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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'measurement'.

Category: Research article

article id 7830, category Research article
Jari Lindblad, Johanna Routa, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Marja Kolström, Ari Isokangas, Lauri Sikanen. (2018). Weather based moisture content modelling of harvesting residues in the stand. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7830
Highlights: Weather data used for estimating the moisture content of energy wood; The validation of the weather based models performed based on the field data.

Harvesting residues collected from the final cuttings of boreal forests are an important source of solid biofuel for energy production in Finland and Sweden. In the Finnish supply chain, the measurement of residues is performed by scales integrated in forwarders. The mass of residues is converted to volume by conversion factors. In this study, weather based models for defining the moisture content of residues were developed and validated. Models were also compared with the currently used fixed tables of conversion factors. The change of the moisture content of residues is complex, and an exact estimation was challenging. However, the model predicting moisture change for three hour periods was found to be the most accurate. The main improvement compared to fixed tables was the lack of a systematic error. It can be assumed that weather based models will give more reliable estimates for the moisture in varying climate conditions and the further development of models should be focused on obtaining more appropriate data from varying drying conditions in different geographical and microclimatological locations.

  • Lindblad, ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.lindblad@luke.fi (email)
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.routa@luke.fi
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Aviation and Military Weather Services, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.ruotsalainen@fmi.fi
  • Kolström, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marja.kolstrom@uef.fi
  • Isokangas, University of Oulu, Control Engineering, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.isokangas@oulu.fi
  • Sikanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.sikanen@luke.fi
article id 100, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Lauri Mehtätalo, Antti Mäkinen, Kalle Vanhatalo. (2011). Sensitivity of harvest decisions to errors in stand characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 100. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.100
In forest planning, the decision maker chooses for each stand a treatment schedule for a predefined planning period. The choice is based either on optimization calculations or on silvicultural guidelines. Schedules for individual stands are obtained using a growth simulator, where measured stand characteristics such as the basal area, mean diameter, site class and mean height are used as input variables. These characteristics include errors, however, which may lead to incorrect decisions. In this study, the aim is to study the sensitivity of harvest decisions to errors in a dataset of 157 stands. Correct schedules according to silvicultural guidelines were first determined using error-free data. Different amounts of errors were then generated to the stand-specific characteristics, and the treatment schedule was selected again using the erroneous data. The decision was defined as correct, if the type of harvest in these two schedules were similar, and if the timings deviated at maximum ±2 for thinning and ±3 years for clear-cut. The dependency of probability of correct decisions on stand characteristics and the degree of errors was then modelled. The proposed model can be used to determine the required level of measurement accuracy for each characteristics in different kinds of stands, with a given accuracy requirement for the timing of treatments. This information can further be utilized in selecting the most appropriate inventory method.
  • Kangas, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, Simosol Oy, Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanhatalo, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 133, category Research article
Fumiaki Kitahara, Nobuya Mizoue, Shigejiro Yoshida. (2010). Effects of training for inexperienced surveyors on data quality of tree diameter and height measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 133. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.133
Due to the large number of sample plots and variables to be measured, inexperienced surveyors are expected to take field measurements in National Forest Inventories (NFIs). However, very little information exists on the data quality that can be expected from inexperienced surveyors given different levels of training. We evaluated the quality of data produced by inexperienced undergraduate students when measuring the most fundamental variables: tree diameter using a diameter tape and height using an ultrasonic Vertex III hypsometer. We found that a single training session on how to use the instruments and how to reduce measurement errors was insufficient for inexperienced surveyors to achieve measurement quality objectives (MQOs). Providing a single feedback of control team measurements significantly improved data quality, except in the measurements of tree height of broad-leaved trees, but additional feedback did not contribute to further improvement. We propose that field training courses for inexperienced surveyors incorporate a one-day exercise with feedback instruction.
  • Kitahara, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Science, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: bunsho@ffpri.affrc.go.jp (email)
  • Mizoue, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yoshida, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 219, category Research article
Arto Haara, Pekka Leskinen. (2009). The assessment of the uncertainty of updated stand-level inventory data. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 219. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.219
Predictions of growth and yield are essential in forest management planning. Growth predictions are usually obtained by applying complex simulation systems, whose accuracy is difficult to assess. Moreover, the computerised updating of old inventory data is increasing in the management of forest planning systems. A common characteristic of prediction models is that the uncertainties involved are usually not considered in the decision-making process. In this paper, two methods for assessing the uncertainty of updated forest inventory data were studied. The considered methods were (i) the models of observed errors and (ii) the k-nearest neighbour method. The derived assessments of uncertainty were compared with the empirical estimates of uncertainty. The practical utilisation of both methods was considered as well. The uncertainty assessments of updated stand-level inventory data using both methods were found to be feasible. The main advantages of the two studied methods include that bias as well as accuracy can be assessed.
  • Haara, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: arto.haara@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Leskinen, Finnish Environment Institute, Research Programme for Production and Consumption, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 237, category Research article
Jussi Peuhkurinen, Matti Maltamo, Jukka Malinen. (2008). Estimating species-specific diameter distributions and saw log recoveries of boreal forests from airborne laser scanning data and aerial photographs: a distribution-based approach. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 237. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.237
The low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS) data based estimation methods have been shown to produce accurate estimates of mean forest characteristics and diameter distributions, according to several studies. The used estimation methods have been based on the laser canopy height distribution approach, where various laser pulse height distribution -derived predictors are related to the stand characteristics of interest. This approach requires very delicate selection methods for selecting the suitable predictor variables. In this study, we introduce a new nearest neighbor search method that requires no complicated selection algorithm for choosing the predictor variables and can be utilized in multipurpose situations. The proposed search method is based on Minkowski distances between the distributions extracted from low density ALS data and aerial photographs. Apart from the introduction of a new search method, the aims of this study were: 1) to produce accurate species-specific diameter distributions and 2) to estimate factual saw log recovery, using the estimated height-diameter distributions and a stem data bank. The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for producing species-specific diameter distributions and volumes at the stand level. However, it is proposed, that the utilization of more extensive and locally emphasized reference data and auxiliary variables could yield more accurate saw log recoveries.
  • Peuhkurinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Malinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 486, category Research article
Arto Haara. (2003). Comparing simulation methods for modelling the errors of stand inventory data. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 486. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.486
Forest management planning requires information about the uncertainty inherent in the available data. Inventory data, including simulated errors, are infrequently utilised in forest planning studies for analysing the effects of uncertainty on planning. Usually the errors in the source material are ignored or not taken into account properly. The aim of this study was to compare different methods for generating errors into the stand-level inventory data and to study the effect of erroneous data on the calculation of specieswise and standwise inventory results. The material of the study consisted of 1842 stands located in northern Finland and 41 stands located in eastern Finland. Stand-level ocular inventory and checking inventory were carried out in all study stands by professional surveyors. In simulation experiments the methods considered for error generation were the 1nn-method, the empirical errors method and the Monte Carlo method with log-normal and multivariate log-normal error distributions. The Monte Carlo method with multivariate error distributions was found to be the most flexible simulation method. This method produced the required variation and relations between the errors of the median basal area tree characteristics. However, if the reference data are extensive the 1nn-method, and in certain conditions also the empirical errors method, offer a useful tool for producing error structures which reflect reality.
  • Haara, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O.Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: arto.haara@metla.fi (email)
article id 522, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Matti Maltamo. (2002). Anticipating the variance of predicted stand volume and timber assortments with respect to stand characteristics and field measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.522
Several models and/or several variable combinations could be used to predict the diameter distribution of a stand. Typically, a fixed model and a fixed variable combination is used in all conditions. The calibration procedure, however, makes it possible to choose the measurement combination from among many possibilities, although the model used is fixed. In this study, the usefulness of utilizing additional stand characteristics for calibrating the predicted diameter distribution is examined. Nine measurement strategies were tested in predicting the total stand volume, sawlog volume and pulpwood volume. The observed errors of these variables under each strategy were modeled as a function of basal area, basal area median diameter and number of stems. The models were estimated in three steps. First, an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model was fitted to the observed errors. Then, a variance function was estimated using the OLS residuals. Finally, a weighted Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) analysis was used to model the observed errors, using the estimated variance functions as weights. The estimated models can be used to anticipate the precision and accuracy of predicted volume characteristics for each stand with different variable combinations and, consequently, to choose the best measurement combination in different stands.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Resources Management, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Maltamo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 643, category Research article
Pekka Eskelinen, Harri Eskelinen. (2000). A K-band microwave measuring system for the analysis of tree stems. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 643. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.643
The internal structure of growing trees and freshly cut logs can be characterized in real time by analysing the transmission and reflection of Ku- or K-band microwave energy injected with a horizontal polarization towards the material. Information about the moisture content, material bends, number and location of knots and sections of spoiled wood e.g. due to insects can be gathered in real time. Most sensitive test parameters are attenuation, group delay and the rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront. A simultaneous recording of reflection reduces errors caused by non-significant surface deformations. The spatial resolution, humidity equalization and noise immunity can be improved by applying a wideband frequency modulation. Commercial building blocks supplemented with a special antenna arrangement give possibilities also for the rough harvester environment.
  • Eskelinen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.eskelinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Eskelinen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 674, category Research article
Tuula Aalto. (1998). Carbon dioxide exchange of Scots pine shoots as estimated by a biochemical model and cuvette field measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.674
A biochemical model was used to calculate CO2 fluxes to Scots pine shoots in two boreal measurement stations, Hyytiälä in southern Finland (61°51’N, 24°17’E) and Värriö in northern Finland (67°46’N, 29°35’E). The results of the model were compared with cuvette measurements performed in field conditions. A differential equation for change in gas concentration inside a closed cuvette was constructed and solved in order to obtain conductances and fluxes. The results were generally in a good agreement, the correlation coefficients varied from 0.74 to 0.95. Some discrepancies were also found. The model followed more intensively changes in temperature. This could be seen in northern Finland measurements at low temperatures (< 18 °C). The modelled temperature response indicated low fluxes at low temperatures, but measurements did not show any decrease. The irradiation response was relatively similar in both measuring sites and according to the model. Cuvette measurements showed slightly smaller quantum yields as a result from shading of the needles. The temperature dependences of the biochemical model parameters Jmax and Vc(max) were re-evaluated from the field measurements. The results for Vc(max) agreed well with earlier estimations, while the results for Jmax indicated relatively high values at low temperatures especially in northern Finland. Exponential fitting produced also substomatal concentrations of CO2, which agreed quite well with the model. The daily minimum of substomatal/ambient concentration ratio varied from 0.4 to 0.8.
  • Aalto, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 9, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.aalto@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 673, category Research article
Lauri Palva, Eero Garam, Sari Palmroth, Raimo Sepponen, Pertti Hari. (1998). Utilizing a multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation in photosynthetic studies within canopies. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.673
A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) has been constructed and operated within a Scots pine canopy. A regular grid of 800 measuring points has been incorporated into a cuvette to observe the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR incident on the needles of a twig along with simultaneous measurements of the CO2 exchange in order to determine the dependence of photosynthesis on PAR. It was shown that large errors can result if the photosynthetic rate is estimated using the mean value of PAR instead of the instantaneous values of PAR detected at given points in the region of the needles. The results demonstrate that the obtained regression between the CO2 exchange rate estimated using the multipoint PAR measuring system and the measured CO2 exchange rate is as good within a canopy as in unshaded conditions.
  • Palva, Helsinki University of Technology, Applied Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.palva@hut.fi (email)
  • Garam, Helsinki University of Technology, Applied Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmroth, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sepponen, Helsinki University of Technology, Applied Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1496, category Research note
Juha Lappi, Jaana Luoranen. (2016). Using a bivariate generalized linear mixed model to analyze the effect of feeding pressure on pine weevil damage. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1496. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1496
Highlights: Probability of damage of treated seedlings can be predicted from the probability of damage of control seedlings (feeding pressure).

The objective of the study is to derive a method by which one can analyze how the probability of damage made by pine weevils on seedlings treated with insecticides depends on the probability of damage on untreated control seedlings, called feeding pressure. Because the probabilities vary from stand to stand and from block to block, the analysis is done using a generalized linear mixed model. The dependency of probability of damage on the feeding pressure cannot be properly analyzed using observed relative frequency of damage of control seedlings as a covariate, but it can be analyzed using a bivariate model. One equation describes damage of control seedlings and another equation damage of treated seedlings. The random stand and block effects of different equations are correlated. For a given probability of stand level control seedling damage, the random stand effect for control seedlings can be computed using a link function, then random stand effects for treated seedlings can be predicted using the best linear predictor from the random effect for control seedlings. Using an inverse link the prediction can again be presented in the probability scale which is of interest to the user. Using these three steps the probability of damage of treated seedlings can be predicted from the control damage probability. The probability of damage of treated seedlings can also be predicted from the observed relative frequency of damaged control seedlings using simulation. The complementary log-log link was used for control seedlings and the log-log link for treated seedlings.

  • Lappi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.lappi@luke.fi (email)
  • Luoranen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@luke.fi

Category: Article

article id 7430, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1954). Paperipuurankojen mittauksen tarkkuudesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 18 article id 7430. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7430
English title: On the accuracy of measurements of pulpwood boles in Northern Finland.

The study examines the accuracy of volume tables for top measurement of pulpwood boles, and that of top measurement in general in Northern Finland. In this method only top diameter and length of the boles are measured, and the volume is obtained from volume tables. The boles have previously been measured in the middle of the bole, but the method is very time consuming in practice.

The result indicates that the form of both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) varies greatly. A pulpwood parcel, however, contains both rapidly and gently tapering logs, and the average form differences are much smaller. The difference between the real volume and the volume obtained from the volume tables is generally less than 12% and for more than third of the stock less than 4%.

Pine boles from private forests have been somewhat more and spruce boles less rapidly tapering than boles cut from state forests. The significance of the differences is not clear. Also, the boles in the northern part of the investigation area taper more sharply than those in the southern part.
It is concluded that the accuracy of the top measurement should be improved, but this is only theoretically possible by means of special tables and correction coefficients.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7430, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1954). Paperipuurankojen mittauksen tarkkuudesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 18 article id 7430. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7430
English title: On the accuracy of measurements of pulpwood boles in Northern Finland.

The study examines the accuracy of volume tables for top measurement of pulpwood boles, and that of top measurement in general in Northern Finland. In this method only top diameter and length of the boles are measured, and the volume is obtained from volume tables. The boles have previously been measured in the middle of the bole, but the method is very time consuming in practice.

The result indicates that the form of both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) varies greatly. A pulpwood parcel, however, contains both rapidly and gently tapering logs, and the average form differences are much smaller. The difference between the real volume and the volume obtained from the volume tables is generally less than 12% and for more than third of the stock less than 4%.

Pine boles from private forests have been somewhat more and spruce boles less rapidly tapering than boles cut from state forests. The significance of the differences is not clear. Also, the boles in the northern part of the investigation area taper more sharply than those in the southern part.
It is concluded that the accuracy of the top measurement should be improved, but this is only theoretically possible by means of special tables and correction coefficients.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7419, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1954). Über die Ursachen der Massunterschiede beim Ausfuhrpapierholz. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 7 article id 7419. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7419
English title: On the reasons for differences in the measurements of exported pulpwood.
Original keywords: Papierholz; Export; Ausfuhr; Abmessung; Messen
English keywords: pulpwood; paper wood; export; measurement

Exported wood is measured at the port in Finland by certified measurers. Wood is paid according to these measuring certificates. However, in many cases the buyer measures the wood again in the country of destination, and gets smaller amounts. This sometimes causes awkward situations.

To examine the phenomenon one lot of pulpwood was measured both in Finland and in the destination country Germany. Several differences were found for the amounts of wood, and the author discussed the possible reasons for these differences.

However, because of the possible scattering in the measurements, several reductions are always made to the measurements. Hence it was proved that the buyer got the amount of wood they paid for. It is clear that the current practices and tools used to measure the amount of wood do not allow for any more accurate measures.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Special section

article id 287, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Juha Heikkinen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Stratification of regional sampling by model-predicted changes of carbon stocks in forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 287. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.287
Monitoring changes in soil C has recently received interest due to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. Model-based approaches to estimate changes in soil C stocks exist, but they cannot fully replace repeated measurements. Measuring changes in soil C is laborious due to small expected changes and large spatial variation. Stratification of soil sampling allows the reduction of sample size without reducing precision. If there are no previous measurements, the stratification can be made with model-predictions of target variable. Our aim was to present a simulation-based stratification method, and to estimate how much stratification of inventory plots could improve the efficiency of the sampling. The effect of large uncertainties related to soil C change measurements and simulated predictions was targeted since they may considerably decrease the efficiency of stratification. According to our simulations, stratification can be useful with a feasible soil sample number if other uncertainties (simulated predictions and forecasted forest management) can be controlled. For example, the optimal (Neyman) allocation of plots to 4 strata with 10 soil samples from each plot (unpaired repeated sampling) reduced the standard error (SE) of the stratified mean by 9–34% from that of simple random sampling, depending on the assumptions of uncertainties. When the uncertainties of measurements and simulations were not accounted for in the division to strata, the decreases of SEs were 2–9 units less. Stratified sampling scheme that accounts for the uncertainties in measured material and in the correlates (simulated predictions) is recommended for the sampling design of soil C stock changes.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi

Category: Article

article id 5526, category Article
Pertti. Hari, Pasi Aalto, Kaarle Hämeri, Markku. Kulmala, Tapani. Lahti, Sari. Luoma, Lauri Palva, Toivo Pohja, Erkki. Pulliainen, Erkki. Siivola, Timo Vesala. (1994). Air pollution in eastern Lapland : challenge for an environmental measurement station. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9160

The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurement started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aalto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hämeri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kulmala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luoma, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siivola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vesala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5340, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1988). Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15497

A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of fabric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radiogram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5156, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkaluotaukseen perustuva metsäautotien kantavuuden arvioimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15071
English title: Predicting the bearing capacity of forest roads using a radar sounding.

Good correlation between radar reflection depth when using a FM-CW radar during winter and bearing capacity measurements during spring breakup was found. Therefore, it might be possible to evaluate the bearing capacity of forest roads using the radar sounding technique.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5148, category Article
A. Hautojärvi, S. Ahonen, R. Erkinjuntti, H.-S. Katainen, T. Lappalainen, T. Raunemaa. (1981). Surface concentration of sulphur on Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15375

A method to determine sulphur as sulphate has been applied to search for surface concentration of sulphate sulphur on needle samples. The method is based on reducing sulphates as volatile hydrogen sulphide gas by using hydriodic acid. The hydrogen sulphide gas is swept with nitrogen into an absorbent solution. Sulphide ion concentration in solution is then measured using ion selective electrodes.

The method was applied on one to four years old needle samples collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at 0.9 to 15.9 km distances from a 1,064 MW coal-fired power plant in Southern Finland. Surface sulphate values found in the samples closer than 4 km to the power plant were 50 to 100% higher than a nearly constant background level. No significant variation of values with needle age was found. The advantages of the method compares to other methods for sulphur determination are speed, reasonable sensitivity and low detection limit.

  • Hautojärvi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erkinjuntti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lappalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raunemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5019, category Article
Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Olavi Luukkanen, Paavo Pelkonen, Raimo Salminen, Heikki Smolander. (1979). An automatic system for measurements of gas exchange and environmental factors in a forest stand, with special reference to measuring principles. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14873

A system for measuring the net photosynthesis, transpiration and environmental factors within the canopy and ground cover vegetation is described. The system operates continuously throughout the growing season in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A data-logging unit controls the system and carries out the measurements on the readings of the sensors of photosynthesis, transpiration, light intensity outside the canopy, light climate inside the assimilation chambers, and dry and wet temperatures from selected points. These measurements are shown digitally and automatically punched onto paper tape.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pelkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4554, category Article
Ahti Mecklin. (1939). Lainsäädäntö puutavaran mittauksesta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4554. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13961
English title: Timber measurement legislation.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the Timber Measurement Act, adopted in 1938, and its application.

  • Mecklin, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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