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Articles containing the keyword 'mapping'.

Category: Research article

article id 10444, category Research article
Risto Kalliola, Timo Saarinen, Niko Tanski. (2021). Seasonal variations of foliar element distributions of silver birch in different habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 10444. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10444
Highlights: Detailed mapping using micro X-ray fluorescence showed element variations in a seasonal cohort of silver birch leaves in six different habitats; Seasonal changes occurred in most of the ten studied nutrient elements; Different habitats showed unique seasonal development patterns in specific elements; Element distributions within individual leaf blades were variable; Phenotypic plasticity of foliar nutrients supports adaptation to patchy environments.

Novel information on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) foliar element contents and their seasonal, between-habitat and leaf level variations are provided by applying fine-scaled element mapping with micro X-ray fluorescence. In the monthly leaf samples collected from May to October from six different habitats, pairwise scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlations showed statistically significant positive correlations between Si, Al and Fe, and covariations between also many other pairs of elements. Of the ten elements studied, seven showed statistically significant changes in their average levels between May and June. The contents of P, S and K decreased in most habitats during the later season, whereas Ca and in some habitats also Mn and Zn increased. Comparing habitats, trees in the limestone habitat had relatively low content of Mg, strongly increasing levels of P until the late season, and high content of Ca and Fe. Other habitats also revealed distinctive particularities in their foliar elements, such as a high relative content of S and a low content of Ca at the seashore. Mn was high in three habitats, possibly due to bedrock characteristics. Except for P, the contents of all elements diverged between the midrib and other leaf areas. Zn content was particularly high in the leaf veins. Mn levels were highest at the leaf margins, indicating a possible sequestration mechanism for this potentially harmful element. Si may help to alleviate the metallic toxicities of Al and Fe. Because the growing season studied was dry, some trees developed symptoms of drought stress. The injured leaf parts had reduced levels of P, S and K, suggesting translocation of these nutrients before permanent damage.

  • Kalliola, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2454-8217 E-mail: risto.kalliola@utu.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tijusa@utu.fi
  • Tanski, Department of geography and geology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: niko.tanski@utu.fi
article id 10291, category Research article
Sakari Tuominen, Andras Balazs, Annika Kangas. (2020). Comparison of photogrammetric canopy models from archived and made-to-order aerial imagery in forest inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 5 article id 10291. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10291
Highlights: Two photogrammetric canopy models were tested in forest inventory: one based on archived standard aerial imagery acquired for ortho-mosaic production and another based on stereo-photogrammetrically oriented aerial imaging adjusted for stereo-photogrammetric canopy modelling; Both data sets were tested in the estimation of forest variables; Despite the differences in imaging parameters, there was little difference in their performance in predicting the forest inventory variables.

In remote sensing-based forest inventories 3D point cloud data, such as acquired from airborne laser scanning, are well suited for estimating the volume of growing stock and stand height, but tree species recognition often requires additional optical imagery. A combination of 3D data and optical imagery can be acquired based on aerial imaging only, by using stereo photogrammetric 3D canopy modeling. The use of aerial imagery is well suited for large-area forest inventories, due to low costs, good area coverage and temporally rapid cycle of data acquisition. Stereo-photogrammetric canopy modeling can also be applied to previously acquired imagery, such as for aerial ortho-mosaic production, assuming that the imagery has sufficient stereo overlap. In this study we compared two stereo-photogrammetric canopy models combined with contemporary satellite imagery in forest inventory. One canopy model was based on standard archived imagery acquired primarily for ortho-mosaic production, and another was based on aerial imagery whose acquisition parameters were better oriented for stereo-photogrammetric canopy modeling, including higher imaging resolution and greater stereo-coverage. Aerial and satellite data were tested in the estimation of growing stock volume, volumes of main tree species, basal area and diameter and height. Despite the better quality of the latter canopy model, the difference of the accuracy of the forest estimates based on the two different data sets was relatively small for most variables (differences in RMSEs were 0–20%, depending on variable). However, the estimates based on stereo-photogrammetrically oriented aerial data retained better the original variation of the forest variables present in the study area.

  • Tuominen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sakari.tuominen@luke.fi (email)
  • Balazs, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: andras.balazs@luke.fi
  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@luke.fi
article id 1218, category Research article
Mikko Niemi, Mikko Vastaranta, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Markus Holopainen. (2015). Forest inventory attribute prediction using airborne laser scanning in low-productive forestry-drained boreal peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1218
Highlights: Following current forest inventory practises, stem volume was predicted in low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 13.7 m3 ha–1; When 30 reference plots measured from LPDPs were added to the prediction, RMSE was decreased to 10.0 m3 ha–1; Additional reference plots from LPDPs did not affect the forest inventory attribute predictions in productive forests.
Nearly 30% of Finland’s land area is covered by peatlands. In Northern parts of the country there is a significant amount of low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) where the average annual stem volume growth is less than 1 m3 ha–1. The re-use of LPDPs has been considered thoroughly since Finnish forest legislation was updated and the forest regeneration prerequisite was removed from LPDPs in January 2014. Currently, forestry is one of the re-use alternatives, thus detailed forest resource information is required for allocating activities. However, current forest inventory practices have not been evaluated for sparse growing stocks (e.g., LPDPs). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of airborne laser scanning (ALS) for mapping forest inventory attributes in LPDPs. We used ALS data with a density of 0.8 pulses per m2, 558 field-measured reference plots (500 from productive forests and 58 from LPDPs) and k nearest neighbour (k-NN) estimation. Our main aim was to study the sensitivity of predictions to the number of LPDP reference plots used in the k-NN estimation. When the reference data consisted of 500 plots from productive forest stands, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the prediction accuracy of Lorey’s height, basal area and stem volume were 1.4 m, 2.7 m2 ha–1 and 13.7 m3 ha–1 in LPDPs, respectively. When 30 additional reference plots were allocated to LPDPs, the respective RMSEs were 1.1 m, 1.7 m2 ha–1 and 10.0 m3 ha–1. Additional reference plot allocation did not affect the predictions in productive forest stands.
  • Niemi, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.t.niemi@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Vastaranta, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.vastaranta@helsinki.fi
  • Peuhkurinen, Arbonaut Oy Ltd., Latokartanontie 7 A, FI-00700, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.peuhkurinen@arbonaut.com
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
article id 127, category Research article
Mika Rekola, Annukka Valkeapää, Tapio Rantala. (2010). Nordic forest professionals’ values. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.127
The present study analyses the values held by forest professionals in three Nordic countries: Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The data is from a large (n = 1113) internet survey that used cognitive mapping as a research tool, which is a novelty in value measurement. The questionnaire is based on the organisational value theory of Schein (1992), supplemented with relevant forest-related and environmental values. The forest-related main value factors were in the following order of importance: Expertise, Private forestry, Forest production, Nature conservation, and Tradition. The measurement included two kinds of cases: action values, referring to present decision-making, and ideal values, referring to decisions concerning future ideals. Most of the values’ scores were similar. Almost all values received higher scores of importance in the ideal cases compared to action cases, a fact that can probably be explained by constraints related to the professionals’ current working environment. Some international differences were also found: Sweden and Norway were closer to each other and both differed from Finland, where private forestry, forest production, and traditions are highly valued. Moreover, respondents working in industry were found to be slightly more production-oriented than other forest professionals. The study also revealed several weaknesses of the cognitive mapping method in measuring values.
  • Rekola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.rekola@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Valkeapää, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rantala, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.rantala@helsinki.fi
article id 467, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Ruut Haapakoski, Liisa Tyrväinen. (2008). Integrating place-specific social values into forest planning – Case of UPM-Kymmene forests in Hyrynsalmi, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 467. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.467
In participatory forest management planning, the perceived values of local inhabitants concerning the area under planning are collected. The results may, however, depend on the methods used. In this study, values of residents of Hyrynsalmi municipality concerning the nearby forests owned by UPM-Kymmene Ltd. were evaluated with a questionnaire consisting of general value questions and mapping of social values of forests. The data was collected from a public meeting and from a mailed survey from randomly sampled people and from members of municipal council. The aims of the study were to 1) test the social value mapping method in commercial forests in a rural-urban interface as well as to examine the benefits and drawbacks 2) in place-specific and non-specific data collection, and 3) in different data collection methods, from the viewpoint of forest management planning. We noted that while all respondents can claim to represent local values, different data collection methods produced statistically significantly different local values. This needs to be accounted for when planning a participatory process. In operational forest planning, place-specific information is more useful than questions concerning the general values, while the latter may help in defining forest policy goals. The social values mapping method is also relatively easy for the participants. However, in the studied case about one fifth of the area was delineated by the participants per each positive value. The answers were quite scattered, suggesting that most of the area had some social values for local people. This indicates that utilising a social values mapping method in planning needs further development in rural areas, where distinctive patches can not be easily detected.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Haapakoski, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tyrväinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland. ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 4618, category Article
Lauri Olenius. (1951). Ilmakuvien käyttö valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14014
English title: Use of aerial mapping in state forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Forest Service begun the aerial mapping of the state forests in northern Finland in 1948. This presentation describes the state of the work, practices and methods of the work.

  • Olenius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4617, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1951). Ilmakuvamittauksesta. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14013
English title: Aerial mapping.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the development of aerial mapping, its principles and methods. The use of aerial photographs and the costs of the method is discussed.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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