Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsänomistajat'.

Category: Article

article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.

Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4914, category Article
Antero Piha. (1975). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain syntyvaiheet. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4914. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14758
English title: The creation of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations passed in 1950.

The paper, which was written already at the turn of the year 1950–51, gives a quite detailed description of the early history of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations, which was passed on 17 November 1950 and is still in force, of the long-lasting and multifarious preparations involved with it, and of its consideration in the parliament. In most parties there were both supporters and opponents; only the social democrats voted harmoniously for the act and the people’s democrats against it.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4887, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1973). Metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa sovelletut tutkimusotteet. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4887. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14725
English title: Research approaches applied in the Finnish studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

The methodological choices of researchers are in general based on some research strategic preferences which originate from the prevailing tradition of the special research field. »Econometric» and »positivistic» approaches commit to the ideals of natural sciences whereas the hermeneutic approach represents the tradition of humanities. The explicit formulation and consideration of the philosophical and methodological commitments of the different research strategies may facilitate the discussion on the applicability of different methods of analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4885, category Article
Ilpo Tikkanen. (1973). Metsäpoliittisten toimenpiteiden vaikuttavuus. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4885. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14722
English title: Effectiveness of policy measures as applied to small woodlands.

The paper deals with the methodological problems concerning policy planning and evaluation in small woodlands. A methodological approach to effectiveness of forest policy measures calls, according to the author, for using a frame of reference formed by general economic theory and models of forest owners’ behaviour. Thus, it is important for the selection of forest policy means, and for evaluating the likely effects of a policy, to know the behaviour of the decision makers being influenced. The use of models of forest owners’ behaviour in planning forest policy is motivated by the fact that measures must often affect the woodlot through the owners’ decision making.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tikkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4852, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1971). Vähäsen faktorianalyysistä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4852. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14654
English title: Some aspects concerning the use of factor analysis.

Among the users of factor analysis there seems to be a tendency to extend the use of this method to tasks where it suits poorly. It is therefore important to emphasise at least the following aspects: 1) More critical attention should be paid to problems of interpretation especially at situations where method is aimed at analysing the causal relationships among the variables; 2) The study problem should be stated so clearly as to make it plausible to evaluate the suitability of factor model to the problem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4851, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1971). Pieni panos keskusteluun faktorianalyysista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4851. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14653
English title: A contribution to discussion on the application of factor analysis.

A hypothetic problem is outlined as an example of the type of problem to which factor analysis should not be applied. Apart from this, attention is paid to industrialisation, a concept characterised by several variables, none of which can be held constant while analysing its influence on attitudes by multi-variable cross-tabulation techniques.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4850, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1971). Faktorianalyysi metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4850. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14652
English title: Use of factor analysis in the studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

Some alternative ways of using factor analysis in the field of forest owners’ behaviour are explored in the article, in the light of two new Finnish publications. The philosophical and mathematical propertied of factor analysis are often considered too restrictive, and thus its applicability to different fields too limited. A good knowledge of the method and the subject matter theories seems to be an important prerequisite for a successful application of factor analysis. Otherwise the researcher is too dependent on the general recommendations concerning the use of factor analysis and cannot fit its use in his special situation and the whole methodological setting of the study.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindroos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pesonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7591, category Article
Heikki Juslin. (1977). Yksityismetsänomistajien puunmyyntiasenteisiin vaikuttaminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 157 article id 7591. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7591
English title: Influencing private forest owners’ attitudes towards timber sales.

The purpose of the study was to produce information which is needed when planning the influencing the timber sales propensity of private forest owners. The study deals with the relations between communication behaviour and cutting behaviour as well as the attitudes and norms connected with them. On the basis of the results of this study, the choice of psychodynamic model can be recommended as a main strategy of influencing the timber sales propensity of forest owners. The paper gives the information basis for the choice of channels and messages of influencing.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Juslin, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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