Current issue: 55(1)

Under compilation: 55(2)

Scopus CiteScore 2019: 3.1
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 6th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'market'.

Category: Research article

article id 10503, category Research article
Katja Lähtinen, Liina Häyrinen, Anders Roos, Anne Toppinen, Francisco X. Aguilar Cabezas, Bo J. Thorsen, Teppo Hujala, Anders Q. Nyrud, Hans F. Hoen. (2021). Consumer housing values and prejudices against living in wooden homes in the Nordic region. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 2 article id 10503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10503
Highlights: Consumers in the Nordic region are similar in their housing value expectations and prejudices against building with wood; Physical properties of houses seem to be less important as constituents of housing value for the consumers compared to intangible factors related to lifestyles and milieus; Urban consumers are the most prejudiced against wood building, and thus supply of homes meeting their value expectations is of a critical importance for sustainable urbanization.

So far, consumer housing values have not been addressed as factors affecting the market diffusion potential of multi-storey wood building (MSWB). To fill the void, this study addresses different types of consumer housing values in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (i.e., Nordic region), and whether they affect the likelihood of prejudices against building with wood in the housing markets. The data collected in 2018 from 2191 consumers in the Nordic region were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and logistic binary regression analysis. According to the results, consumers’ perceptions on ecological sustainability, material usage and urban lifestyle were similar in all countries, while country-specific differences were detected for perceptions on aesthetics and natural milieus. In all countries, appreciating urban lifestyle and living in attractive neighborhoods with good reputation increased the likelihood of prejudices against wood building, while appreciation of aesthetics and natural milieus decreased the likelihood of prejudices. In strengthening the demand for MSWB and sustainable urbanization through actions in businesses (e.g., branding) and via public policy support (e.g., land zoning), few messages derive from the results. In all, abreast with the already existing knowledge on the supply side factors (e.g., wood building innovations), more customized information is needed on the consumer-driven issues affecting the demand potential of MSWB in the housing markets. This would enable, e.g., both enhancing the supply of wooden homes for consumers appreciating urban lifestyle and neighborhoods and fortifying positive image of wood among consumers especially appreciating good architecture and pleasant environmental milieus.

  • Lähtinen, Vaasan yliopisto/Seinäjoen yliopistokeskus ORCID ID:E-mail: katja.lahtinen@luke.fi (email)
  • Häyrinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, P.O. Box 2, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: liina.hayrinen@luke.fi
  • Roos, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Department of Forest Economics, Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.roos@slu.se
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences/Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anne.toppinen@helsinki.fi
  • Aguilar Cabezas, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Department of Forest Economics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: francisco.aguilar@slu.se
  • Thorsen, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, DenmarkBo Jellesmark Thorsen ORCID ID:E-mail: bjt@ifro.ku.dk
  • Hujala, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, 80101 FI-Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: teppo.hujala@uef.fi
  • Nyrud, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.qvale.nyrud@nmbu.no
  • Hoen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: hans.hoen@nmbu.no
article id 1395, category Research article
Joseph Buongiorno. (2015). Income and time dependence of forest product demand elasticities and implications for forecasting. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1395. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1395
Highlights: Elasticities of demand with gross domestic product and prices were stable over time and income level for sawnwood and particleboard only; Other product elasticities differed with income and time, leading in conjunction with a sector model to higher projected world demand and prices than obtained by ignoring differences between countries and over time.

In view of improving multi-country forest sector models, this study investigated to what extent the price and income elasticity of demand for forest products had changed in the past two decades, and how much they depended on the countries income level. For each of seven major product groups annual observations were divided between high-income (top 20% in gross domestic product per capita) and low-income, and between recent (2004–2013) and older (1992–2003) observations. The results indicated that for sawnwood and particleboard the data could be pooled across all countries and years. For the other commodity groups (veneer & plywood, fiberboard, newsprint, printing & writing paper, other paper & paperboard), there were statistically significant differences in gross domestic product or price elasticity between high and low-income levels or old and recent observations. Efficient elasticities were obtained by pooling the maximum number of observations while respecting the statistically significant differences. The resulting GDP elasticities were the same, or very close, across income levels for all products. The price elasticities differed by income level only for newsprint and for veneer and plywood. International forest sector projections to 2065 obtained with these elasticities compared with those based on pooling all data across time and income levels gave less than 3% difference for world consumption of sawnwood, particleboard, fiberboard, and newsprint, but 19% higher consumption for veneer and plywood, 31% for printing and writing paper, and 18% for other paper and paperboard. The world price was 1% to 11% higher for end products and 3% to 22% higher for raw materials and intermediate products.

  • Buongiorno, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: jbuongio@wisc.edu (email)
article id 913, category Research article
Han Zhang, Joseph Buongiorno. (2012). Markets, government policy, and China's timber supply. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.913
China's domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and supply, and to government policies expressed by production quotas and the tenure reform on collective forestland. The price elasticity of China’s timber supply was estimated at 0.31±0.12. The inelastic response of production to the quota (0.20±0.02) suggested that government had a limited, though significant, control of timber supply. Other things being equal, the land tenure reform increased timber supply by 18±8 percent, where and when it had been implemented.
  • Zhang, Research Center for Resource Economics and Environment Management, Northwest A&F University. No. 3 Taicheng Road, Yangling, Shaanxi, China 712100 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Buongiorno, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A. ORCID ID:E-mail: jbuongio@wisc.edu (email)
article id 912, category Research article
Heidi Hallongren, Juho Rantala. (2012). Commercialisation and international market potential of Finnish silvicultural machines. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 912. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.912
Recently, the need to mechanise silvicultural operations has increased in the Nordic countries. While several new machine concepts have been developed, the manufacture of silvicultural devices remains at the market introduction stage. Information is required in support of existing and forthcoming Finnish small-scale producers of silvicultural devices, who wish to commercialise and further market their innovations in domestic and export markets. The aim of this study was to identify the opportunities, challenges and market potential of business activities that develop in connection with device or machine production. Small-scale Finnish manufacturers of silvicultural devices, Finnish large-scale harvester manufacturers and international silvicultural experts participated in the study. The results show that participant groups have varying opinions of cooperation methods and export activities, as well as of the export markets with the best potential. According to international silvicultural experts, mechanised planting and pre-commercial thinning have the greatest potential worldwide. However, demand for mechanised pre-commercial thinning and planting has been mainly confined to the Nordic countries. For a foreign firm marketing a new silvicultural machine concept, the most important customers and cooperation partners are locally operating forest firms, machine contractors and research organisations. The results of the study provide a useful overview of the current state of silvicultural device manufacturing in Finland.
  • Hallongren, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heidi.hallongren@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Metsä Group, Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metsagroup.com
article id 911, category Research article
Marjut Turtiainen, Olli Saastamoinen, Kari Kangas, Matti Vaara. (2012). Picking of wild edible mushrooms in Finland in 1997–1999 and 2011. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.911
This study reports on national survey results concerning mushroom picking in Finland during four separate years: 1997–1999 and 2011. The material was collected by mailed questionnaire surveys amongst Finnish households. The sample size varied from 1858 (in 1998) to 6849 households (in 1997) and the response rates varied from 51% (in 2011) to 70% (in 1999). The results indicate that both the rate of participation in mushroom picking and estimates of the quantities collected varied greatly depending on whether the survey was conducted in a favourable or unfavourable year. In 1998, when the mushroom crop was abundant, a total of 47% of all households were engaged in picking and the total harvest was 16.1 million kg. In 1999, when the crop was poor, the estimates were the lowest (23% and 3.3 million kg, respectively) and in a year with a relatively abundant crop (2011), the estimates were 42% and 15.0 million kg, respectively. Mushrooms were collected mainly for home use, which accounted for 85–90% of the total harvest depending on the year. Only a small proportion of all households (0.3–1.3%) were engaged annually in commercial mushroom picking. In 1997–1999, milk caps formed the major part of the total amount picked (i.e. 37–53% depending on the year), whilst in 2011 their share was approximately one fifth of the total harvest. The results also indicate that the proportion of ceps in commercial picking has increased since the 1990s
  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Saastamoinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli.saastamoinen@uef.fi
  • Kangas, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@uef.fi
  • Vaara, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.vaara@uef.fi
article id 286, category Research article
Riitta Hänninen, A. Maarit I. Kallio. (2007). Economic impacts on the forest sector of increasing forest biodiversity conservation in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 286. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.286
In the next coming years, political decisions will be made upon future actions to safeguard forest biodiversity in Southern Finland. We address the economic consequences on the Finnish forest sector of conserving additional 0.5% to 5% of the old growth forest land in Southern Finland. The impacts on supply, demand and prices of wood and forest industry production are analysed employing a partial equilibrium model of the Finnish forest sector. An increase in conservation raises wood prices and thus the production costs of the forest industry. This makes sawnwood production fall, but does not affect paper and paperboard production. The forest owners’ aggregated wood sales income is unaffected or slightly increased, because an increase in stumpage prices offsets the decrease in the harvests. If conservation increases wood imports, negative effects on forest industry become smaller whereas aggregated forest owners’ income may decline depending on the magnitude of import substitution.
  • Hänninen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riitta.hanninen@metla.fi (email)
  • Kallio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maarit.kallio@metla.fi
article id 505, category Research article
Jari Kärnä, Eric Hansen, Heikki Juslin. (2003). Environmental activity and forest certification in marketing of forest products – a case study in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 505. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.505
Forest industries and their industrial customers from four European countries were surveyed by interviews to study the environmental emphasis and the role of timber certification in their marketing planning. Most of the Finnish, Swedish, German and British companies have begun to integrate environmental issues in their strategic, structural and functional level marketing decisions. They see forest certification as a necessary tool for marketing forest products. The level of environmental activity (greenness) of the companies was studied by creating a one dimensional factor score rating. The logic of marketing planning was tested by using one functional level marketing tool – forest certification – as an example to examine how well the level of greenness explains the importance of forest certification for the company. The results show that in the surveyed companies the level of greenness has more explanatory power than background factors such as country or industry sector. The integration of environmental issues into marketing planning and the interest in forest certification by these companies can provide meaningful insights for the forest industries worldwide as they confront similar issues.
  • Kärnä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.karna@metla.fi (email)
  • Hansen, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Richardson Hall 108, 97331-5751 Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Juslin, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Economics, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 505, category Research article
Jari Kärnä, Eric Hansen, Heikki Juslin. (2003). Environmental activity and forest certification in marketing of forest products – a case study in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 505. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.505
Forest industries and their industrial customers from four European countries were surveyed by interviews to study the environmental emphasis and the role of timber certification in their marketing planning. Most of the Finnish, Swedish, German and British companies have begun to integrate environmental issues in their strategic, structural and functional level marketing decisions. They see forest certification as a necessary tool for marketing forest products. The level of environmental activity (greenness) of the companies was studied by creating a one dimensional factor score rating. The logic of marketing planning was tested by using one functional level marketing tool – forest certification – as an example to examine how well the level of greenness explains the importance of forest certification for the company. The results show that in the surveyed companies the level of greenness has more explanatory power than background factors such as country or industry sector. The integration of environmental issues into marketing planning and the interest in forest certification by these companies can provide meaningful insights for the forest industries worldwide as they confront similar issues.
  • Kärnä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.karna@metla.fi (email)
  • Hansen, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Richardson Hall 108, 97331-5751 Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Juslin, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Economics, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 516, category Research article
Celeste Lacuna-Richman. (2003). Ethnicity and the utilization of non-wood forest products: findings from three Philippine villages. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.516
The utilization and trade of non-wood forest products in three villages in the Philippines were compared in this study. Two villages were situated close to each other on the Island of Palawan. The Tagbanua, an indigenous people, inhabited one village; migrants from the Visayas Region of the Philippines populated the other. The third village is located on the Island of Leyte, in the Visayas Region, populated by native Visayan settlers. There was no significant difference in the number of NWFPs utilized by the indigenous people and the migrants. However, there was a wide disparity in income between the two groups, with migrants earning more, partly due to the marketing of commercial NWFPs. This gap could be decreased by fairer trading practices that are dependent in part on better educational opportunities, land rights, legal assistance and access to markets for the Tagbanua. Specific socioeconomic characteristics, such as the presence of a hunter within the household and size of the family were found to have a positive correlation with the use of NWFPs in some study villages. Income and the food expenditure of the household were inversely related with the use of NWFPs in the native Visayan village.
  • Lacuna-Richman, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: celeste.lacuna-richman@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
article id 598, category Research article
A. Maarit I. Kallio. (2001). Interdependence of the sawlog, pulpwood and sawmill chip markets: an oligopsony model with an application to Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 598. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.598
The interdependence of the markets for pulpwood, sawlogs and sawmill chips is analysed using a short-run model, which accommodates the alternative competition structures of wood buyers. We propose that imperfect competition in the pulpwood market tends to make the sawmills owned by the pulp and paper companies larger than the independent ones, even in the absence of transactional economies of integration. The impact of the wood market competition pattern on the profits of the forest owners and forest industry firms depends upon a firm-capacity structure, wood supply elasticities, and business cycles in the output markets. The numerical application of the model to the Finnish softwood market suggests that inflexibility of production capacities tends to make the wood demand rather insensitive with respect to price. Only the large firms, which all produce both pulp and sawnwood, may have oligopsony power under some conditions. Integrated production can increase competition in the sawlog market via the wood chip market.
  • Kallio, Helsinki School of Economics, Department of Economics and Management Science, P.O. Box 1210, FIN-00101 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: maarit.kallio@hkkk.fi (email)
article id 645, category Research article
Veli-Pekka Heikkinen, Antti Kanto. (2000). Market model with long-term effects – empirical evidence from Finnish forestry returns. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 645. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.645
The aim of the study is to reformulate the conventional market model by considering also long-run characteristics of forestry returns. Finnish stumpage prices and the stock market index are found co-integrated. Co-integration relationship between timber and stock market indicates that there are factors in timber market like high transaction costs, illiquidity or temporal lack of information, and in the Finnish case, price recommendations that are priced by market. The presence of long-run effects may make the short-term market model mis-specified and it may give misleading and incomplete results concerning the expected risk and return of forestry. In our case, the market model risk beta was only slightly biased. This study indicates that an error-correction model is more appropriate model than the market model.
  • Heikkinen, Helsinki School of Economics, P.O. Box 1210, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vheikkin@hkkk.fi (email)
  • Kanto, Helsinki School of Economics, P.O. Box 1210, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7139, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Economic models underlying forest policy programs : an evaluation of ends and means. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 5 article id 7139. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7139

The purpose of this study was to analyse economic models used in certain studies and to evaluate whether the economic theory envisaged by a model is consistent with its aims in forest policy. Second, the paper will point out assumed improvements for models that can be used as a basis for forest policy.

There are two types of economic models according to their purpose. One type, the marketing models, can be used for explaining or forecasting the consumer’s behaviour with no intension to affect the economies to be gained from the alternative patterns of behaviour explained. Others, the policy models, are meant to serve as guideposts which by means of normative forecasts point out the programme to be followed in order to attain certain aims. The majority of the policy models are static. The paper assesses the static models, and evaluates how well they fit their purpose. Special attention is given to dynamic economic models. A dynamic model can, at least in principle, be used to explain the course of events during the adjustment period required to achieve a production goal.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7124, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Central marketing of cellulose, with particular reference to brand policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 2 article id 7124. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7124

Sales of cellulose have been handled in Finland since 1918 on a central marketing system through the Finnish Cellulose Union (Suomen Selluloosayhdistys), which is a joint sales company formed by the enterprises. First part of the paper constitutes the questions of the channels and functions of marketing. The most focal problem is related to the interests of individual producers. The second part concentrates on the brand policy of central marketing.

The small number of producer companies and – for 40 years ago – the existence of relatively few categories and grades on the market have contributed to the birth of central marketing of cellulose in Finland. Central marketing is probably more advantageous for smaller firms and companies less well placed than the biggest concerns. It levels out the status held by the best and the weakest firm in individual marketing and consequently perhaps does not give a top brand the standing it would have in relation to the other brands in individual marketing. Central marketing may have advantages also in regards of general price level and marketing costs.

The marketing system is dependent on the conditions in which it is to be carried out. An example of this is that Scandinavian cellulose producers have fairly good opportunities under the individual marketing system of using the service factor, owing to the good and far-ranging scheduled shipping facilities of the countries. It is probably the different conditions in this country that have made Finland’s cellulose marketing system essentially different from that of the Scandinavian countries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7121, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Marketing roundwood in Finland and the Scandinavian Countries. With special regard to marketing channels and trade customs. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 4 article id 7121. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7121

The present investigation set out to find out the structures of supply and demand, channels and methods of marketing, developments in marketing methods, trade customs, similarities and differences in marketing of the private forest owners and the State, local features of the market of domestic roundwood trade in Finland, and compares marketing of unprocessed wood between Finland and Scandinavian countries. The study is based on statistics of various sections of trade and from the State Boards of Forestry.

The channels of marketing from private forests in Finland and the Scandinavian countries are different. In Norway the wood is primarily marketed through the forest owners’ associations, in Finland direct individual selling is applied, while in Sweden both channels are common. In Norway and in Sweden the forest owners’ marketing organizations were probably formed mainly to protect the forest owners’ interest in price formation. The price is determined on the organizational level, while in Finland the price formation mechanism has retained a competitive nature. In Sweden the creation of demand for roundwood has been one reason for establishment of the associations, which have established new forest industry particularly in areas of low demand.

The institutions affect also the trade customs in Norway and Sweden. For instance, measuring of roundwood is performed in Scandinavia according to detailed public regulations and often carried out by the officials of special measuring boards. The Forms Committee has also since 1950 brought significant unification in the trade customs of Finland. Greatest differences in trade customs between the State and private forestry is observed in Finland.

The producer’s role in marketing has increased since 1930s, which is demonstrated by the increasing activity in marketing by the forest owners’ associations in Norway and Sweden. Also, the relative importance of sales with contract for delivery has been growing. A second line of development appears in the more detailed norms in trade customs.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7387, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1946). Trade in forest products between Finland and the United States of America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 7387. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7387

The purpose of the analysis presented in the article was to form an estimate as to future Finnish-American trade in forest products. The Finnish-American trade, that had its beginning in 1919, has been steadily growing and at the outbreak of the Second World War occupied third place in Finland’s total foreign trade. Over 90% of the Finnish exports consisted of forest industry products, pulp and newsprint being the most important items. The sales associations of the pulp and paper industries made it possible for the industries to gain a footing in the American market.

The production of pulp and most kinds of paper has increased in the USA up to 1942, but production of newsprint has tended to decrease. The timber resources of the country are large, but there is a considerable timber deficit in the northeastern states, therefore, these regions must be the principal aim for a campaign to build up the future market. According to the survey of future need of imports to the USA, more than two million tons of pulp and 2-3 million tons of paper products are needed in the immediate post-war period. The Canadian and Swedish competition will remain at about the same level, but one Finnish advantage, the quality, has disappeared on account of the progress made by research in the USA during the war.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7299, category Article
Eino Hartikainen. (1934). Sahatavaramme kotimarkkinat v. 1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 22 article id 7299. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7299
English title: Domestic trade of saw timber in 1932.
Original keywords: sahatavara; myynti; tuotanto; kotimarkkinat
English keywords: domestic trade; home market

A survey was conducted to investigate the domestic trade of saw timber in Finland in 1932. The inquiry complemented the investigation of consumption of wood made at the same time. In 1932 there were 383 sawmills in Finland, the total production of which was 814,630 std (1 std = 4.672 m3). Only 12.9% of the production was sold in the home market. Of the domestic sales, the share of costal sawmills was 25.7% and the inland sawmills 74.3%. The domestic sales were proportionally largest (55.5%) in the smallest sawmills, and they decreased gradually as the production of the sawmill increased. Comparatively more of the sawn timber of birch is sold in the domestic market than of pine or spruce. The depression of the building trade that begun in 1930 affected the trade still in 1932.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hartikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5620, category Article
Anne Toppinen. (1997). Testing for Granger-causality in the Finnish roundwood market. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8521

The existence and direction of causal relationships between the time series for the Finnish roundwood market for the period 1960–1994 is tested. Using simple bivariate analysis, we found evidence that for both logs and pulpwood, the lagged prices are helpful in forecasting quantity for the next year, but not vice versa. Saw log stumpage prices have significantly Granger-caused pulpwood prices over the business cycles, but the effect has diminished towards the present time. For quantities traded, the direction of causality was rather from pulpwood to saw logs. The consistency of bivariate test results was checked by the Granger-causality tests within trivariate VAR-models for both markets, and the results were found to be fairly similar to bivariate tests. The price fluctuations in the international markets for forest products have been found to be carried to domestic wood markets dominantly via the pulpwood part of the market.

  • Toppinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5620, category Article
Anne Toppinen. (1997). Testing for Granger-causality in the Finnish roundwood market. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8521

The existence and direction of causal relationships between the time series for the Finnish roundwood market for the period 1960–1994 is tested. Using simple bivariate analysis, we found evidence that for both logs and pulpwood, the lagged prices are helpful in forecasting quantity for the next year, but not vice versa. Saw log stumpage prices have significantly Granger-caused pulpwood prices over the business cycles, but the effect has diminished towards the present time. For quantities traded, the direction of causality was rather from pulpwood to saw logs. The consistency of bivariate test results was checked by the Granger-causality tests within trivariate VAR-models for both markets, and the results were found to be fairly similar to bivariate tests. The price fluctuations in the international markets for forest products have been found to be carried to domestic wood markets dominantly via the pulpwood part of the market.

  • Toppinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5381, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen. (1989). Ajatuksia metsän arvon määrittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15538
English title: Thoughts about forest valuation.

In this article the methods of forest valuation, especially the sales value tables previously published in Finland are critically examined. In this connection attention is drawn to the rate of interest used in calculating the forest values.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5293, category Article
Claude Gendreau. (1986). Historical considerations and evolution of the forest policies for small woodlot owners of Quebec. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5293. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27749

In order to understand the present forest policies for the small woodlot of Quebec, it is essential to understand the history of settlement of Quebec. Following this brief description, the author introduces the various forest policies (programs) which have been initiated in Quebec by various levels of governments in order to deal with the management of these lands.

  • Gendreau, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5291, category Article
David J. Brooks. (1986). Evaluating the regional and distributional impacts of forestry cost-share payments. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5291. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27747

Standard methods of welfare economics are used in a market simulating framework to evaluate policy measures designed to increase future timber supplies. Forest management cost-share programs are examined using this methodology. The differential regional impact of cost-share payments is considered, as is the distribution of these benefits between stumpage producers (owners of forest land) and stumpage consumers (producers of forest products). Previous estimates of the welfare gains that would result from a higher level of forest management cost-share payments in the southern United States are revised to account for the loss of public revenue resulting from lower future prices. A methodology for comparing alternative policy instruments is discussed, and a preliminary, qualitative comparison is made between the use of cost-share payments and alternative policy measures.

  • Brooks, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5291, category Article
David J. Brooks. (1986). Evaluating the regional and distributional impacts of forestry cost-share payments. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5291. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27747

Standard methods of welfare economics are used in a market simulating framework to evaluate policy measures designed to increase future timber supplies. Forest management cost-share programs are examined using this methodology. The differential regional impact of cost-share payments is considered, as is the distribution of these benefits between stumpage producers (owners of forest land) and stumpage consumers (producers of forest products). Previous estimates of the welfare gains that would result from a higher level of forest management cost-share payments in the southern United States are revised to account for the loss of public revenue resulting from lower future prices. A methodology for comparing alternative policy instruments is discussed, and a preliminary, qualitative comparison is made between the use of cost-share payments and alternative policy measures.

  • Brooks, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4694, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Metsäntuotteet Ison-Britannian rakennusaineiden mainonnassa. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9133
English title: The position of forest products in advertising of building materials in Great Britain.

This paper concentrates on analysing advertising of building materials used in residential, agricultural and factory building, power station construction, warehouse building and the joinery industry in Great Britain, concentrating on advertising to consumers, including architects, engineers, building entrepreneurs, farmers and do-it-yourself practitioners. The material is based on questionnaires answered by 8 professionals of the field, and assessment of two leading English paper in the field of construction in January 1 – June 30, 1959.

It was concluded that forest products were clearly less advertised than other building materials. The unweight average degree of advertising of all forest products was. 1.7, while the score was 2.6 for other materials. Of the different forest products stand out advertising of plywood and sawn good. The most extensively advertised materials were metals, concrete and cement, and some covering materials. Forest products accounted only ¼ of the advertising space in the publications.

The most important media used in advertising building materials were trade journals, calendars and yearbooks, courses and lectures, exhibitions and fares and direct advertising. The most important audience of advertising were architects, followed by the entrepreneurs. It is suggested that the advertising of Finnish products in Great Britain might be best organized by placing it in the hands of two organizations: the sales organisation and a separate body for advertising. The producers would manage the advertising of individual brands to sales level, while the other levels (agents, importers, merchants) would manage the joint advertising of the forest products to the lower sales levels and consumers. A Finnish market research and information offices might be established in Great Britain.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9125
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Blåfield, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Havukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sajama, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive