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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsätalous'.

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7412, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1954). Professori Eino Saari 60-vuotias. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. I article id 7412. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7412
English title: Commemorative publication to celebrate the 60th anniversary of professor Eino Saari.

The article summarises the career of Eino Saari, professor of forest economics at the University of Helsinki on his 60th anniversary. He is the founder of forest economics research in Finland, and has developed the theory of forest balance. He abandoned the traditional static view of the forest balance and developed a new dynamic conception.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday. 

The PDF includes a summary in English and Swedish.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.

Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7444, category Article
Lauri Selin. (1954). Metsätaloutemme verotetut tulot vuosina 1950-53 erään laskelman valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 32 article id 7444. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7444
English title: Forestry income taxed in Finland in 1950-1953 in the light of a calculation.

Due to the nature of forest taxation in Finland, there has been no information available on the amount of tax paid by forestry or of taxable forestry income. The main reason for this is the close connection of taxation of forestry and agriculture, which has made it difficult and expensive to separate the information of the sectors. This study determined the amount of taxable forestry mathematically based on statistics on the taxable forest areas in each tax zone on a county level.

The article concludes that the stumpage has been considerably higher than the taxable income in 1950-1953. In 1951 only 18.5% of the income received as stumpage was taxed, but in 1953 the proportion was 82.8%. In average 45% of the stumpage amount had become subject to taxation.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7425, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1954). Metsämainostuksen rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 13 article id 7425. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7425
English title: The structure of promotion of forestry.

The goal of improving forest management and doubling the yield of forests in Finland is a great task that requires law, encouragement, written propaganda, practical advice and purposeful work in the forests. In addition, it requires idealistic promotion and education of the citizens. The article discusses the nature and scope of forest propaganda. Different means of forest propaganda and promotion, such as lectures, films, newspapers, magazines, forest literature, stamps, placards and posters, excursions, exhibitions, fairs, forests along the main roads, competitions, education of youth etc are discussed, and their usefulness assessed.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7416, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1954). Nuori Hannikainen metsäpoliitikkona. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 4 article id 7416. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7416
English title: The young Hannikainen as a forest politician.
English keywords: biography; forestry

The article revises the accomplishments of professor Peter Woldemar Hannikainen, the former director of Forest Service of Finland, in the development of forest sector in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7382, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1944). Piirteitä metsätalouden järjestelyn rakennusmuodoista Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7382. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7382
English title: Review on forest management in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; forestry

The article gives a detailed review on the history and principles of forest management in Finland from the 19th century to the beginning of 21th century. Organized forest management begun in Finland in the middle of 19th century. The first method applied in Finland was based on annual cutting area and mainly used in state forests. By the beginning of 20th century saw-timber selection became the most usual felling method. Gradually the main principle changed to forest management by stands and revision of forest working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7362, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1942). Metsätalouskartaston soveltaminen sotilastarkoituksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 9 article id 7362. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7362
English title: Use of forest maps in military purposes in Finland.

The Second World War revealed some weaknesses that affect also peacetime planning of military defence in Finland. One of the shortages were lack of maps applicable in military purposes in Northern Finland.

The state forests are mainly situated in the north. Consequently, cartographic material of Finnish Forest Service may be modified with little extra work for military purposes. Best suited for the purpose are forestry maps of different forest districts that have scales ranging from 1:20,000 to 1:100,000. In addition, general maps in the scale of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 are available. The article discusses further the additions that can be made in the maps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5332, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1987). Metsä arkkityyppinä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5332. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15489
English title: Forest as an archetype.

According to universal primitive beliefs, there was a huge pole or tree in the centre of the universe to support the sky. These beliefs gave rise to innumerable customs where both trees and wood have been used to promote health and good luck. Even today, many such customs exist: the Christmas tree, maypole, Midsummer birches, birch whisks in the Finnish sauna, ritual tree plantings etc. In addition to the tree, also the forest as both a protecting and a frightening maternal symbol can be considered as an archetype. Intensive forestry diminishes the archetypal contents of forests, which may be one reason behind critical attitudes towards modern forestry.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5206, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Miten koivuun tulisi suhtautua metsätaloudessa? Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15385
English title: The proper attitude towards birch in forestry.

A literature survey based on Nordic literature deals with the biology, use, harvesting and economy of birch (Betula sp.). According to the results, the easily quantified hard facts are against cultivation of birch: lower growth, poorer production of valuable assortments, lower price of pulp, higher planting costs, and higher harvesting and transport costs than for conifers. The soft facts, which may be true, are not easily measured or their importance evaluated: the possible improvement of soil, decreasing risk of insect and fungi attacks, shelter against frost etc. Due to the differences in the nature of the facts the discussion of cultivation of birch will probably continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puukko, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4982, category Article
Olli Järvinen, Kullervo Kuusela, Risto A. Väisänen. (1977). Metsien rakenteen muutoksen vaikutus pesimälinnustoomme viimeisten 30 vuoden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4982. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14836
English title: Effects of modern forestry on the numbers of breeding birds in Finland.

Pair numbers of breeding land birds were estimated from line transects data collected in Finland in 1936–76. The changes observed in the bird populations are in this paper compared with data obtained in the Finnish forest inventories, particularly made in 1951–53 and 1971–76. It is concluded that modern forestry has considerable impact on the breeding bird fauna. In general, more species have increased than decreased due to changes in the forests. Areas affected by forestry are more favourable habitats for many species than natural forests, but, on the other hand, there are certain species which are greatly harmed by the effects of modern forestry.

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  • Järvinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4927, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Kantojen käytön kehittyminen Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14769
English title: Development of stump utilization in Finland.

The utilization of stump and root wood is analysed in this paper on the basis of literature from middle of 19th century to the present date. According to the information available, the utilization of pine stumps in tar production was small compared to that of peeled Scots pine stemwood in the 19th century. During the 1st and 2nd World War the utilization of stumps for tar production reached its highest levels. Other industrial utilization of stumps has been small up to the present time but now stumps are beginning to be used in the pulp industry.

The greatest amounts of stumps have been utilized by the rural population. Stumps were used as fuel. In the thirties, the yearly amount used was over 200,000 m3 (solid measure), and even in the sixties over 100,00 m3. No industrial utilization method has yet reached these levels.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4923, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1975). Puiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn varhaishistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4923. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14765
English title: Early history of short-rotation forestry.

In the first place the term short-rotation forestry is being used in the sense of intensive tree growing during a short rotation time using reproduction by coppice shoots from broad-leaved tree material which has been specially bred for this purpose, or of producing fast-growing varieties from planted stock during the course of somewhat longer rotation time (maximum 20 years). However, short-rotation forestry as such has already a long history.

In the Fertile Crescent in ancient Egypt grew no tree species suitable for short-rotation production, but reeds and bulrushes were used for the same purpose as willow-twigs, e.g. wickerwork or binding. At least in the Fertile Crescent reed harvesting using a rotation of one year was practiced already very long ago. The earliest information about coppice-shoot cultivation is found in Greek literature, but it was the Romans who developed short-rotation forestry based on the trees’ capacity of reproducing through coppice shoots into an extensive economic activity. Willows were by far the most important species used. Twigs intended for wickerwork were harvested once a year and thicker material, to be used for support and in basket framework, every fourth year. Chestnut and oak were used for the production of slightly thicker poles employing a longer rotation. Cypress poles were produced from seedlings using a rotation time of 12–13 years. Roman scholars give us plenty of information concerning the tending of plantations in short-rotation forestry.

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  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

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  • Hurskainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4857, category Article
Antti Lappalainen. (1971). Metsät ja verot. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4857. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14659
English title: Forests and taxation in Finland.

There is no clear picture in Finland of how big the revenues are that the State and the local authorities receive from taxation for the part of primary forestry. Conception of taxation varies from 100% to 50%. The paper presents a comparison between the gross income from timber sales as determined according to the method used at the Central Statistics Bureau and the net revenues as calculated on the basis of forest fee.

At 1920s area taxation was introduced in forest taxation. The system is based on forest types and their timber production capacity. According to the principles of area taxation, no tax is paid for overcuts, whereas timber capital savings should be paid for.

According to the calculations of this study, in 1958–62 the gross income from timber sales was about 506 million Fmk annually in Southern Finland, the costs involved in timber production about 437 million Fmk, and the annual taxable income 231 million Fmk. In the period more valuable timber assortments were harvested than those for which taxes were paid according to the old regulations.

Half a century ago, area taxation was a system suited to its purpose. Now, however, forestry is in the hands of another generation, and accounting has been introduced in practical agriculture and forestry. Therefore, a taxation system based on the real income from timber growing should be introduced. The transition period could even be relatively short. It seems probable that a forest owner does not sell timber at a time when this would be required by silvicultural aspects in order to avoid income taxation, he should have to be present an acceptable working plan.

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  • Lappalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

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  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7534, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Kaskiviljelyksen vaikutus Suomen metsiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 7534. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7534
English title: The effect of shifting cultivation on forests in Finland.

The article is a review on shifting cultivation, its methods and use in Finland, and its effect on the condition of forests. Shifting cultivation decreases forest reserves not only by burning large amounts of wood. Of the area used for shifting cultivation, 10-50% can be open land. The older age classes of forests are often missing, and range of tree species shift towards deciduous trees. This causes lack of large timber. The shorter the rotation, the less well the most valuable trees survive on the area. One reason is lack of seed trees. Of the coniferous trees, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is able to survive in the burnt-over lands better than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), because it can produce seeds at a relatively young age. Betula sp. and especially grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) regenerate well on burnt-over lands. Also the frequency of good seed years determine which tree species become the dominant species on a burnt-over site.

When shifting cultivation is abandoned, deciduous trees keep their advantage over coniferous trees, because the wood of coniferous trees is used more in the surrounding villages. Pine and spruce spread to the burnt-over areas from the poorer sites that often had remained unburned. In densely populated areas in some counties in Savo in eastern Finland, where shifting cultivation was practiced intensively, Norway spruce became rare. Dominant tree species in the burnt-over areas became birch and pine.

The article is divided in two parts. A German summary is included in a separate PDF
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

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  • Lindroos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pesonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

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  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4779, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Sisäisen korkokannan käsite metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4779. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14564
English title: Internal rate of return in forestry.

The concept of the internal rate can be defined as the rate of interest, which if applied to expenditures incurred at different times, gives a compounded sum equal to revenues compounded at the same rate for the same time. This concept has long been used in forestry, particularly concerning the development of a stand, because in this case there is a time difference between many items of expenditure and revenue. Several terms have been used or the notions derived on this basis. The term internal rate of return has begun to appear only recently. This article explains different variations of the concept and its different names, together with some related concepts and terms.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7569, category Article
Heikki Vesikallio. (1974). Yksityismetsälöiden alueelliset yhdentymisratkaisut puunkorjuun ja metsänhoitotöiden kustannusten kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 135 article id 7569. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7569
English title: Regional cooperation in farm forests in Finland. Possibilities to control the costs of wood harvesting and silvicultural operations.

The paper deals with the possibilities of decreasing the costs of timber harvesting and silvicultural work through regional cooperation between private forest owners in Finland. Alternatives based on joint management and, on the other hand, joint ownership were compared with activities on a forest-unit basis. According to the results obtained, considerable savings in costs can be gained through cooperation on a regional basis. Examination of the data obtained from the study shows that in the case of harvesting some 40 million Finnish marks can be saved annually by application of the joint-management alternative, and as much as 90 million marks annually by the joint-ownership alternative, when taking the whole country into consideration. The corresponding values for silvicultural work were 2 million marks and 4 million marks, respectively.

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  • Vesikallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4713, category Article
Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea. (1963). Metsäalan organisaatiokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4713. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14271
  • Metsäalan organisaatiokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

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  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4691, category Article
Arvo Seppälä. (1960). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo : Acta Forestalia Fennica 51-70 (1942-1959), Silva Fennica 61-103 (1945-1960). Silva Fennica no. 103 article id 4691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9130
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Index.

The present bibliography is an index of publications brought out by the Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) in 1945–1960, a sequel of a similar index published in 1946. It consists a classification of the parts according to subject treated, based on the Oxford system, a system used in international forestry literature. The studies have been provided with Oxford numbers. The index includes the publications of Acta forestalia fennica (AFF), Silva Fennica (SF) and the Commentationes forestales.

The PDF includes a summary in English and German.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4719, category Article
H. K. Seip. (1963). Metoder og muligheter for langsiktige prognoser i skoglig planlegging. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4719. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14278
English title: Methods and possibilities of long-term forecasts in forest management planning.

This paper describes different methods of long-term forecasts in forest management planning with a special attention on intention forecasts for a total forest property or district. Methods for calculating the sustained yield on the basis of the actual increment or the yearly area cut are discussed. It is concluded that a better estimate of the sustained yield is obtainable by the application of a long-term forecast technique. Forecasts for 100 years should not be viewed as plans, but as a background for making short-term decisions. Some of the long-term-type programmes, such as the programme of maximum profit, sustained yield in volume and in money are discussed briefly.

It is pointed out that there is often present a conflict between the various elements of the policy formulated by a forest owner. This leads to the conclusion that the calculations of the profitability of single projects may be misleading.

The precision of a long-term forecast is discussed, and how under certain assumptions the error of the allowable cut is influenced by errors in area, volume, age etc. It is shown that the precision in area and volume is more important in this connection than, say, the precision in increment. In conclusion, existing knowledge, methods and equipment for calculations constitute a basis for long-term forecasts which make them an important instrument in forest management planning.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seip, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1963). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.

The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttölä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4683, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). Suomen metsien luovutusmäärä hakkuuvuosina 1955/56-1956/57. Hakkuutilaston metodia käsittelevä koetutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14128
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4667, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1957). Metsätalouden edistämistoiminta Suomessa : Tapio 1907-1957. Silva Fennica no. 94 article id 4667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14126
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland, Tapio 1907-1957.

For many decades Finland’s forest policy has been focused on private forestry, accounting for approximately 60% of Finland’s forest area. The objective has been to regulate forest management by legislation and to promote private forestry. The aim of the study was to explore the role of the Central Forestry Association Tapio in promoting private forestry.

A detailed synthesis of Tapio’s 50 years long history and activities is drafted. According to the three forest inventories (in 1921-24, 1936-37 and 1951-53), big improvements have been made in cutting methods, mainly in the sense that selective cuttings have decreased. The condition of private forests is, however, not as good as that of the state and company forests. Improvements introduced in the legislation in 1928 have had great influence in forestation and drainage of peatlands in private forests. The private forests, however, suffer from a lack of planning.

Through Intensified forest policy it has been possible to ensure supply of roundwood for forest industry. An efficient information service on timber markets have been organized, and the measurement of roundwood has been standardized. Progress in the promotion of forestry has suffered from unfavourable trends in forestry, mainly from the nearly doubling of the number of forest holdings in the present century and from the contraction of their size.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4631, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1953). Oikeustapausten selostuksia metsänhoitajille. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4631. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14046
English title: Forestry related legal cases for forest officers.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses legal cases of the supreme court of Finland that are related to forestry and handle subjects that can be of interest to forest officers working in Forest Service. The subjects vary from sale of timber to unauthorized harvest of timber.

  • Komsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4630, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1953). Suhdannevaihteluista, erityisesti metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14045
English title: Effects of business cycles on forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces the principles of business cycles and describes how they have affected forestry in Finland.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4619, category Article
P. Ennevaara. (1951). Tilastoista ja niiden käyttömahdollisuuksista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4619. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14015
English title: Use of statistics in forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces different forestry related statistics and discusses the potential use of statistics on the point of view of state forestry.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4615, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1951). Metsäalan rationalisoimistoiminnan nykyinen vaihe. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4615. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14011
English title: The present stage of rationalization.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the work and methods of rationalizing forest work and forest management, and the organizations doing work studies. Examples of means to improve the effectivity of practical work are described.

  • Vöry, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4598, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1949). Piirteitä valtion metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 66 article id 4598. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9088
English title: Forestry in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a review on state forests of Finland. The aim of the review is to describe the state and management of the state forests. Low revenue of the stat forests has been criticised, and misunderstandings have led to economic policy that has had negative impacts on state forestry.

The history of forest ownership of the state begins from 1400th century when Finland was part of Sweden. The article describes in detail the different stages in ownership of state forests and development of forest administration.

Forest Service was established in 1859. In 1949 it had two departments, a private forest department and a state forest department, and four local conservancies, Peräpohjola, Ostrobothnia, Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The forests were managed according to a business plan, which was based on a forest survey and a long term silvicultural working plan. The business plan gave a basis for annual working plans.

The state forests are mainly situated far from sites of forest industry and large human settlements. This affects demand and prices of wood. Especially demand of small diameter timber has been low. Floating is the main means of transport of the timber. The article describes in detail the forest resources of state forests, forest management practices and changes in state forestry. Suggestions to improve the profitability of state forestry are given. These include, for instance improving transport infrastructure and the productivity of forestry.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4588, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13990
English title: Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes the forests and their silvicultural state in the areas of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland in the Northern Finland. Forest management work needed to improve the silvicultural state of the forests is suggested.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4547, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1938). Ilmavalokuvauksen merkityksestä metsätaloudessamme. Silva Fennica no. 48 article id 4547. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9072
English title: Use of aerial photography in forestry.

The article is a treatise on use of aerial photography in forestry and its prodpective applications in Finland, based on the writers visit to Techniche Hohschule Dresden in Germany and experiences in his work in Forest Service.

Optimal conditions and principals of aerial photography are described. There is potential in use of aerial photography in Finland. The terrain is relatively flat, and large areas, especially in Lapland, are inadequately mapped. However, to fulfil the current requirements for forest maps, aerial photography should be carried out as aerial stereo photography at a sufficiently large scale. At a certain scale terrain survey becomes cheaper than aerial photography.

In forestry, aerial photography cannot substitute terrain survey, but it complements it. Aerial photographs could, for instance, form a photo archive of a region or be used as a basis for planning drainage of peatlands. In research, aerial stereo photography could become a new discipline.

The article has a German summary.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4528, category Article
Eino Saari. (1938). Hoitoalueiden ja piirikuntien vuotuisen taloustuloksen laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4528. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13937
English title: Calculating the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes calculation of the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county. 

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4527, category Article
R. Tuhti. (1938). Suomen valtion toiminta maa- ja metsätalouden edistämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13936
English title: Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 
This presentation discusses the means Finland has used to promote agriculture and forestry in the country. 

  • Tuhti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4545, category Article
Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea. (1938). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen. Silva Fennica no. 45 article id 4545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9070
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland.

The government of Finland appointed a commission to study how the work of forest owners’ associations could be promoted. In 1936 there was 232 forest owners’ associations in Finland. They had 20,632 members, who owned 1,841,304 hectares of forests. The owners of large forest holdings were overpresented among the members. The associations together with forestry boards were important actors in increasing the productivity of the private forests.

The commission concluded that rational forest management should be extended to all private forests, which could be best achieved through the forest owners’ associations. It suggested that the membership should remain voluntary, and that the financing of the associations would be arranged by self-taxation of the forest owners. The so called forest management tax should be devoted to the local forest owners’ associations. Also the state should continue to support the associations. Both state and the smallest forest holdings would be released from the forest management tax. The companies, estates and other large forest owners that employ their own forest management staff would pay a quarter of the tax. The tax could be based on the area of the forest, income of the timber sold or a combination of these. The commission suggested a forest management law, which would deal with the forest management tax and the forest owners’ associations.
The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4520, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Valtionmetsien metsänhoitotöistä. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14098
English title: Forest management in state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes forest management in state forests in Finland.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4514, category Article
Antti Kilpiö. (1937). Maalaiskuntien tuloista ja menoista. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14092
English title: Revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities and the impact of forestry in their economy.

  • Kilpiö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4509, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1937). Maa- ja metsätalouden välisistä vuorosuhteista Suomen kansantaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14087
English title: Interaction of forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the relationships between forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4477, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1935). Metsänhoitolaitoksen 75-vuotisjuhla 19. IV. 1934. Silva Fennica no. 36 article id 4477. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9063
English title: 75 years’ jubilee of the Finnish Forest Service on April 19th, 1934.

The article is a description of the 75th anniversary of Finnish Forest Service (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service), held on April 19th 1934. The greetings of the quests, presented in the Commemoration festival and Banquet, are included in the article.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4471, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1933). Metsätalouden metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu : pääasiassa yksityismetsätaloutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 30 article id 4471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9043
English title: Forestry bookkeeping from the point of view of private forestry.

As the use and value of forests have increased, forests have been managed more as a business. Financial bookkeeping defines the production costs of wood, costs of forest management work, investments in forest improvement, taxes and administrative costs, income from the sales of forest products etc. Bookkeeping reports the annual costs and income in the forestry, but does not give information of the future profits or appropriate organization of the economy of forestry.

The author introduces a system that he calls “metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu” (silvicultural monitoring), which would give economic information of the forestry, and could also replace a forest management plan in the private forests. The bookkeeping system will list in detail the volumes and areas of fellings and silvicultural measures in different years, and deduce the sustainability of the use of forests and future incomes in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4471, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1933). Metsätalouden metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu : pääasiassa yksityismetsätaloutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 30 article id 4471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9043
English title: Forestry bookkeeping from the point of view of private forestry.

As the use and value of forests have increased, forests have been managed more as a business. Financial bookkeeping defines the production costs of wood, costs of forest management work, investments in forest improvement, taxes and administrative costs, income from the sales of forest products etc. Bookkeeping reports the annual costs and income in the forestry, but does not give information of the future profits or appropriate organization of the economy of forestry.

The author introduces a system that he calls “metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu” (silvicultural monitoring), which would give economic information of the forestry, and could also replace a forest management plan in the private forests. The bookkeeping system will list in detail the volumes and areas of fellings and silvicultural measures in different years, and deduce the sustainability of the use of forests and future incomes in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4459, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Tieteellinen tutkimustyö sekä korkein opetus maatalouden ja metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica no. 18 article id 4459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9000
English title: Research and higher education of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Applied research in the fields of agriculture and forestry is as demanding as theoretical research. The perception that it could be less exact is incorrect. Different variables have to be accounted for, for instance in cultivation of cereals. To define the effect of one variable, the scientist has to know and take account of the combined effect of the all the variables influencing the growth of the species. Results that can be put into practice are often demanded quickly, and the they should be broadly applicable. The research and education in the fields of agriculture and forestry have to respond to domestic needs. It is therefore necessary to secure that the research has sufficient equipment and premises.

The higher education and research of agriculture and forestry should be organized in the capital of the country, where the main organizations of the field are located. The present buildings of the faculty are, however, not adequate for teaching and research. The applied sciences need also connections to practice. Forest education has a forest experimental area, but agricultural education has no experimental fields in its use. The best location would be in Wiik area near the capital Helsinki. In addition, the teaching staff in the faculty is insufficient. New professorships should be established both in agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4453, category Article
Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1929). Näkökohtia Suomen metsätalouden tehostamiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 12 article id 4453. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8986
English title: Improving the productivity of forestry in Finland.

The article is a joint study of the Forest Research Institute, the Forest Association and the Society of Forestry (now Finnish Society of Forest Science) on means to increase the productivity of forestry in Finland.

The study identifies five ways to improve the productivity of forestry in the country. First, the yield of forests should be increased by draining peatlands, reforestating understocked forests, changing tree species, if they are unsuitable for the site, increasing improvement fellings and enhancing regeneration in the cutting areas. Second, the utilization and trade of small-diameter timber should be developed. Third, export of wood should be promoted, while the use of wood as fuel instead of imported fuels should be increased. Fourth, the export of Finnish wood products should be secured, for instance, by reducing manufacturing costs and developing production methods in the industry. Fifth, both the elementary and higher education of forestry should be developed further.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4447, category Article
Oiva Johannes Lakari. (1927). Valtion metsätalouden tehostaminen. Silva Fennica no. 6 article id 4447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8395
English title: Work for greater efficiency in the state forestry.

The article proposes a plan to improve the efficiency of forest management in the state forests in Finland. The forests are situated mostly in Northern Finland. In 1926 the state forests covered 39.5% of the total land-area of the country, 13,580,611 hectares in total. A proportion of 52.3% of the land was productive forest land, 21.4% forest land of poor growth and 24.8% waste land. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). predominated 56.9%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30.5% and Betula sp. 11.9% of the productive forest land. The fellings have mainly been selective fellings of sawn timber, because the demand for small timber was small. Due to this, there is lack of seedling and young stands. Metsähallitus (Forest Service) has been able to increase the sales of small timber by increasing delivery loggings over standing sales. The net profit of state forestry was 136 million marks in 1929.

Several factors have had negative impact on profitability of state forestry: Major part of the forests are situated in Northern Finland, they are of poorer quality than the private forests, and they are located unfavorable in terms of wood demand. The means to improve financial result of state forest include expanding transport network, such as railroads and floating channels. The yield of the forests can be substantially increased by draining peatlands, improving the effectivity of forest management and increasing the proportion of delivery loggings. Changing the silvicultural practices alone is estimated to increase the productivity of the forests by 50–100%. However, the costs of the peatland draining and silvicultural work are high, and direct profits can’t be expected until later.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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