable Institute of Wood Technology Materials, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gronalt, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 9968, category Research article
Hubert Lachowicz, Anna Bieniasz, Rafał Wojtan. (2019). Variability in the basic density of silver birch wood in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 9968.
Highlights: Location, tree age and forest habitat type, and the interactions between those factors, have a statistically significant impact on the basic density of silver birch wood; The average basic density of silver birch wood increases with the age of the tree.

This work presents the findings of a study concerning variability in the basic density of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) wood, depending on the geographical location of tree stands, the age and thickness of the trees, the forest habitat type, and interactions between some of these factors. The study was carried out on wood from trees aged approximately 30, 50 and 70 years in 12 forest districts located throughout Poland. In total 4777 wood samples, taken from 306 trees from 51 test plots, were measured. The location, the age of the trees, the thickness of the trees and the forest habitat type, as well as interactions between these factors, proved to have a significant influence on the basic density of silver birch wood. The highest mean values of the basic density of the birch wood were found in Sokołów forest district on the FBF habitat type (549 kg m–3) and in Giżycko forest district on the FMBF habitat type (548 kg m–3). For the entire set of examined material, the average values of the basic density of wood increase with tree age. For the examined material originating in FBF and FMBF habitats the average values of basic density showed no significant differences; however, in the cases of the forest districts of Giżycko, Łobez and Rudziniec, significant differences in the analysed property were observed.

  • Lachowicz, Department of Forest Utilization, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bieniasz, Department of Forest Utilization, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Wojtan, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 450, category Research article
Miaoer Lu, Pekka Nygren, Jari Perttunen, Stephen G. Pallardy, David R. Larsen. (2011). Application of the functional-structural tree model LIGNUM to growth simulation of short-rotation eastern cottonwood. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 450.
The functional-structural tree growth model LIGNUM was developed as a general research tool that can be applied to several tree species. The growth simulation of short-rotation eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) inherits the basic LIGNUM modeling concepts including modular tree structure, L-system-based description of structural development, and carbon budget. New developments of LIGNUM model in this study were the incorporation of a biochemically-derived photosynthesis submodel; nested time steps for simulating physiological processes, structural development, and annual biomass production; incorporation of field-measured weather data for modeling the response of physiological processes to environmental variation; and application of a Monte-Carlo voxel space submodel for simulating the stochasticity of tree growth and improving computational efficiency. A specific parameter system was applied for modeling P. deltoides growth in the central Missouri, USA, environment. This adaptation of LIGNUM was applied on modeling growth of P. deltoides in a short-rotation agroforestry practice. The simulated height and biomass growth were close to field observations. Visualization of simulation results closely resembled the trees growing in an open site. The simulated response of tree growth to variations in photon flux input was reasonable. The LIGNUM model may be used as a complement to field studies on P. deltoides in short-rotation forestry and agroforestry.
  • Lu, Deparment of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nygren, The Finnish Society of Forest Science, P.O. 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Perttunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pallardy, Deparment of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Larsen, Deparment of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 201, category Research article
Rui Qi, Véronique Letort, Mengzhen Kang, Paul-Henry Cournède, Philippe de Reffye, Thierry Fourcaud. (2009). Application of the GreenLab model to simulate and optimize wood production and tree stability: a theoretical study. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 201.
The GreenLab model was used to study the interaction between source-sink dynamics at the whole tree level, wood production and distribution within the stem, and tree mechanical stability through simulation and optimization. In this first promising numerical attempt, two GreenLab parameters were considered in order to maximize wood production: the sink strength for cambial growth and a coefficient that determines the way the biomass assigned to cambial growth is allocated to each metamer, through optimization and simulation respectively. The optimization procedure that has been used is based on a heuristic optimization algorithm called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In the first part of the paper, wood production was maximized without considering the effect of wood distribution on tree mechanical stability. Contrary to common idea that increasing sink strength for cambial growth leads to increasing wood production, an optimal value can be found. The optimization results implied that an optimal source and sink balance should be considered to optimize wood production. In a further step, the mechanical stability of trees submitted to their self weight was taken into account based on simplified mechanical assumptions. Simulation results revealed that the allocation of wood at the stem base strongly influenced its global deformation. Such basic mechanical criterion can be an indicator of wood quality if we consider further the active biomechanical processes involved in tree gravitropic responses, e.g. formation of reaction wood.
  • Qi, Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry, France; Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, LIAMA/NLPR, P.O.Box 2728, Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Letort, Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kang, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, LIAMA/NLPR, P.O.Box 2728, Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Cournède, Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry, France; INRIA saclay Ile-de-France, EPI Digiplant, Parc Orsay Université, 91893 Orsay cedex, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reffye, INRIA saclay Ile-de-France, EPI Digiplant, Parc Orsay Université, 91893 Orsay cedex, France; CIRAD, UMR AMAP, Montpellier, F-34000 France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fourcaud, CIRAD, UMR AMAP, Montpellier, F-34000 France ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 412, category Research article
Xingliang Liu, Haiyun Xu, Frank Berninger, Olavi Luukkanen, Chunyang Li. (2004). Nutrient distribution in Picea likiangensis trees growing in a plantation in West Sichuan, Southwest China. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 412.
We measured nutrient distribution of Picea likiangensis (Franchet) E. Pritzel var. balfouriana trees growing in a plantation by field investigations, sample tree and plot harvest in West Sichuan, Southwest China. Based on the results in this study, the total biomass of plant compartments in plantation ecosystem was 114 829.1 kg ha–1. Tree, shrub, herb, bryophyte and litter layers accounted for 93.9%, 0.9%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 5.2%, respectively. The total biomass of tree layers was 107 817.1 kg ha–1. Needles, branches, stem wood, stem bark and roots accounted for 13.2%, 19.7%, 42.3%, 10.0% and 14.8%, respectively. The concentration of the nutrients was generally highest in the actively growing parts of the trees (e.g. needles) and lowest in the structural and not actively growing parts (e.g. stem wood). On the other hand, the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg were generally higher in the current year needles and branches than in the older needles and branches. These nutrient concentrations were also higher in the upper stem wood and bark than in the lower stem wood and bark, and in small roots than in large roots, whereas the opposite patterns were observed for the concentration of Ca in these compartments. The results will be helpful in understanding the nutrient behavior in a highly productive forest plantation and thereby providing decisive information for their sustainable management.
  • Liu, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Xu, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Berninger, Département des sciences biologiques, Cp 8888 succ centre ville, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 425, category Research article
Petteri Vanninen. (2004). Allocation of above-ground growth in Pinus sylvestris – impacts of tree size and competition. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 425.
The effect of tree age, size and competition on above ground growth allocation was studied with 69 Pinus sylvestris trees. Competition was described by tree-level indicators (needle density, crown ratio and height-diameter ratio). The stem, branch and needle growth were determined by stem and branch radial increments and tree level biomass analysis. Combined growth of compartments was strongly correlated with needle mass. Furthermore, tree age, size and competition indicators affected the allocation of growth among the compartments. The allocation of growth to stem and needle increased with tree age and size while the allocation of growth to branch decreased. The increasing crown ratio increased allocation of growth to branches. The combined growth of the components and separate growth of needles, branches and stem were related to needle mass. However, competition and tree size were significant additional explanatory variables when the stem, branch and needle growth were estimated according to needle mass. The growth efficiency increased with relative tree height and decreased with increasing needle density.
  • Vanninen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology; mailing address: SAIMA – Centre for Environmental Sciences, Linnankatu 11, FIN-57130 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 490, category Research article
Veiko Uri, Hardi Tullus, Krista Lõhmus. (2003). Nutrient allocation, accumulation and above-ground biomass in grey alder and hybrid alder plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 490.
The aim of the present work was to investigate the nutrient (N,P,K) allocation and accumulation in grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and hybrid alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench x Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations growing on former agricultural land and to estimate the above-ground biomass production during 4 years after establishment. In August of the 4th year, when leaf mass was at its maximum, the amount of nitrogen accumulated in above-ground biomass of grey alder stand was 142.0 kg ha–1, the amount of phosphorus 16.3 kg ha–1 and the amount of potassium 49.5 kg ha–1. The amount of nitrogen accumulated in a hybrid alder stand totalled 76.8 kg ha–1, that of phosphorus 6.2 kg ha–1 and that of potassium 28.2 kg ha–1. The smaller amounts of N,P and K bound in the hybrid alder plantation are related to the smaller biomass of the stand. Still, the amounts of N,P and K consumed for the production of one ton of biomass were similar in the case of up to 4-year-old grey alder and hybrid alder stands. In the 4th year, the amount of nutrients consumed in one ton of biomass produced were: 16.0 kg N, 1.6 kg P and 5.4 kg K for grey alder and 14.6 kg N, 1.1 kg P and 5.2 kg K for hybrid alder. In the 4th year the total above-ground biomass (dry mass) of grey alder (15750 plants ha–1) amounted to 12.3 t ha–1, current annual increment being 6.7 t ha–1. In hybrid alder stands (6700 plants ha–1), the respective figures were 6.1 t ha–1 and 4.5 t ha–1. Comparison of the production capacity on the basis of mean stem mass in the 4th year revealed that the stem mass of grey alder exceeded that of hybrid alder (0.64 kg and 0.58 kg, respectively). Grey alder outpaced hybrid alder in height growth; in the 4th year after establishment, the mean height of the grey alder stand was 4.6 ± 0.9 m and that of the hybrid alder plantation 3.5 ± 0.9 m.
  • Uri, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Tullus, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lõhmus, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 531, category Research article
Thomas N. Buckley, Jeffrey M. Miller, Graham D. Farquhar. (2002). The mathematics of linked optimisation for water and nitrogen use in a canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 531.
We develop, and discuss the implementation of, a mathematical framework for inferring optimal patterns of water and nitrogen use. Our analysis is limited to a time scale of one day and a spatial scale consisting of the green canopy of one plant, and we assume that this canopy has fixed quantities of nitrogen and water available for use in photosynthesis. The efficiencies of water and nitrogen use, and the interactions between the two, are strongly affected by physiological and physical properties that can be modeled in different ways. The thrust of this study is therefore to discuss these properties and how they affect the efficiencies of nitrogen and water use, and to demonstrate, qualitatively, the effects of different model assumptions on inferred optimal strategies. Preliminary simulations suggest that the linked optimisation of nitrogen and water use is particularly sensitive to the level of detail in canopy light penetration models (e.g., whether sunlit and shaded fractions are pooled or considered independently), and to assumptions regarding nitrogen and irradiance gradients within leaves (which determine how whole-leaf potential electron transport rate is calculated from leaf nitrogen content and incident irradiance).
  • Buckley, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting, RSBS, ANU ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Miller, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Farquhar, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting, RSBS, ANU ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 640, category Research article
Jarkko Koskela. (2000). A process-based growth model for the grass stage pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 640.
A carbon- and nitrogen-balance model, applying pipe model theory and a modification of functional balance as growth-guiding rules, is presented for the grass stage pine seedlings. Three populations of Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese, originating from northern and northeastern Thailand, were grown under controlled environment for 47 weeks to obtain parameter information, to evaluate the model performance and to investigate genotypic variation in various characteristics among the populations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model behaviour to varying parameter values and to calibrate the model for each population. With given sets of parameter values, the simulated biomass development fitted rather well the observed one during the experiment. The two most important parameters determining model performance were within-shoot shading and specific nitrogen uptake rate of fine roots. The fit of simulated versus measured fine roots had a major effect on acceptable model performance in Monte Carlo simulations. Significant variation in biomass growth, nitrogen use efficiency, height, stem diameter, total carbon concentrations of stem and fine roots, and total nitrogen concentrations of needles, transport roots and fine roots was found among the populations. The observed genotypic variation in seedling biomass and stem diameter was consistent with the geographical distribution of the populations while the variation in the rest of the measured characteristics was not. It seems that P. merkusii populations in Thailand are adapted to more site specific conditions rather than climatic conditions alone, and that the variation in biomass growth may result from variation in internal carbon and nitrogen dynamics among the populations.
  • Koskela, Department of Forest Ecology/Tropical Silviculture Unit, P.O. Box 28, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 682, category Research article
Guangxing Wang, Simo Poso, Mark-Leo Waite, Markus Holopainen. (1998). The use of digitized aerial photographs and local operation for classification of stand development classes. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 682.
The increasing capacity of modern computers has created the opportunity to routinely process the very large data sets derived by digitizing aerial photographs. The very fine resolution of such data sets makes them better suited than satellite imagery for some applications; however, there may be problems in implementation resulting from variation in radial distortion and illumination across an aerial photograph. We investigated the feasibility of using local operators (e.g., non-overlapping moving window means and standard deviations) as auxiliary data for generating stand development classes via three steps: (i) derive 6 local operators intended to represent texture for a 16 by 16 m window corresponding to a forest inventory sampling unit, (ii) apply a calibration process (e.g., accounting for location relative to a photo's principal point and solar position) to these local operators, and (iii) apply the calibrated local operators to classify the forest for stand development. Results indicate that calibrated local operators significantly improve the classification compared to what is possible using uncalibrated local operators and satellite images.
  • Wang, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Poso, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Waite, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5626, category Article
Winfried Kurth, Branislav Sloboda. (1997). Growth grammars simulating trees – an extension of L-systems incorporating local variables and sensitivity. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5626.

The rule-based formal language of "stochastic sensitive growth grammars" was designed to describe algorithmically the changing morphology of forest trees during their lifetime under the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors, and to generate 3-D simulations of tree structures in a systematic manner. The description in the form of grammars allows the precise specification of structural models with functional components. These grammars (extended L-systems) can be interpreted by the software GROGRA (Growth grammar interpreter) yielding time series of attributed 3-D structures representing plants. With some recent extensions of the growth-grammar language (sensitive functions, local variables) it is possible to model environmental control of shoot growth and some simple allocation strategies, and to obtain typical competition effects in tree stands qualitatively in the model.

  • Kurth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sloboda, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5623, category Article
Harry T. Valentine. (1997). Height growth, site index, and carbon metabolism. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5623.

A metabolic model of height growth and site index is derived from a parametrization of the annual carbon balance of a tree. The parametrization is based on pipe-model theory. Four principal variants of the height-growth model correspond to four combinations of assumptions regarding carbon allocation: (a) the apical shoot is autonomous or (b) it is not; and (A) the specific rate of elongation of a shoot equals that of a woody root or (B) it does not. The bB model is the most general as it includes the aA, bA, and aB models as special cases. If the physiological parameters are constant, then the aA model reduces to the form of the Mitscherlich model and the bA model to the form of a Bertalanffy model. Responses of height growth to year-to-year variation in atmospheric conditions are rendered through adjustments of a subset of the model's parameters, namely, the specific rate of production of carbon substrate and three specific rates of maintenance respiration. As an example, the effect of the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 on the time-course of tree height of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is projected over 50-year span from 1986. Site index is predicted to increase and, more importantly, the shape of the site-index curve is predicted to change.

  • Valentine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5622, category Article
Christine Deleuze, François Houllier. (1997). A transport model for tree ring width. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5622.

Process-based tree growth models are recognized to be flexible tools which are valuable for investigating tree growth in relation to changing environment or silvicultural treatments. In the context of forestry, we address two key modelling problems: allocation of growth which determines total wood production, and distribution of wood along the stem which determines stem form and wood quality. Growth allocation and distribution are the outcome of carbon translocation, which may be described by the Munch theory. We propose a simpler gradient process to describe the carbon distribution in the phloem of conifers. This model is a reformulation of a carbon diffusion-like process proposed by Thornley in 1972. By taking into account the continuity of the cambium along the stem, we obtain a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model which describes both growth allocation between foliage, stem and roots, and growth distribution along the stem. Distribution of wood along the stem is then regarded as an allocation process at a smaller scale. A preliminary sensitivity analysis is presented. The model predicts a strong relationship between morphology and foliage-root allocation. It also suggests how empirical data, such as stem analysis, could be used to calibrate and validate allocation rules in process-based growth models.

  • Deleuze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Houllier, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5529, category Article
Jukka Lippu. (1994). Patterns of dry matter partitioning and 14C-photosynthate allocation in 1.5-year-old Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5529.

Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5459, category Article
Pertti Pulkkinen. (1991). Crown form and harvest increment in pendulous Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5459.

Crown characteristics and the distribution of three years’ (1986–88) biomass production of 20 pendulous Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula (Lawson) Sylvén) trees with heritable narrow crown and 15 normal-growned spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were studied in a 19-year-old mixed stand.

The form of the crown is conical in normal-crowned trees, columnar and narrow in pendulous trees. The partitioning of aboveground biomass to stems during the studied 3-year period was significantly higher in pendulous (0.281) than in normal-crowned trees (0.255) and also the ratio between growth of stemwood and growth of needle biomass during three years was higher in pendulous trees (0.67 g g-1) than in normal-crowned trees (0.52 g g-1). The needle biomass was distributed higher in the crown in pendula than in normal-crowned trees and they had a higher needle biomass/branchwood biomass ratio than normal trees. The difference in harvest increment between the two crown types are mostly due to the significantly lower branchwood biomass values in pendulous than in normal-crowned trees. The higher needle ’efficiency’ in pendulous trees is probably connected with high partitioning of needle biomass to the upper part of the crown in pendulous trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5151, category Article
A. Mäkelä, P. Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). A model for the effect of air pollutants on forest growth. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5151.

A model was constructed, the aim of which was to predict growth under conditions where air pollutants are present. The model is based on photosynthesis and on the allocation of photosynthetic products for growth. It is assumed that air pollutants released during energy production mainly affect photosynthesis in two ways: 1) directly by injuring the photosynthetic mechanism, and 2) indirectly by leaching nutrients. The two ways were studied empirically in order to identify a sub-model for the photosynthesis of a plant exposed to air pollutants. 

The stand model will be applied to two purposes. The present stage of forests in Finland is compared with the simulated state based on the assumption that no pollutants are present. In addition, the decrease in forest yield under different conditions derived from predictions about long-range pollutant transport in Europe is analysed.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5080, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. III. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5080.

The proportions of needle and wood in current-year shoots in crown systems of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was studied. The proportion of needles out of the total shoot biomass increased according to the increasing number of the whorl counted from the apex. In the lower part of the crown system the needle biomass of newly-formed shoots was 50–60 fold compared to that of wood and bark biomass. In the upper part of the crown system the same ratio was 1–2. The variation in ratio between needle and wood biomass was whorl-specific and independent of tree class. The magnitude of the ratio was not related to the position of the tree in the stand nor to the prevailing light conditions within the state.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886.
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7525, category Article
Pertti Hari, Johan Ross, Marja Mecke. (1996). Production process of Scots pine. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 254 article id 7525.

The accompanying collective research report is the result of the research project in 1986–90 between the Finnish Academy and the former Soviet Academy of Sciences. The project was organized around common field work in Finland and in the former Soviet Union, and theoretical analyses of tree growth determining processes. Based on theoretical analyses, dynamic stand growth models were made and their parameters were determined utilizing the field results.

Annual cycle effects the tree growth. Our theoretical approach was based on adaptation to local climate conditions from Lapland to South Russia. The initiation of growth was described as a simple low and high temperature accumulation driven model. The model was linked with long-term temperature data.

Analysis of field measurements of CO2 exchange showed that irradiance is the dominating factor causing variation in photosynthetic rate in natural conditions during summer. The penetration of irradiance into Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopy is a complicated phenomenon. A moderately simple but balanced forest radiation regime sub-model was constructed.

The common field excursions in different geographical regions resulted in a lot of experimental data of regularities of woody structure. The water transport seems to be a good common factor to analyse these properties of tree structure. The produced theoretical and experimental material was utilized in the development of stand growth model that describes the growth and development of Scots pine stands in Finland and the former Soviet Union. The core of the model is carbon and nutrient balances. This means that carbon obtained in photosynthesis is consumed or growth and maintenance and nutrients are taken according to the metabolic need. Since the fundamental metabolic processes are the same in all locations, the same growth model structure can be applied in the large range of Scots pine. The model enables the analysis of geographical differences in the growth of Scots pine. The present approach enables utilization of structural and functional knowledge gained in places of intensive research, in the analysis of growth and development of any stand.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ross, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mecke, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7661, category Article
Jesada Luangjame. (1990). Salinity effects in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Combretum quadrangulare: ecophysiological and morphological studies. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 214 article id 7661.

The aim of this study was to investigate the ecophysiological and morphological characteristics of two salt-tolerant tree species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Combretum quadrangulare Kurz. A greenhouse experiment with different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) was set up and the results were compared with those of a field study on non-saline and saline soils. The determination of optimum gas exchange and the development and evaluation of photosynthetic models with and without water deficit were also included in this study.

Morphological characteristics under saline conditions showed that shoot height and diameter growth, shoot internode length, root length/biomass, leaf width and length, leaf area, number and biomass, and shoot/root and leaf/root ratios decreased with salinity, while leaf thickness increased with salinity. More growth was allocated to the roots than to the leaf canopy. Ecophysiological studies in laboratory showed that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water potential decreased with salinity, while the CO2 compensation point increased with salinity. Transpiration, dark respiration and photorespiration increased at low salinity but decreased at high salinity levels. In the field study, however, there were no significant differences in stomatal conductance and opening between saline and non-saline soils. Model predictions supported the results of the field measurements. Adaptation to salinity was reflected in an acclimatization of tree structure in the field study. There were both functioning and structural changes of seedlings in the greenhouse experiment

In terms of ecophysiological and morphological characteristics, E. Camaldulensis showed better salt tolerance than C. Quadragulare both in the greenhouse experiment and field study

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luangjame, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7655, category Article
Leena Finér. (1989). Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 208 article id 7655.

At the beginning of the investigation period the total biomass of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on the ordinary sedge pine mire was 48 t/ha. The biomass of the mixed stands of Scots pine and birch (Betula pubescens Erhr.) on the herbrich sedge pine mire was 91 t/ha, out of which 60% was from pine. The biomass of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on the Vaccinium-Myrtillus spruce mire was 148 t/ha. The average annual net increment of the stand biomass was 5.8 t/ha in the unfertilized pine stand and 6.7 t/ha in the NPK and micronutrient fertilized one during the six-year investigation period. The corresponding figures in the mixed stand were 7.2 t/ha and 7.6 t/ha. The net increment of the biomass in the unfertilized spruce stand was 6.9 t/ha and in the fertilized 8.4 t/ha. A considerable proportion of the net increment was lost to the ground as litter in all stands.

The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and boron cycles were investigated. The annual nitrogen uptake from the soil was 26–42 kg/ha, that of phosphorus 2.5–3.4 kg/ha, potassium 4.5–12 kg/ha, calcium 12–29 kg/ha, magnesium 2–4 kg/ha, iron 1.4–6.6 kg/ha, manganese less than 2 kg/ha and the other nutrients only some grams. Only part of the fertilized nutrients was fixed in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7616, category Article
Min-Sup Chung. (1981). Flowering characteristics of Pinus sylvestris L. with special emphasis on the reproductive adaptation to local temperature factor. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 169 article id 7616.

Flowering time and characteristics of cones and seed development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plus tree clones originating from various parts of Finland and planted (grafts) in Southern Finland (61° 48’ N, 29° 19’ E) were studied during 1976-1978.

The flowering time (in terms of period unit (p.u.) sums for flowering) of the Scots pine plus tree clones showed characteristics specific to each population and the characteristics appear mainly adapted to the local temperature factor within Finland. Generally, the development of floral organs, cones and seed in the spring and summer seasons also showed a temperature dependence in that the reproductive organs are developed rapidly and/or favourably under higher temperature conditions within its optimum range.

In this respect, establishment of northern Scots pine seed orchards in Central or Southern Finland or an optimum flowering, and a favourable seed development with an optimum physiological reproductive isolation from surrounding Scots pine populations can be justified. Problem arising from the north-south transfer of seed orchards and the significance of trees’ growth rhythm are discussed in connection with tree improvement.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Chung, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4716, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kustannusten jakaminen yhteisissä metsäojitushankkeissa. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4716.
English title: Allocation of costs in joint forest drainage undertakings.

One forest drainage undertaking in Finland often consists of woodlots belonging to several owners, and over hundred owners may be involved. In the present paper a method for allocation the costs to different owners in a joint drainage undertaking is worked out. The problem has been emphasised by the new Waterways Law, which enables also such drainage projects to be undertaken to which some of the land owners oppose. In those cased the costs must be allocated according to the benefit driven by each owner from the project.

The method attempts to assess the benefits to be driven from the forest drainage, those costs of the drainage that are joint and thus subjected to allocation, and what is the area affected by drainage as used as a basis for cost allocation.

The joined costs are apportioned in the following manner. The area of peatland adjusted to differences in the benefit obtained by drainage is ascertained by the land holder by multiplying the index number by the corresponding areas. In the case of cultivated agricultural land, also an index showing the need for drainage is used in computing the adjusted area. Each topographic unit in the map is provided with a notation of its apportionment area. Joined costs are allocated to different land owners in relation to their adjusted land areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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