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Articles containing the keyword 'macronutrients'.

Category: Research article

article id 1107, category Research article
Arvo Tullus, Arne Sellin, Priit Kupper, Reimo Lutter, Linnar Pärn, Anna K. Jasinska, Meeli Alber, Maarja Kukk, Tea Tullus, Hardi Tullus, Krista Lõhmus, Anu Sõber. (2014). Increasing air humidity – a climate trend predicted for northern latitudes – alters the chemical composition of stemwood in silver birch and hybrid aspen. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1107. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1107
Highlights: Hybrid aspen and silver birch trees grew more slowly under increased air humidity conditions and had higher concentrations of N and P and a lower K to N ratio in stemwood; Minor species-specific changes were detected in stemwood concentrations of cellulose and hemicellulose; Density, calorific value and concentrations of lignin and ash in stemwood were not affected by elevated humidity.
We studied the physicochemical properties of stemwood in saplings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.), grown for four years under artificially elevated relative air humidity (on average by 7%) in field conditions, using the Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) research facility in Estonia. Altogether 91 sample trees from three experimental plots with manipulated air humidity and from three control plots were cut in the dormant season and sampled for the analysis of cellulose, hemicellulose, acid detergent lignin, macronutrients (N, P, K), ash content, density, and calorific value of wood. The analysed trees grew significantly more slowly under elevated humidity conditions, with a more pronounced effect on aspens. Significantly higher concentrations of N and P were observed in the stemwood of both aspens and birches grown under elevated humidity. This could be the result of a change in the content of living parenchyma cells and/or enhanced retranslocation of nutrients into wood parenchyma. Additionally, humidification resulted in a significantly higher concentration of cellulose and a lower concentration of hemicellulose in aspen stemwood, and in significantly lower concentrations of cellulose and K in birch stemwood. Elevated humidity did not affect lignin concentration, ash content, basic density and calorific value of stemwood. Results from the FAHM experiment suggest that the increasing air humidity accompanying global warming at northern latitudes will affect the growth and functioning of deciduous trees and forests, with obvious consequences also for forest management and industry.
  • Tullus, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: arvo.tullus@ut.ee (email)
  • Sellin, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: arne.sellin@ut.ee
  • Kupper, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: priit.kupper@ut.ee
  • Lutter, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: reimo.lutter@emu.ee
  • Pärn, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: linnar.parn@emu.ee
  • Jasinska, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia & Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: jasiak9@wp.pl
  • Alber, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: meeli.alber@ut.ee
  • Kukk, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: maarja.kukk@ut.ee
  • Tullus, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: tea.tullus@emu.ee
  • Tullus, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: hardi.tullus@emu.ee
  • Lõhmus, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: krista.lohmus@ut.ee
  • Sõber, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: anu.sober@ut.ee
article id 512, category Research article
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2003). Multidimensional site description of peatlands drained for forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.512
Sites (n = 119) on drained mires located in the southern aapa mire zone in Finland were analysed by multivariate techniques. The compositional trends of the understorey vegetation were analysed by means of hybrid multidimensional scaling (HMDS). In addition to field classification, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and flexible unweighted paired group arithmetic average (FUPGMA) classifications were used. The 1st HMDS dimension primarily reflected variation along a gradient from spruce mire influence to hummock-level bog influence. Variation in nutrient status was also connected to this gradient. Factors underlying the 2nd dimension were variation in nutrient status and drainage succession (moisture). Some sample plots representing herb-rich or Molinia-rich types were separated along the 3rd dimension. The variation in understorey vegetation (i.e. the ordination space) showed high maximum correlation with stand volume r = 0.81, mean annual stand volume increment r = 0.76, and post-drainage dominant height r = 0.75. The covariation between the vegetation and peat bulk density in both the 0–10 and 10–20 cm peat layers was also strong: r = 0.55 and r = 0.80. The correlations for Hv.Post were 0.64 and 0.81, respectively. Of the total macronutrient concentrations, phosphorus (r = 0.73, r = 0.75) and nitrogen (r = 0.59, r = 0.64) were the most strongly correlated with species composition. The environmental sample variables were also presented by the vegetation units of numerical classification. Most of the recorded variables, including nutrient amounts (kg ha–1), were examined in site quality (fertility) classes by succession phases as well. Border variants or transitional forms of the site types were common. Additional vegetation criteria (e.g. surface-water influence) more closely defined the ecology of the site. In addition to the site quality classes, a considerable amount of information about the tree stands, vegetation diversity and peat properties was associated with the separation of the succession phases, i.e. in this study transforming (phase II) vs. transformed (final phase III) sites. In conclusion, the actual vegetation appeared to well reflect various aspects of the ecological conditions, even in labile communities of commercial forests on drained peatlands.
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O.Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7573, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Nutrient removal from Scots pine canopy on drained peatland by rain. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 139 article id 7573. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7573

The aim of the study was to assess the contents and quantities of macronutrients reaching the ground with precipitation, stemflow and throughfall in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on drained peatland, one of which was unfertilized and two of which had been fertilized three growing seasons before the measurements were carried out.

According to the results, the quantities of nutrients reaching the ground with precipitation were relatively large as compared, for example, with those removed with the stem wood carried away from the forest in logging. The nutrient most exposed to leaching from the canopy is potassium. Both the content of potassium in rainwater penetrating the canopy and the quantities reaching the ground are highest in stemflow, decreasing when moving from under the tree crowns toward the edge of the crown projection and into openings in the canopy. The results for phosphorus were similar, although not as clear as for potassium.

The contents of NO3-N were smaller in stemflow than in precipitation. The results did not support assumptions according to which nitrate nitrogen is leached from the canopy or is taken up by the canopy from precipitation. In the case both of precipitation and of throughfall and stemflow, the quantities of nitrite nitrogen recorded were smaller than the degree of precision applied in the determinations carried out (0.01 mg/1). The contents of NH4-N were on average higher in stemflow and throughfall than in precipitation.

Fertilizer application (600 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, 14-18-10) increased the contents of potassium in stemflow and throughfall. A slight increase in phosphorus was also observed. Leaching of inorganic nitrogen was not affected by fertilization.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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