Current issue: 53(1)

Under compilation: 53(2)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsäntutkimus'.

Category: Article

article id 7501, category Article
Eric Appelroth. (1959). Käytännön metsämiehen ajatuksia metsätieteestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 11 article id 7501. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7501
English title: Practice and science of forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomi
English keywords: forest research; Finland

This article is a discusses development of forest research to its present stage. The writer points out that of all different branches of industry, forestry is probably the one most based on practical experience, as it is not until recently implied in discriminate exploitation of available natural resources. In addition, until recently job performances in forestry were essentially based on the muscular strength and acquired skills of the individual worker. Until the eighteenth century the tenor of scientific thought was alien to a domain like forestry. Prior to that time, science meant jurisprudence, theology and philosophy. After Linnaeus science experienced a time of expansion. Since then, the contact between science and forestry has developed along two different lines. First, forest has attracted the interest of biologists. Second, where forestry has been unsuccessful in solving its own problems, the need has arisen for theoretical investigations.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 12.

  • Appelroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7497, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Metsäteknologinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 7 article id 7497. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7497
English title: Survey of forest technology research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 8.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7493, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Metsänhoitotieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1901-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 3 article id 7493. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7493
English title: Silvicultural research in Finland from 1901 to 1959 .
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomi

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.  

Forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management. 

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 4. 

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7491, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran ensimmäinen puolivuosisata. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 1 article id 7491. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7491
English title: The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland .

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.  

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 Finnish marks. 

The history of the the Finnish Society of Forest Science is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 2.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7412, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1954). Professori Eino Saari 60-vuotias. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. I article id 7412. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7412
English title: Commemorative publication to celebrate the 60th anniversary of professor Eino Saari.

The article summarises the career of Eino Saari, professor of forest economics at the University of Helsinki on his 60th anniversary. He is the founder of forest economics research in Finland, and has developed the theory of forest balance. He abandoned the traditional static view of the forest balance and developed a new dynamic conception.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday. 

The PDF includes a summary in English and Swedish.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7341, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1938). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1934-1937. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 7341. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7341
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1934‒1937. In the meetings of the society were held 30 presentations which are listed and shortly summarized in the article.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7318, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1932-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 7318. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7318
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1932‒1934. In the meetings of the society were held four presentations which are shortly summarized in the article.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7300, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1934). Metsänviljelysmenetelmiä koskevista tutkimuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 23 article id 7300. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7300
English title: Research on forest regeneration methods.

The article is a review on the research about forest regeneration in Finland, executed in the Forest Research Institute. The climate affects the results of different regeneration methods. Thus, sample plots have been established in different parts of the country. In 1933 there was a total of 386 sample plots around the country. To compare the effect of weather conditions in the regeneration, sample plots have been established in successive years. Other conditions that affect forest regeneration are soil, forest site type, tree species, time from the felling of the stand, and tending of the seedling stand. Of the 386 sample plots 245 were planting experiments and 141 sowing experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7279, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1934). Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 7279. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7279
English title: Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustyön kehittäminen.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus
English keywords: ; forest sciences; forest research

The article outlines the further development of forest research work in Finland. It was realized from the beginning that forest sciences in Finland should be grounded on own work, relying on other sciences that had similar objectives. For instance, silvicultural sciences can benefit from phytogeography, plant ecology and soil sciences.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7278, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Neljännesvuosisata Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toimintaa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 7278. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7278
English title: A quarter of a century with the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences was established in 1908 to promote forest research in the country. It was deemed that the progress of Finnish forestry required forest research adapted to the local conditions. The article describes the establishment, first years of the society and the consolidation of its role and activities. The operation, finances and the society is described.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7271, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1933). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1930-1932. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 5 article id 7271. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7271
English title: Activities of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932.
The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1930‒1932. In the meetings of the society were held 32 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers.
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7262, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1930). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta vv. 1920-1930. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 7262. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7262
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930.

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1920‒1930. In the meetings of the society were held 108 presentations, which are included in the article. The topics of the presentations are listed by the name of the speakers and by the topics.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5396, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1989). Uuteen maatalous- ja metsäakatemiaan. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5396. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15554
English title: Towards new agriculture and forest academy .

This paper is a commentary which summarises the history of the Finnish Society of Forest Science and its connection to the corresponding society in the field of agriculture, the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland. The original idea when the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland was founded was that the society would function as a scientific society for both forest scientists and agronomists. However, A.K. Cajander founded a separate academy for forest sciences. The article discusses the implications of this decision. 

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15522
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5242, category Article
Suomen tilastoseura, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1985). Metsien inventoinnin tilastolliset menetelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15421
English title: Statistical methods in forest inventory.

At a joint meeting of the Finnish Statistical Society and the Society of Forestry in Finland on 17.10.1984, papers were presented on the history and mathematical foundations of statistical methods used in forest inventory in Finland. The advantages and applicability of Bayresian methods and methods of spatial statistics were also discussed. In two papers, forest inventories were examined as part of a forest information system and the information demands of the user were discussed.

This article includes eight presentation held in the meeting. The papers have each a summary in English.

  • Suomen tilastoseura, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5230, category Article
Erkki Kaila. (1985). Havaintojen käsittely ja aineiston muodostus metsäntutkimuksen tiedonhallinnan näkökulmasta. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5230. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15409
English title: Observation manipulation and data matrix derivation from the viewpoint of data management.

Data management is pointed out as a phase of research process. It covers research activities from observation recording to data matrix derivation. Some concepts of logical and physical database implementation are introduced.

The TUTKA -software system is introduced and observed as an instrument of research data management. Attention is paid to TUTKA’s five design criteria. Database implementation and use with TUTKA are observed precisely. Three different phases of implementing a data base are specified. Finally, some aspects to the data management of forest research are presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5203, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1984). Viitteiden käyttö Suomen metsäntutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5203. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15382
English title: The use of references in Finnish forest sciences.

The purpose of this study was to examine the use or citations in Finnish forestry publications using source analysis. The material consisted of three of the four main series published in the field of forestry in Finland. The study was confined to three sample years in the middle of each decade during the period of 1910–1980.

The use of references in Finnish forestry sciences was abundant: from 30 to 60 references per report and from 1.1 to 1.7 references per page. The amount of self-citations varied from 6 to 9%. The half-time of the references was, in general, very long varying from 8–12 years in forest economics to 14–17 years in silviculture and forest biology. The amount of ”classical” publications was 4–11%. The amount to Finnish references was large varying from 30 to 59%. Anglo-Saxon series made 22–24%, Scandinavian 11–13%, German 7–9%, Russian 1–3% and French series less than one per cent of all references.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5184, category Article
Annikki Karjalainen, Lauri Hyväkkä, Sini Kärki-Folkersma. (1983). Metsätieteellisen kirjallisuuden haku atk-tiedostoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5184. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15100
English title: Experiences of some bibliographic databases in forestry.

The usefulness of some international bibliographic databases for Finnish forest researchers was studied. In this study, 26 gratis online searches from one or more databases was made. The searches were carried out using mainly AGRICOLA, BIOSIS and CAB databases. The most used database was CAB, which includes Forestry Abstracts. The relevance of the references retrieved was evaluated by the users. Recall, precision, novelty and overlap of the references were measured. The users evaluated the results and costs of their search. Some previous comparable studies are reviewed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyväkkä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärki-Folkersma, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5160, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1982). Metsäpuiden populaatiogenetiikka. Helsingissä 1981 pidetyn symposion tutkimusraportit. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 2 article id 5160. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15075
English title: Population genetics of forest trees.

The publication comprises proceedings of a conference held in Helsinki in 1981. Forest tree populations are investigated for population genetic structure, mating systems, mechanisms of genetic adaptation and ecological adaptation. Methods and techniques used in population genetic research of forest trees are presented. Much concern is given to applications by means of forest tree breeding, particularly the seed orchard breeding technique. Generally, the application of population genetics in cultivated forests is discussed.

The PDF includes a preface and the presentations of the conference (25 short papers) in English, and a comprehensive summary of the themes of the conference in Finnish.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5158, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1982). Miten metsää tulisi tutkia. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5158. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15073
English title: How forests should be studied in the future. Seminar on the research policy of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The purpose of the seminar, arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science, was to instigate discussions which would bring up new approaches and research methods for studying forestry problems from both the biotechnical and socio-economical fields. Six papers were presented and over 70 opinions aired at the seminar.

The following points were considered especially important from the point of view of the promotion of forestry research

- Improving contacts between forestry and other branches of science and increasing international exchange of ideas and results.

- Improving the effectiveness of research work through sound planning

- Promotion and gaining benefit from diverse forms of research.

- Arranging the further education of researchers in order to improve the professional standards of researchers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7038, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta v. 1917-1920. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 5 article id 7038. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7038
English title: Activities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1917-1920.
English keywords: forest sciences

The article includes the minutes of the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences in 1917-1920. In the meetings of the society were held 39 presentations which are included in the article.

The PDF includes a German summary.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5090, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Raili Voipio. (1980). Suomalainen haapa- ja poppelilajeja (Populus) koskeva kirjallisuus 1759...1979. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5090. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15031
English title: Finnish literature on aspen and poplar species (genus Populus), 1759–1979.

The first Finnish paper on aspen (Populus tremula L.) was published in 1759 in Åbo (Turku). After this dissertation, numerous scientific and other articles and reports have been published. In this bibliography about 340 papers are listed. Most of the papers deal only with aspen or other species of the genus Populus. Besides these even those articles have been included which deal with other problems but contain some information on the features of poplars.

The titles are listed without any translation or classification. If an article has a summary, it is shown in the title.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Voipio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

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  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5050, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen ulkomaiset yhteydet. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14907
English title: International contacts of Finnish forest research.

The article describes various forms of international contacts in the Finnish forestry research and emphasizes the importance of this cooperation. The relatively small additional resources required to maintain contacts should be safeguarded. When considering the ways in which international contacts could be strengthened, coordination with the aims of the public and private sectors is needed.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5028, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). MAB 2-projekti metsäbiologisen tutkimustyön tulosten hyödyntäjänä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5028. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14884
English title: Benefits of MAB Project 2 by the research work on forest biology in Finland.

MAB Project 2 concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests with no special consideration to any particular research field. At the same time as the swift development of research methods has brought the natural sciences and forest biology very near to each other, the circle of users of research results in forest biology has widened to include area and city planners etc. In Finland, the main role of MAB Project 2 is to promote mutual exchange between the users and producers of research results in forest biology and to facilitate both national and international co-operation between all research workers and organizations interested in this field.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4971, category Article
Aulis E. Hakkarainen. (1977). Metsäteollisuuden tutkimus- ja kehittämistoiminta metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4971. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14822
  • Hakkarainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4968, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1977). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran metsäntutkimuksen suuntautumista ja tiedonvälitystä koskeva seminaari. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4968. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14819
English title: Seminar on the targets of forestry research and communication, arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science on March 1977.

The Finnish Society of Forest Science arranged on 16 March 1977 a seminar where targets of forestry research and communication were discussed by scientists, as well as publicists and users of scientific information. This paper includes summaries of some of the speeches and the reports of the workshops. The theme of the seminar was Forest science and practice – Do we understand each other?

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4967, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1977). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran tiedepoliittinen periaateohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4967. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14818
English title: Science policy agenda of the Finnish Society of Forest Science.

The paper introduces the science policy agenda of the Finnish Society of Forest Science that defines the role of the society and the principals that are required from research work.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4945, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen, Jan Heino. (1976). Metsien moninaiskäytön tutkimusaiheita. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4945. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14791
English title: Research topics of multiple-use forestry.

The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into research problems and themes in multiple use of forests from a practical viewpoint. An inquiry concerning multiple use problems was sent to 597 organizations whose work related to multiple use of forests. Replies yielded 1,857 suggested research themes which were divided between different uses of forests. About half of the suggestions concerned the relations between timber production and the other uses of forests. The many propositions are due to the fact that timber production in its intensity has strong influence on the other uses of forests. The results of the study have been used in the planning of research in the multiple use of forests.

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  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4942, category Article
Esko Jaatinen, Olli Saastamoinen. (1976). Metsien moninaiskäyttötutkimuksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4942. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14788
English title: Multiple use of forests: basic research tasks.

The article is a summary of a long-term research programme which has been prepared at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The objective of the programme was to define and subdivide the field of multiple use research to be done at the institute, and so improve both the research planning and the coordination of the work in this field between the different research departments.

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  • Jaatinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4942, category Article
Esko Jaatinen, Olli Saastamoinen. (1976). Metsien moninaiskäyttötutkimuksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4942. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14788
English title: Multiple use of forests: basic research tasks.

The article is a summary of a long-term research programme which has been prepared at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The objective of the programme was to define and subdivide the field of multiple use research to be done at the institute, and so improve both the research planning and the coordination of the work in this field between the different research departments.

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  • Jaatinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4935, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1976). Metsätyötieteen asema metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa ja tohtori Mikko Kantola. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4935. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14780
English title: On the status of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute; a comment to professor Mikko Kantola.

This paper includes the answer of professor Pentti Hakkila for professor Mikko Kantola who in this issue of Silva Fennica gives some critical points on professor Hakkila’s earlier article (Silva Fennica vol. 9, no. 4 in 1975) on the status and future prospects of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. He emphasises that the worry about the forest work reseach presented in his earlier article was not directed towards the research work but towards the financing of forest work science in Finland.

  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4934, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1976). Lisänäkökohtia metsätyötieteen asemasta ja tulevaisuuden näkymistä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4934. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14779
English title: Viewpoint on the status and future prospects of forest work science.

This article is a comment on a previous article in Silva Fennica (vol. 9, no.4) published in 1975, written by professor Pentti Hakkila, titled ‘The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute’. It aims at giving some further aspects on the choice of research fields and subjects, and the concepts of result, opinion and research work.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4933, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1976). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran tutkijaseminaari "Tavoitteellisuus ja metsäntutkimus" 15.1. 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14777
English title: Research seminar on goal orientation and forest sciences arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science on January 1976.

The Finnish Society of Forest Science arranged on 15 January 1976 a research seminar concentrating on forest research policy under a theme of goal orientation and forest sciences. About 70 interested persons participated the day-long seminar. This paper includes the speeches and their summaries, and couple of examples of the results of the workshops.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4929, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1976). Havaintoja Neuvostoliiton metsäntutkimuksesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4929. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14771
English title: Observations on forest research in the USSR.

The main forest research institutes in USSR as well as schools for higher education in forestry are presented in this article, on the basis of observations made during study tours and the relevant literature. Research in forest genetics, tree physiology and related fields i stressed. The State Forestry Committee leads the regional units of forestry administration and also governs a number of research institutes. Among these, the All-Union Forest Research Institute near Moscow has a central position. Regional institutes as well as those specializing in a particular field within forest research may belong to this category, too. Basic research, on the other hand, is conducted under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Agricultural Sciences or academies of sciences of the Soviet republics. This type of institute also includes those devoted purely to forestry. Forest education at the university level takes place in schools usually called institutes of forest technology.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

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  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

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  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4917, category Article
Tuomas Heiramo. (1975). Metsätieteellisten tutkimusjulkaisujen lukijatutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4917. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14761
English title: Readership study concerning scientific forestry publications.

The aim of the study was to assess the use and importance of forestry publications issued by the Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in disseminating research information. Another goal is to obtain information required for planning publication policy. The material was collected by means of two postal inquiries. For the first of these, a sample of 200 subscribers was taken from the mailing lists of the publication series in question. Similarly, for the second inquiry a sample of 100 professional foresters was drawn from the membership registers of the Union of Finnish Foresters and of the Union of Forest Technicians, respectively. The reply percentage of the subscribers was 72 and that of the professional foresters 64. The publication series most actively read proved to be Folia Forestalia, which was also estimated to be of the best quality. Differences between the various publication series in relation to properties studied were not very great.

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  • Heiramo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4898, category Article
L. E. Mikhailov. (1974). Neuvostoliiton metsäntutkimuksen organisaatio ja kehityssuunnat. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4898. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14742
English title: Organizations and development trends of forest research in the Soviet Union.

Forest research in the U.S.S.R. aims for increased productivity, improvements in timber quality and forest protection, and for better understanding of the environmental impacts of forests. Research institutes are organized under the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, the State Committee of Forestry, the Forestry Committees of the Soviet Republics, or under some other institutions. Direct government subsidies as well as economic support from production enterprises are available as funding for these institutes. International cooperation in forest research, especially among the S.E.V. countries is strongly emphasized. As regards other countries, the well-established program for mutual exchange for forestry information and forest researchers with Finland should be mentioned.

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  • Mikhailov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4887, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1973). Metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa sovelletut tutkimusotteet. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4887. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14725
English title: Research approaches applied in the Finnish studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

The methodological choices of researchers are in general based on some research strategic preferences which originate from the prevailing tradition of the special research field. »Econometric» and »positivistic» approaches commit to the ideals of natural sciences whereas the hermeneutic approach represents the tradition of humanities. The explicit formulation and consideration of the philosophical and methodological commitments of the different research strategies may facilitate the discussion on the applicability of different methods of analysis.

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  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7015, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1917). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran toiminta v. 1909-1917. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 7015. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7015
English title: The activities of Finnish Society of Forest Science in 1909-1917.

The Finnish Society of Forest Research was established in 1909 to promote research in forest and wood science in Finland. This article contains the minutes of the meetings of the society in 1909-1917, which could not be published earlier due to lack of funding. The minutes include also part of the presentations held in the meetings, 97 in all. Some of the presentations have been published elsewhere, and they are not included in the article.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4878, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1973). Vuonna 1972 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4878. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14711
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1972.

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1975 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4873, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Sisällysluettelo sarjoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 4 article id 4873. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14680
English title: Indices to series Acta Forestalia Fennica 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) publishes two series: Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica. Outside these publications there are even other publications: the bibliography of Finnish forestry literature until 1933, Bibliographia Universalis Silviculturae, Paris I–II, 1967–70, and Research in Forestry and Wood Science in Finland. This paper is a bibliography of the publications, the issues of Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

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  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4867, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Näkökohta keskimääräisestä tuotoksesta metsätyötieteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4867. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14670
English title: A point of view on the average output in forest work science.

The paper deals with the concepts of time consumption and output in forest work science. When output is defined as the inverse of time consumption and vice versa, it is possible to show the important consequences in probability functions. For instance, it is not the same if the dependent variable in a regression analysis is output or time consumption. Also, the average differ depending on if they are based on the time consumption figures or on the average output.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4862, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Vuonna 1971 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4862. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14665
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1971.

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1971 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4852, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1971). Vähäsen faktorianalyysistä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4852. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14654
English title: Some aspects concerning the use of factor analysis.

Among the users of factor analysis there seems to be a tendency to extend the use of this method to tasks where it suits poorly. It is therefore important to emphasise at least the following aspects: 1) More critical attention should be paid to problems of interpretation especially at situations where method is aimed at analysing the causal relationships among the variables; 2) The study problem should be stated so clearly as to make it plausible to evaluate the suitability of factor model to the problem.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4851, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1971). Pieni panos keskusteluun faktorianalyysista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4851. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14653
English title: A contribution to discussion on the application of factor analysis.

A hypothetic problem is outlined as an example of the type of problem to which factor analysis should not be applied. Apart from this, attention is paid to industrialisation, a concept characterised by several variables, none of which can be held constant while analysing its influence on attitudes by multi-variable cross-tabulation techniques.

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  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4837, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1971). Vuonna 1970 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4837. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14626
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1970.

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1970 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4814, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1970). Vuonna 1969 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4814. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14603
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1969.

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1969 in four scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4797, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1969). Pohjoismaiden yhteistyö metsäntutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4797. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14583
English title: Inter-Scandinavian research in forestry.

Nordiska skogsarbetsstudiernas råd (NSR, Council for Inter-Scandinavian Research in Forest Work Science) is the most developed organization in this field. It has only research institute members. The council started in 1953 and has since then had meetings and working groups. Among the latter, an Inter-Scandinavian and British wood nomenclature was created. In 1969 the organization will start a number of joint investigations, two of them in Finland, concerning utilization of waste wood and transport difficulties in forest terrain. Sweden will study branching, Norway relations between men and machines and Denmark broadleaved tree cutting and hauling.

Economists have since 1958 had an Inter-Scandinavian Seminar for Forest Economists (Nordiskt skogsekonomiskt Seminar, NSS), which has only personal members. Also, Inter-Scandinavian forest congresses have been held every fourth year since 1923, in which also research results have been presented.

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  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4796, category Article
Eino Saari. (1969). Kansainvälinen yhteistoiminta metsäntutkimuksen alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4796. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14582
English title: International co-operation in forest research work.

This paper gives an overview on international organizations involved with forestry and forest research. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFFRO) was named in a congress in Stockholm in 1929, but the organization has its roots in a German association of forest experiment stations founded in 1872. IUFRO is a non-governmental organization with research institutes as members. As it has no permanent centre, and no own research institutes, its opportunities for carrying out actual research work are limited. A reorganization is being planned.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, has a division for forestry and forest industries. FAO is a governmental organization for international policy in agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and forestry, and not meant for research work. It has nevertheless been compelled to carry out a great deal of research work, particularly in projects that have proved impossible for other organs. The Timber Trend Studies are the best known in the field of forestry.

World Forestry Congresses are occasions where all kinds of forestry problems can be discussed, and they have also stimulated research work. The first International Forestry Congress was held in 1926 in Rome, but several other international forestry congresses have been arranged since 1873.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4794, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1969). Valtion laitosten ulkopuolella tapahtuvan metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4794. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14580
English title: Development of forest research outside the state-owned institutes.

In addition to the research carried out by the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Forest Research Institute, and the State Committee for Agriculture and Forestry, applied forest research is performed in Finland by the Forest department of the Work Efficiency Association, Metsäteho, the Forest Work Study Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries, the Logging Technical Office of the State Board of Forestry (today the Development Section of the Organization Bureau), and Uittoteho, research body for floating questions in Northern Finland.

These establishments are concerned chiefly with the development of and experimentation with working methods, tools and machines in wood harvesting and with the analysis of wage and payment bases for timber preparation and haulage jobs.

An endeavour has been made to coordinate the forest technological research in these institutes and the University of Helsinki and the Forest Research Institute. Each institute is presented in a cooperation organ formed by the Society of Forestry in Finland. This organ also functions as the Finnish section of Nordiska Skogsarbetsstudiernas Råd (NSR). These bodies agree about the division of the research tasks and discuss the research programmes jointly.

In addition, some foundations give notable support to forest research, in particular the Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding, Foundation for Research of Natural Resources in Finland, and SITRA, the Fund for the Jubilee Year 1967 of Finland’s Independence.

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  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

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  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4792, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1969). Yliopiston ja metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tutkijain yhteistoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4792. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14578
English title: Co-operation between research workers at the university and Forest Research Institute.

The paper discusses the cooperation between the research workers of the Forestry Departments, University of Helsinki, and of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Although the fusion of these institutes might even seem to be justified in order to guarantee a coordination of the research work, no drawbacks exist in the present organization which could not be removed with cooperation.

In fact, cooperation has hitherto taken place in many forms both in teaching and research: working groups in the various branches of research have recently prepared a program for the development of research (Silva Fennica 1:4; 1967), leading scientists of the Institute act as lecturers at the University and some university teachers as associate researchers at the Institute.

On the other hand, in some cases lack of cooperation may have led to uncertainty and inconvenience of practical forestry. Therefore, a better system of information between scientists should be created and the continuity of cooperation strengthened. In conferences between the university and institute people, development work within the various fields of research should be cleared up with a long-range aim. The conference day of the scientists in the beginning of each year is mentioned as one possibility to start the cooperation.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4792, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1969). Yliopiston ja metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tutkijain yhteistoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4792. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14578
English title: Co-operation between research workers at the university and Forest Research Institute.

The paper discusses the cooperation between the research workers of the Forestry Departments, University of Helsinki, and of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Although the fusion of these institutes might even seem to be justified in order to guarantee a coordination of the research work, no drawbacks exist in the present organization which could not be removed with cooperation.

In fact, cooperation has hitherto taken place in many forms both in teaching and research: working groups in the various branches of research have recently prepared a program for the development of research (Silva Fennica 1:4; 1967), leading scientists of the Institute act as lecturers at the University and some university teachers as associate researchers at the Institute.

On the other hand, in some cases lack of cooperation may have led to uncertainty and inconvenience of practical forestry. Therefore, a better system of information between scientists should be created and the continuity of cooperation strengthened. In conferences between the university and institute people, development work within the various fields of research should be cleared up with a long-range aim. The conference day of the scientists in the beginning of each year is mentioned as one possibility to start the cooperation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4790, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kuudes vuosikymmen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4790. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14576
English title: The sixth decade of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) was founded in 1909. A comprehensive history of the society has been published earlier (Acta Forestalia Fennica 40) which covers the first 50 years of is activity. The tasks of the Society are to work for the development of forestry research in Finland and to be a link between research workers in the field of forestry.

This article summarises the activity with regards of the meetings during the 60th year of the Society, and the two scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica, it publishes. The characteristics of the development of the publishing activity has been its’ becoming livelier and a shortening of the studies published. In 1960s funds have been granted for the execution of even larger projects. The Society has also treated many questions within the field of policy of science.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4789, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Metsäntutkimus Suomessa ennen ja nyt. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4789. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14575
English title: Earlier and present forestry research in Finland.

The article gives an account of the organization of research work, which was started in the 18th century at the Academy of Turku. It was later developed in the times of the Forest Institute at Evo, founded in 1862, but it was not until the highest forestry education was transferred to the University of Helsinki in 1908 that it got a more compact form. In 1909 the Finnish Society of Forestry was founded and in 1918, the Finnish Forest Research Institute. In addition, a number of special institutes and organizations have been established.

At first the number of different branches was small, but the number of fields has multiplied until the present day. The article describes development that has taken place within the fields of forest biology, silviculture, forest protection, soil science, peatland forestry, forest mensuration, forest management, forest technology, forest economics, and multiple-use forestry.

Development was promoted by the organization of research work and its division into branches. Improvement of vehicles used in collection of study material as well as of the equipment used for this purpose and for handling the material have been important for the development. Funds for research have increased. Contacts with other fields of science and participation in international research work, especially through IUFRO, team work and schooling new scientists, have been influential. In 1960 a State committee appointed for further development of forestry research presented a plan to this end.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4763, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1968). Vuonna 1967 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4763. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14547
English title: Forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967.

The paper lists the papers of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967 by the scientific series Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4757, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Suomen metsäntutkimus ja sen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4757. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14541
English title: Forestry research in Finland and its further development.

In 1965, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) appointed five working groups representing various fields of forestry to get a general view of the present stage and future need of development of forestry research. The present paper gives a summary of the reports prepared by the working groups and presents some suggestions concerning improvement of the general condition for forestry research.

First, an account is given of the present stage of forestry research; this is done in the form of a list including the institutes where forestry research is practiced. The most important of these institutes are the University of Helsinki, which in 1966 employed 42 research workers, and the Finnish Forest Research Institute which employed 52 investigators. The total number of research workers was 114. The funds available and the financial sources are also dealt with, as well a as the aftergrowth of research workers and the publishing activity.

In addition, a review is presented of the most important tasks of research according to the reports of the working groups. Finally, an account is given of the program of development. According to the program, the number of new researcher’s positions required has been estimated as being rather large. Development of the research activity organization presupposes establishment of some new departments at the Finnish Forest Research Institute and at the University of Helsinki; moreover, a common laboratory as well as a forest-machine station are required. The funds needed at the most important state institutions will be about 90% higher in 1970 and 190% higher in 1980 than at present. The aftergrowth of research workers should be essentially increased and its distribution of the fields of forestry should be more even. No new series of publication have been considered necessary.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4739, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Vuonna 1966 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4739. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14449
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1966 .

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1966 in alphabetic order by the different scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports. It also includes book reviews on forest literature. 

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7645, category Article
Viljo Holopainen, Aarne Nyyssönen, N. A. Osara, Jouko Hämäläinen, K. O. Donner. (1984). Suomen Metsätieteellinen seura 75 vuotta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 190 article id 7645. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7645
English title: The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) consists of three invited papers.

Professor Viljo Holopainen contributed the article ”The Society of Forestry in Finland during the period of active science and forest policy”. The article gives an account of the founding of the Society and its early activities, and views the main trends in the development of forest science in Finland. The emphasis is on a review of the science policy practiced in Finland during the past few decades, the changes that have taken place in forestry and forest policy and the challenges facing forest research in the changed circumstances. The development in the organization and material resources of forest research is examined in relation to the general trends in science policy. The author also gives an extensive account of the Society’s activities.

Professor Aarne Nyyssönen’s article ”International connections of Finnish forestry research” is an account of the international connections that forestry research in Finland has had in recent years. The author begins with international cooperation in university level education, especially in research training. He then proceeds to examine the international organizations in the field of forestry research, their tasks, activities and the role of Finnish researchers in them. A special form of cooperation, based on bilateral agreements between Finland and other countries is brought up. The greatest importance is attached to Nordic cooperation.

Professor N.A. Osara studies the comprehensive question ”World forestry: some trends and prospects”. The article begins with a review of forest resources, which points out several alarming problems in the tropical and subtropical zones as well as in industrialized countries. Prospects for expansion in the consumption of wood and wood-based products, industry and trade are studied in relation to wood availability and renewable forest resources. The author concludes that forestry can contribute to the improvement of rural conditions all over the world. He also stresses the importance of forest management not only for wood production but also for soil and water management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Donner, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7622, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1981). Suomen metsätieteellisen julkaisutoiminnan rakenne ja määrällinen kehitys vv. 1909-1978. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 175 article id 7622. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7622
English title: Structure and development of publishing activity in Finnish Forest Sciences in 1909–1978.

This study examines the extent, structure and development of the publishing activity of Finnish forest sciences between 1909–1978. The subject comprises the four main forestry series; Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Forestales Fenniae and Folia Forestalia. Collectively, 532 authors produced 1,715 publications containing 90,134 pages.
The total number of pages of forest science publications doubled every 25 years. Only a small number of short research reports (few pages) and long monographs (over 200 pages) were published. The median age class of the authors was 36–40 years. The so called Lotka’s law, which describes the productivity of the researchers, proved to be valid in forest sciences. According to this law, among other things, one tenth of the researchers produced approximately half of all publications. Despite changes, the structure of the publisher community remained roughly constant. Every year approximately 30% of the author community was composed of new members, whilst 19–26% of authors stopped publishing.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4698, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1961). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran 50-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1959. Silva Fennica no. 111 article id 4698. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14229
English title: 50 years’ jubilee of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) celebrated its 50 years’ jubilee in 29th April 1959. This publication includes description of the ceremony. Included are also the greetings, and speeches held at the celebration meeting.

The PDF includes some of the texts in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4696, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1960). Suometsätieteen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9135
English title: Swamp forestry research in Finland.

About one third of the land area of Finland is covered by peatlands, furthermore, some mineral soils are troubled by excess water. Due to the prevalence of peatlands, forest drainage has been the most important form of forest improvement work. Consequently, peatlands have been an extensively studied topic within forest sciences in Finland. This paper gives a review on the central research subjects in science of peatlands, introducing little less than a hundred of the hundreds of publications published in the field. The author describes in more detail research on the formation and area of peatlands, peatland types and their suitability for forest draining, site factors on peatlands, techniques of forest ditching and the management of peatland forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4465, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1932). Metsäpatologisen tutkimuksen tehtävistä Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 24 article id 4465. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9021
English title: Objectives of forest pathology research in Finland.

The forest pathology research has gradually been focused more to avail silcviculture. Forest pathology has contacts to other fields in forest sciences, and can deepen the knowledge of forest management practices. The studies on specific fungal diseases are beneficial to the forestry. Special focus should be put to statistical forest pathology research. In addition, the monitoring of large-scale damages would give new perspective to forest pathology. It should also be compared how fungal diseases differ in managed forests and forests in natural state, and how silviculture can be used to promote the healing of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4449, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1928). Metsähallinnon suonkuivatustoiminnassa saavutettuja kokemuksia sekä suuntaviivoja suonkuivausta koskevan tutkimustyön kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 8 article id 4449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8397
English title: Experiences on draining of peatlands in the State forests in Finland by Forest Service and lines along which research on the draining of peatlands should proceed.

Systematic draining of peatlands begun in the state forests of Finland in 1908. It was considered necessary, because 41.4% of the state forests, 5.6 million hectares, consist of peatlands. Of the peatlands, 1.9 million hectares was estimated to be suitable for draining. Furthermore, paludification still continues in the forest lands. By the year 1926, a total of 52,275 hectares of peatland had been drained in the state lands.

Certain factors decide whether the peatland is suitable for draining: the growth increment capacity after draining, technical difficulties in draining, and difficulties in regeneration. Peatland type indicates the growth capacity of the drained peatland. The peatland should turn at least to Vaccinum forest site type or better type to be worth of draining. If the peat layer is thin, the quality of peat is an important deciding factor. The peatland may also be too expensive to drain due to, for instance, long ditches, main ditches difficult to dig, small inclination, uneven surface, and deep cavities at the bottom. The younger the trees of the stand, the faster the growth of the stand revives. The peatlands usually regenerate naturally provided there is sufficient seed trees, and there is seldom need for artificial regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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