Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'maaseutu'.

Category: Article

article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7459
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4573, category Article
Metsäopetuskomitea. (1939). Maalaisväestön metsäopetus. Silva Fennica no. 54 article id 4573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9078
English title: Forest education of rural population.

The article is a proposal of a committee, appointed by the government of Finland, to expand the forest education of landowners, concerning use and management of forests. The proposal also outlines a program for a youth association dedicated to forests. The committee proposes that present organizations are used as a basis for the expanding education. The main forms of education suggested were education in public and agricultural colleges, education in forest colleges, forest clubs, forestry study groups and self-study, courses, excursions, exhibitions, competitions and rising of general awareness. Different age groups would be given education adapted to their needs.

The report includes statistics about rural population of Finland in 1938 and detailed description of how the education would be arranged in different parts of the country.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsäopetuskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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