Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'metsävarat'.

Category: Article

article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7020
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7666, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Sakari Salminen. (1991). Suomen metsävarat 1977-1984 ja niiden kehittyminen 1952­-1980. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 220 article id 7666. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7666
English title: Forest resources of Finland in 1977–1984 and their development in 1952–1980.

The field of work of the 7th National Forest Inventory was carried out during 1977–84. This report consists of the analysis of the forest resources, long-term development of forests and the results by ownership categories in Finland.

The area of forestry land, 26.4 million ha, has decreased slightly because of the increase of build-up areas and communication routes. Forest land, which is suitable to growing wood profitably, amounted 20.1 million ha. It has increased, although not as fast as earlier, due to drainage and fertilization of scrub and waste land swamps and the afforestation of agricultural land.

The growing stock volume was 1,660 million m3 and the estimated gross annual increment 68.4 million m3. A large quantity of young, rapidly growing stands, and fellings markedly below the increment, are the principal factors increasing the growing stock. The volume of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has increased most but the greatest proportional increase has been in the volume of broadleaved trees.

The silvicultural quality of stands has improved and the increase in saw log tree volume has resulted in an increase in the total growing stock volume. The proportional volume of saw logs, however, has decreased. Both aging mature stands and postponed thinnings increase the risk of losses due to mortality and decay. Too dense stands retard the diameter growth of trees. The proportion of unsuccessful artificial regeneration has increased.

The area of private forests has slightly decreased, while companies and collective bodies have increased their ownership. Non-farmer private ownership already accounts for one half of the area of private forests. The silvicultural quality of company forests is best and the increase of the growing stock and its increment is proportionally greatest in these forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4712, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Trends in South America's coniferous forest resources. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4712. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14270
  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7189, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1968). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan metsien käytön kehitys ja sen vaikutus metsien tilaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 89 article id 7189. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7189
English title: Utilization of forests in north Ostrobothnia and its effect on their condition.

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent of human interference with the forests of different epochs in the district of north Ostrobothnia in Northern Finland, and its effect on the condition of the forests.

The study revealed that the quantities of wood removed were not most detrimental to the condition of the forest; the regionally irregular loggings and the logging methods employed were the most harmful. The old forms of wood utilization, tar industry, shipbuilding, sawmill industry and timber exports, were characterized by timber selection. Public opinion considered it the only recognized cutting method long after the conditions had changed and silvicultural methods should have been used.

The spread and abandonment of selection cuttings are illustrated in the results of first National Forest Surveys in Finland. According to the first survey (1921–1924), nearly half of the loggings in the province of Oulu were based on selection, which spoiled and devastated 41% of the forests. In the 1930s one-fifth of the North Ostrobothnian forests were weakened by selection cuttings, in 1960s the figure was 6%. The article also summarises the extent of tar and pitch production, sawmill industry, shipbuilding and household wood consumption of wood in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4494, category Article
Eino Saari. (1937). Metsätaloudelliset tilastot. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13904
English title: Forestry statistics.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation lists statistics available on forestry.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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