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Articles containing the keyword 'moisture'.

Category: Research article

article id 9938, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Egbert Beuker, Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (2018). Clonal variation in basic density, moisture content and heating value of wood, bark and branches in hybrid aspen. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9938
Highlights: Hybrid aspen clones differed in their moisture content, ash content, basic density and heating value; Stem wood had lower ash content, basic density and effective heating value than stem bark; There was significant vertical variation in wood and bark along the stem in moisture content and basic density.

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) is one of the fastest growing tree species in Finland. During the mid-1990s, a breeding programme was started with the aim of selecting clones that were superior in producing pulpwood. Hybrid aspen can also be grown as a short-rotation crop for bioenergy. To study clonal variation in wood and bark properties, seven clones were selected from a 12-year-old field trial located in southern Finland. From each clone, five trees were harvested and samples were taken from stem wood, stem bark and branches to determine basic density, effective heating value, moisture and ash content. Vertical within-tree variation in moisture content and basic density was also studied. The differences between clones were significant for almost all studied properties. For all studied properties there was a significant difference between wood and bark. Wood had lower ash content (0.5% vs. 3.9%), basic density (378 kg m–3 vs. 450 kg m–3) and effective heating value (18.26 MJ kg–1 vs. 19.24 MJ kg–1), but higher moisture content (55% vs. 49%) than bark. The values for branches were intermediate. These results suggest that the properties of hybrid aspen important for energy use could be improved by clonal selection. However, selecting clones based on fast growth only may be challenging since it may lead to a decrease in hybrid aspen wood density.

  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Beuker, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Vipusenkuja 6, FI-57200 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: egbert.beuker@luke.fi
  • Viherä-Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@luke.fi
article id 9927, category Research article
Eva Dařenová, Richard A. Crabbe, Robert Knott, Barbora Uherková, Jan Kadavý. (2018). Effect of coppicing, thinning and throughfall reduction on soil water content and soil CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9927
Highlights: The coppice stand reached similar soil CO2 efflux rates eight years after harvest as the original stand; Thinning increased SWC but did not affect soil CO2 efflux; 30% throughfall reduction decreased soil CO2 efflux by 50.7%.

In this study we determined the effect of transformation of a mature sessile oak forest stand into a coppiced forest, and of thinning and throughfall reduction in a coppice stand on soil water content (SWC) and soil CO2 efflux. The precipitation reduction was induced by installing parallel drainage channels in both unthinned and thinned coppice stands. The driving factor for temporal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in all plots was soil temperature. The other factor was soil water content but only up to about 15%. Above this threshold, there was no more effect on CO2 efflux. We found no clear difference in SWC or soil CO2 efflux between the mature and coppiced stand eight years after harvesting. On the other hand, thinning of the coppice stand resulted in increase in SWC up to 22% in proportion, which we assume to be a result of increased gap fraction of the canopy. However, no effect on soil CO2 efflux was observed two years after the thinning. Installation of the drainage channels in two plots covering 30% of the ground area resulted in decrease in SWC up to a proportional 30.5% and thus contributed up to 50.7% reduction in soil CO2 efflux.

  • Dařenová, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: darenova.e@czechglobe.cz (email)
  • Crabbe, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: crabbe.r@czechglobe.cz
  • Knott, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.knott@mendelu.cz
  • Uherková, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: xfedorov@node.mendelu.cz
  • Kadavý, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: jan.kadavy@mendelu.cz
article id 5659, category Research article
Juha Laitila, Anssi Ahtikoski, Jaakko Repola, Johanna Routa. (2017). Pre-feasibility study of supply systems based on artificial drying of delimbed stem forest chips. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 5659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5659
Highlights: With artificial drying and quick delivery, avoiding dry material losses of harvested timber, it could be possible to reduce the current costs of the prevailing procurement system based on natural drying of stored timber at roadside landings; The maximum cost for the prospective drying process of fresh chips corresponds to, e.g., organization costs or stumpage price of delimbed stems.

This study was aimed at determining the maximum cost level of artificial drying required for cost-efficient operation. This was done using a system analysis approach, in which the harvesting potential and procurement cost of alternative fuel chip production systems were compared at the stand and regional level. The accumulation and procurement cost of chipped delimbed stems from young forests were estimated within a 100 km transport distance from a hypothetical end use facility located in northern Finland. Logging and transportation costs, stumpage prices, tied up capital, dry matter losses and moisture content of harvested timber were considered in the study. Moisture content of artificially dried fuel chips made of fresh timber (55%) was set to 20%, 30% and 40% in the comparisons. Moisture content of fuel chips based on natural drying during storing was 40%. Transporting costs were calculated according to new higher permissible dimensions and weight limits for truck-trailers. The procurement cost calculations indicated that with artificial drying and by avoiding dry material losses of timber, it could be possible to reduce current costs of the prevailing procurement system based on natural drying of timber at roadside landings. The maximum cost level of artificial drying ranged between 1.2–3.2 € MWh–1 depending on the supply chain, moisture content and procurement volume of fuel chips. This cost margin corresponds to, e.g., organization, forwarding and transportation costs or stumpage price of delimbed stems.

  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi (email)
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
  • Repola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@luke.fi
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.routa@luke.fi
article id 1683, category Research article
Karol Przeździecki, Jarosław Zawadzki, Chris Cieszewski, Pete Bettinger. (2017). Estimation of soil moisture across broad landscapes of Georgia and South Carolina using the triangle method applied to MODIS satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 1683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1683
Highlights: Temperature vegetation dryness indices were calculated from MODIS satellite imagery to estimate subsurface soil moisture at different depths using the triangle method; Observations were carried out over the vast areas of Georgia and South Carolina, USA, covered with diverse land uses that, included dense forests and agricultural areas; The triangle method may be useful in forestry management applications where the productivity potential of a region and the hydrologic role of forests in that region are of concern.

We describe here a study based on analysis of vegetation indices and land surface temperatures, which provides relevant information for estimating soil moisture at regional scales. Through an analysis of MODIS satellite imagery and in situ moisture data, the triangle method was used to develop a conceptual land surface temperature−vegetation index model, and spatial temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) values to describe soil moisture relationships for a broad landscape. This study was situated mainly within two states of the southern United States (Georgia and South Carolina). The total study area was about 30 million hectares. The analyses were conducted using information gathered from the 2009 growing season (from the end of March to September). The results of the study showed that soil moisture content was inversely proportional to TVDI, and that TVDI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had a slightly higher correlation with soil moisture than TVDI based on the enhanced vegetation index (EVI).

  • Przeździecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2275-5223 E-mail: karol_przezdziecki@is.pw.edu.pl (email)
  • Zawadzki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-0018 E-mail: j.j.zawadzki@gmail.com
  • Cieszewski, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-4406 E-mail: thebiomat@gmail.com
  • Bettinger, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5454-3970 E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu
article id 1520, category Research article
Tomáš Kolář, Kyriaki Giagli, Miroslav Trnka, Emílie Bednářová, Hanuš Vavrčík, Michal Rybníček. (2016). Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1520
Highlights: The timing of leaf phenological phases in European beech is controlled by temperature; Tree-ring width variations in European beech positively reflect growing season precipitation and soil water availability; The water availability in the top 40 cm of soil layer is more important for European beech growth than that in the deeper layers; Extension of the phenological growing season does not increase tree-ring width.

Various environmental conditions (heat waves and drought events) strongly affect leaf and xylem phenology. Disentangling the influence of temperature, precipitation and soil moisture content (AWR) on the forest productivity remains an important research area. We analyzed the impact of climate variability on the leaf phenology (10 sample trees) and radial growth (17 sample trees) of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The study was conducted on 130-year-old European beech trees growing in a temperate forest stand in the Czech Republic. Detailed 20-year phenological monitoring was performed at the study site (1992–2011). As expected, leaf phenological events were mainly driven by the growing season temperatures. Leaf unfolding was highly affected positively by spring temperatures and the top-layer (to 40 cm) AWR in March. The correlation of tree-ring width with the interpolated climate data was positive significant for the growing season AWR and precipitation signal. Furthermore, the water availability in the top soil layer was found to be an important predictor of tree growth and extremely low growth occurrence. The extended phenological growing season, which was caused by a temperature increase, was not followed by an increased tree-ring width. The examined relationships point out the significance of the water availability in the top soil layer in European beech stands.

  • Kolář, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: koldatom@gmail.com (email)
  • Giagli, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: giagli@node.mendelu.cz
  • Trnka, Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Agrosystems and Bioclimatology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: mirek_trnka@yahoo.com
  • Bednářová, Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědelská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: bednarov@mendelu.cz
  • Vavrčík, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vavrcik@mendelu.cz
  • Rybníček, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: michalryb@post.cz
article id 910, category Research article
Gernot Erber, Christian Kanzian, Karl Stampfer. (2012). Predicting moisture content in a pine logwood pile for energy purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.910
Determining the moisture content of naturally dried fuel stock without frequent measuring is a problem still unsolved. Modelling moisture content based on automatically captured meteorological data could provide a solution. An accurate model would allow the drying period and the point of chipping to be optimised. For the experimental study, a metal frame supported by load sensors and loaded with 17 tons of logwood was set up next to a meteorological station. A multiple linear regression model was used to link meteorological and load data to provide a formula for determining the moisture content. The pile dried for a period of 14 months (average temperature of 7.3 °C, a humidity of 81%, and 777 mm of rainfall). The overall moisture content dropped from 50.1% to 32.2%. The regression model, which based on daily means and sums of meteorological parameters, provided a mean deviance from the observed curve of –0.51%±0.71% within the period of investigation. Relative humidity was found to be most important parameter in drying. Increased moisture content resulting from rainfall greater than 30 mm per day reverted back to pre-rainfall values within two to three days, if no other rainfall events followed. Covering the pile would have a positive effect on the drying performance. In terms of economic benefit it could be shown that natural drying is beneficial. Overall this study shows that meteorological data used in site specific drying models can adequately predict the moisture content of naturally dried logwood.
  • Erber, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: gernot.erber@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Kanzian, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.kanzian@boku.ac.at
  • Stampfer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: karl.stampfer@boku.ac.at
article id 98, category Research article
Meeri Pearson, Markku Saarinen, Kari Minkkinen, Niko Silvan, Jukka Laine. (2011). Mounding and scalping prior to reforestation of hydrologically sensitive deep-peated sites: factors behind Scots pine regeneration success. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 98. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.98
Watering up typically ensues after clearcutting forestry-drained peatland forests. Thus, the effectiveness of maintenance drainage and soil preparation procedures becomes paramount for establishing a new generation of commercial forest. Mounding is the primary method of soil preparation applied in regeneration sites lying on deep peat. As raised planting spots, mounds are resistant to waterlogging and assumed to be beneficial for organic matter (OM) decomposition via, e.g., increased soil aeration and temperature, which would also enhance seedling growth. In recent years, however, less intensive and cheaper alternatives like scalping have been sought with some reported cases of success. Our case study investigated the survival and growth of Scots pine outplants in mounds, scalps, and unprepared microsites along a moisture gradient. After three growing seasons, mounding accelerated neither seedling growth nor OM decomposition relative to the unprepared treatment. Survival in mounds was nonetheless superior overall. Scalps behaved as water collecting depressions leading to a catastrophic regeneration result. Based on our findings, water table level (WTL) overrides other growth-controlling factors in excess moisture conditions. To combat watering up coupled with greater than normal rainfall, we recommend reforestation strategies which provide elevated, prepared planting spots (i.e., mounds) or utilize unprepared, higher microforms.
  • Pearson, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: meeri.pearson@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silvan, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 140, category Research article
Jussi Laurila, Risto Lauhanen. (2010). Moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood at clear cutting areas and roadside storage sites. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 140. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.140
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood is a potential source of bioenergy in Finland. The heating value of stump wood depends on, among other things, the moisture, carbon and ash content of the wood. In this study the moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood was examined immediately after harvesting at the clear cutting area and after different drying times at the roadside storage sites. Immediately after stump harvesting the average moisture content (wet basis) was 53%. The stump wood dried fairly fast during spring and summer. One month after stump harvesting, the average moisture content was about 31%. If the stump wood had dried well once, water absorption became very weak and the moisture content increased only slightly in the late autumn. Each spring and summer the moisture content of the stumps was lower than during the previous year. Annually the lowest moisture content was observed at the beginning of July and the highest at both the beginning and the end of the year. The moisture content of stump wood followed an upwards opening parabola over a one year period and was repeated each year. Three years after harvesting the heating value of the stump wood was still 5.241 MWh/ton. Overall, when harvesting took place in the spring or early summer, the stump wood was combustible after a one month drying period immediately after harvesting.
  • Laurila, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Agriculture and Forestry, FI-63700 Ähtäri, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.laurila@seamk.fi (email)
  • Lauhanen, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Agriculture and Forestry, FI-63700 Ähtäri, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 455, category Research article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Maajärvi, Harri Strandman, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.455
This study considered how climate change affects the accumulation of snow, the soil moisture and soil frost at sites without tree cover in boreal conditions in Finland (60°–70°N). An increase of 4.5 °C in annual mean temperature and 20 % in annual precipitation were assumed for Finland by the year 2100 according to A2 emission scenario. Along with climate, the soil type of the permanent inventory plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory was used. Soil and climate data were combined by using a process-based ecosystem model. Calculations were done for four periods: current climate (1971–2000), near future (2001–2020), mid-term future (2021–2050) and long-term future (2071–2100). According to our simulations, the average monthly duration and depth of snow decreased over the simulation period. However, the increasing precipitation may locally increase the snow depths in the mid-term calculations. In the autumn and winter, the average volumetric soil moisture content slightly increased in southern Finland during the near future, but decreased towards the end of the century, but still remained on a higher level than presently. In northern Finland, the soil moisture in the autumn and winter increased by the end of this century. In the summertime soil moisture decreased slightly regardless of the region. Throughout Finland, the length and the depth of soil frost decreased by the end of the century. In the south, the reduction in the depth was largest in the autumn and spring, while in the mid-winter it remained relatively deep in the middle of the century. In the north, the depth tended to increase during the first two calculation periods, in some areas, even during the third calculation period (2071–2100) due to reduced insulation effects of snow during cold spells. The wintertime increase in soil moisture and reduced soil frost may be reflected to reduced carrying capacity of soil for timber harvesting.
  • Kellomäki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi (email)
  • Maajärvi, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Strandman, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 414, category Research article
Markku Larjavaara, Timo Kuuluvainen, Heidi Tanskanen, Ari Venäläinen. (2004). Variation in forest fire ignition probability in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.414
We examined climate-caused spatio-temporal variation of forest fire ignition probability in Finland based on empirical ignition experiments and 37 years of meteorological data from 26 meteorological stations scattered across Finland. First, meteorological data was used in order to estimate the variation in forest fuel moisture content with the model of the Finnish forest fire risk index. Second, based on data from empirical ignition experiments, fuel moisture content was linked with forest fire ignition probability. In southern Finland average forest fire ignition probability typically peaks in late May and early June, whereas in the northern part of the country the peak occurs at the end of June. There was a three-fold difference in the average annual ignition probability between the north-eastern part (3%) and south-western part of the country (9%). The observed differences in fire ignition probability suggest that the characteristics of the natural fire regime also vary considerably in the southern versus the northern part of the country.
  • Larjavaara, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.larjavaara@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kuuluvainen, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tanskanen, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Venäläinen, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7144, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kuivatuksen tehokkuus ja turpeen lämpötalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 4 article id 7144. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7144
English title: The effect of drainage degree on temperature conditions of peat.

The determination of biologically most favourable strip width in peatlands to be drained has been hindered by lack of information of the temperature conditions in the surface peat and in the air close to the ground after drainage of different intensities. Temperature measurements were carried out on peatlands drained to different degrees in Central Finland in the summers of 1960 and 1961. The ground water level in the measuring points, and the strip width served as the criterion for differences in water condition.

When the drainage became more intensive, the temperature of the surface peat decreased. However, temperature differences were small, and discernible only when the differences of water conditions were considerable. The effect of strip condition to temperature seems to be of similar nature than the ground water level. Even in extreme cases temperature differences due to different drainage intensity were relatively small, and seldom exceeded 2°C.

Differences in temperature dependent on the growing stock may be as high as 10°C. Thus, the temperature of the surface peat may be dependent on factors more important than temperature differences caused by aspects of drainage. A well-drained peatland is coldest at the beginning of a growing season compared with poorly drained peatland. The temperature differences increase deeper in the peat. This is caused by the better heat conductivity of the moist peat. Also, daily variations in temperature in the surface peat are large in moist peat.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7282, category Article
Vilho A. Pesola. (1934). Die Waldvegetation feuchten Geländes in N-Kuusamo und SE-Kuolajärvi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 5 article id 7282. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7282
English title: Forest vegetation on the moisture areas of North-Kuusamo-commune and south-east Kuolajärvi-commune.

The article presents the studies about the vegetation communes on moisture soils in northern Finland. The studies are part of another study about calcium carbonate content of the soil as a factor influencing the vegetation.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Pesola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5522, category Article
Jari Kokkola. (1993). Drying of pulpwood in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15683

Drying of pulpwood bolts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), birch (Betula spp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was studied by measuring the drying of sample bolts placed in experimental piles. The results revealed that the main factors affecting timber drying are debarked surface area, moisture content at the time of felling and the size of the bolt. Furthermore, pine and spruce bolts located in the upper part of the pile dry better than bolts near the ground.

The investigation of green weight changes of whole piles of pine and birch was based on data collected in 1987–91. The green weight of piles was dependent mainly on storage time and on region; effect of weather variables could not be distinguished. Specific calibrating coefficients for motor-manual and mechanical cutting were included in the green weight equations.

Comparison between green weight equations and detected weight losses of sample piles indicates that fitted models seem to produce at least approximate results for the green weights, the said results thus lending themselves to be utilized as part of a transportation cost model.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kokkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5340, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1988). Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15497

A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of fabric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radiogram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7035, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1920). Wasserverbrauch der Bäume und Feuchtigkeitsverhältnisse des Bodens. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 7035. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7035
English title: Use of water of the trees and the moisture conditions in the soil.

The data has been collected in the dry heathy forests in Harjavalta commune in south-west Finland and in Sodankylä commune in Lapland in summer time 1918 and 1919. The aim to the study was to find out how does the water consumption of the trees affect the moisture conditions of the soil and how they are linked to the regeneration of the forest.

Trees in one age class have a certain spatial distribution: the greater the distance between trees the older the trees and the smaller the distance, the younger the trees. This seem to rather be due to the development of the root system and the nutrition intake of a tree than the competition for light. The moisture content of the upper soil layers is higher in the open areas than in the closed canopy stands. Hence there are more seedlings growing in open areas.   However, it is not clear whether the results apply for other forest site types as well, and more research is needed.     

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4948, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Puun ja kuoren tiheys ja kosteus sekä kuoren osuus koivun, kuusen ja männyn oksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14794
English title: Density and moisture content of wood and bark, and bark percentage in the branches of birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine.

In the study the proportion of branch samples of various diameter were studied. The branches were taken from small trees to be harvested by total tree chipping method. The material consisted of 1,056 branch samples of birch (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula Roth, and Betula pubescens Erhr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at intervals of 20 cm along each branch.

With exception of the basic density of bark, there was a relation between all the other properties which were studied and the diameter. Even when the effect of diameter was eliminated, in many cases the effect of the distance of the samples from the stem became apparent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7535, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Einige Beobachtungen über die Aufarbeitung und Verwahrung des Brennholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 7535. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7535
English title: Observations about manufacturing and storage of firewood.
Original keywords: Brennholz; Wassergehalt; Versuche

The moisture content of the wood has negative impact on transport, storage and use of wood, particularly this can be noticed on firewood. The moister the wood the harder is the transportation and storing. The high percentage of moisture also reduces the heating power of fire wood.

Drying of the wood of different tree species was studied at the forestry institute Tuomarniemi with following experiment setup: pines, spruces, birches, aspens and alders were logged and cut into one-meter split billets. Then they were dices according Huber’s formula. The wood was stacked in three similar ricks (stacks), varying the direction of the cut surface. The various tree species were distributed evenly to every rick. The split billets were weighted straight after manufacturing and after every month.

The wood dries fastest during spring and summer months. The direction of the cut surface of split billets in the rick makes no big differences in drying. The coniferous wood dries up to lower moisture content than broadleaved   woods.
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4701, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1960). Tutkimuksia koivuhalkojen painosta ja kosteudesta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4701. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9136
English title: Studies on the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood.

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood and to calculate its heat values. The weight was measured of 255 truck loads in six different locations during the winter 1959–1960. Moisture analysis was made of sample specimens collected from the loads.

The dry matter weight of the birch fuel wood was in an average 333 kg/m3 piled measure. The lowest measured weight was 319 and the highest 341 kg/m3 piled measure. The moisture content in the different parts of the pile varies distinctly. Driest wood is found in the middle of the pile. Wood in the top and bottom of the pile have about similar moisture content.

The manner of storage influences the drying process. The moisture content of open piles is 20.5%, of paper-covered piles 19.9% and roofed multiple-piles of split fuel wood 19.3%. The 2-year-old piles were dryer than 1-year-old ones. Higher percentages (25% and 20 %, respectively) than those measured in the study, are recommended for practical use. The heat value of the wood stored in a pile was in average 1,435 Mcal/m3 piled measure, and 1,455 Mcal/m3 piled measure sampled from a truck load.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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