Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsäteollisuus'.

Category: Article

article id 7461, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsäteollisuuden metsäosastojen henkilöorganisaation rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 1 article id 7461. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7461
English title: Studied concerning the structure of personnel organization in the forestry department of the forest industry.

This paper aims at creating a picture of the tasks of forestry departments of those enterprises engaged in the wood working industry in Southern Finland, to analyse tasks performed by them and to discover the details from which the tasks have been built. In the first part of the work a general theory of organization study is dealt with from the point of view of structural research, and in the second part the results obtained are applied to the forestry departments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4971, category Article
Aulis E. Hakkarainen. (1977). Metsäteollisuuden tutkimus- ja kehittämistoiminta metsätalouden alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4971. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14822
  • Hakkarainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14648
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4728, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1965). Polttopuun käyttö Euroopassa vv. 1950.1960 sekä mahdollisuudet polttopuun teolliseen käyttöön v. 1975. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4728. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14286
English title: Use of fuel wood in Europe in 1950-60 and possibilities of converting fuelwood to industrial uses by 1975.

According to the statistics, the fuel wood consumption in Europe has declined since 1925/1929, when the total fuel wood consumption was 144 million m3. In 1960 the consumption was 108 million m3. Because of insufficient statistics in the early years, the drop may even be larger than shown by the figures. The aim of this paper is to assess what part of European fuel wood removals in 1960 could be used for industrial purposes by 1975.

It was estimated that in 1975 the use of fuel wood in Europe will be about 45–55 million m3 less than in 1960 and about 10 million m3 of this amount will consist of coniferous species. It is believed that about 45 million m3 could be transferred to industrial use by 1975, and 55 million m3 is supposed to be the maximum reduction achievable by 1975. The estimates are based on the revised European fuel wood removal figures.

The new European timber trends and prospects study reveals a shortage of small-sized coniferous wood of about 25–43 million m3, depending on whether the exports from Europe are curtailed or not. The decrease of coniferous fuel wood of 10 million m3 could almost entirely be transferred for the use of industry.

A more important question is, is there demand for the extra small-size broadleaved wood. It is important to note that there is no longer any technical limitations on the use of this kind of wood for producing pulp, paper paperboard and wood-based panel products.

Fuelwood is often collected by the farmer and used near the farm. If the wood is to be used in the industry, harvesting and transport costs need to be decreased. However, productivity of the logging and transportation may be significantly improved by cutting the trees into longer lengths and professional harvesting. About 40% of the potential transfer of fuelwood to industrial uses is concentrated in Finland (7 million m3), France (5 million m3), and Italy (7 million m3). Other countries with significant potential shifts could be Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia.

The PDF includes a summary in French, German, Dutch, Russian and Finnish.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4682, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen metsäteollisuuden laajentamismahdollisuudet tuotteiden käytön kehityksen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4682. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14127
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4630, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1953). Suhdannevaihteluista, erityisesti metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14045
English title: Effects of business cycles on forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces the principles of business cycles and describes how they have affected forestry in Finland.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4581, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1945). Metsäteollisuusyhtiöiden metsistä ja niiden hakkuista. Silva Fennica no. 61 article id 4581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9085
English title: Forests of woodworking industry and the fellings carried out in them.

The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.

Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.

During the war  the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.

During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4453, category Article
Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1929). Näkökohtia Suomen metsätalouden tehostamiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 12 article id 4453. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8986
English title: Improving the productivity of forestry in Finland.

The article is a joint study of the Forest Research Institute, the Forest Association and the Society of Forestry (now Finnish Society of Forest Science) on means to increase the productivity of forestry in Finland.

The study identifies five ways to improve the productivity of forestry in the country. First, the yield of forests should be increased by draining peatlands, reforestating understocked forests, changing tree species, if they are unsuitable for the site, increasing improvement fellings and enhancing regeneration in the cutting areas. Second, the utilization and trade of small-diameter timber should be developed. Third, export of wood should be promoted, while the use of wood as fuel instead of imported fuels should be increased. Fourth, the export of Finnish wood products should be secured, for instance, by reducing manufacturing costs and developing production methods in the industry. Fifth, both the elementary and higher education of forestry should be developed further.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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