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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'needles'.

Category: Research article

article id 9980, category Research article
Eino Levkoev, Lauri Mehtätalo, Katri Luostarinen, Pertti Pulkkinen, Anatoly Zhigunov, Heli Peltola. (2018). Development of height growth and frost hardiness for one-year-old Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions in response to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9980.
Highlights: Elevated temperature resulted in increased height growth, delayed onset and shortened duration of autumn frost hardiness development in Norway spruce seedlings; Elevated temperature increased variation between genotypes in height growth and frost hardiness development; Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no effect on the development of height or autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce seedlings.

The mean temperature during the potential growing season (April–September) may increase by 1 °C by 2030, and by 4 °C, or even more, by 2100, accompanied by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 536–807 ppm, compared to the current climate of 1981–2010, in which atmospheric CO2 is at about 350 ppm. This may affect both the growth and frost hardiness of boreal trees. In this work, we studied the responses of height and autumn frost hardiness development in 22 half-sib genotypes of one-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings to elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration under greenhouse conditions. The three climate treatments used were: T+1 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; T+4 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; and T+4 °C above ambient and elevated CO2 (700 ppm). The height growth rate and final height were both higher under T+4 °C compared to T+1 °C. Temperature increase also delayed the onset, and shortened the duration, of autumn frost hardiness development. Elevated CO2 did not affect the development of height or frost hardiness, when compared to the results without CO2 elevation under the same temperature treatment. Higher temperatures resulted in greater variation in height and frost hardiness development among genotypes. Three genotypes with different genetic backgrounds showed superior height growth, regardless of climate treatment; however, none showed a superior development of autumn frost hardiness. In future studies, clonal or full-sib genetic material should be used to study the details of autumn frost hardiness development among different genotypes.

  • Levkoev, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Computing, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luostarinen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen,  Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-16200 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhigunov, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Forestry Faculty, RU-194021, Institutskiy per. 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 93, category Research article
Pertti Pulkkinen, Saila Varis, Raimo Jaatinen, Aulis Leppänen, Anne Pakkanen. (2011). Increasing survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings with selection based on autumn coloration. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 93.
This study evaluates the possibility of using autumn coloration of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings as an indicator of adaptation to harsh climate conditions. One-year old seedlings from natural stands with different origins and seed orchards were classified as “red/reddish” and “green” based on the needle color after artificially increased night length in nursery and then measured after 14 years in field trials. In almost all the studied groups seedlings classified as “red/reddish” had significantly higher survival rate than seedlings classified as “green”. The survival of “red/reddish” was 14.2% higher than “green” among natural stand seed material and 56.2% among seed orchard material. During the study period the survival difference between “red/reddish” and “green” seedlings tended to increase. The seedling color had limited connection with the height growth, even though the trees classified as “red/reddish” were slightly taller than those classified as “green”. However, the total productivity over all field trials, described here as a heightsum, of “red/reddish” trees was 15% higher than productivity of “green” trees from natural stand material, and 61% higher than those from seed orchard material. It seems that controlled selection based on autumn color can be utilized within seed crops of different types with the aim to increase the adaptability of seed material to different environmental conditions.
  • Pulkkinen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Varis, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leppänen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakkanen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 104, category Research article
Eeva Terhonen, Teresa Marco, Hui Sun, Risto Jalkanen, Risto Kasanen, Martti Vuorinen, Fred Asiegbu. (2011). The effect of latitude, season and needle-age on the mycota of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 104.
The seasonal and latitudinal influences on the diversity and abundance of mycota of Pinus sylvestris needles were investigated. A sample of 1620 needles resulted in a total of 3868 fungal isolates, which were assigned to 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of these OTUs (65%) belong to Ascomycota and only 0.03% was grouped as Basidiomycota. The dominant and most frequently isolated OTU was Hormonema dematioides. Other well-known species with a saprotrophic nutritional mode such as Lophodermium spp. were also observed. The abundance of fungi increased from fall to spring. Frequencies varied significantly in Northern and Southern Finland suggesting that factors associated with latitudinal differences have an impact on the abundance of fungi.
  • Terhonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Marco, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sun, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kasanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Asiegbu, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 337, category Research article
Hannu Salminen, Risto Jalkanen. (2006). Modelling variation of needle density of Scots pine at high latitudes. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 337.
The relationship between apical extension and needle density and the effect of temperature and precipitation on needle density was modelled using data gathered from forty-nine felled sample trees in five stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) located along a latitudinal transect from the Arctic Circle up to the northern timberline. The lengths were measured and needle densities assessed from all annual shoots located above 1.3 metres using the Needle Trace Method (NTM), resulting, on average, in 39-year-long chronologies. The mean overall needle density was 7.8 short shoots per shoot centimetre. Needle-density variation in the measured data was mostly due to within-tree differences. Of the total variance, within-tree variation yielded 46%, between-tree 21%, and between-year 27%. The dependence of needle density on annual height growth was studied by fitting a multilevel model with random stand-, tree- and year-intercepts, the independent variables being tree age and height growth. There was a very strong negative correlation between height growth and needle density, and the proportion of between-year variance explained solely by height growth and age was 50%. The stand-wise residual variations and their correlations with the temperature and precipitation time series were further analysed with cross-correlation analysis in order to screen for additional independent variables. The only possible additional independent variable found was the precipitation of April–May (precipitation of May in the two northernmost stands). When it was added to the multi-level model, the proportion of explained between-year needle-density variance was 55%, but the overall fit of the model improved only slightly. The effect of late winter and early spring precipitation indicates the role of snow coverage and snowmelt on the growing conditions in the three southernmost stands. In general, stand-level needle-density variation is mostly due to changes in height growth.
  • Salminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 373, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Pekka Tamminen. (2005). Boron, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization in Norway spruce stands suffering from growth disturbances. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 373.
Growth disturbance symptoms typical of B deficiency have been reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in many parts of eastern Finland. In order to test the B deficiency hypothesis and explore the possibilities of curing the disturbed trees with B fertilization, three experiments were established in October 1999 in young Norway spruce stands growing on fertile sites in eastern Finland. All the stands contained healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees with growth disturbances typical of B deficiency (B < 5 mg kg–1). 40 healthy, 40 slightly damaged, and 40 severely damaged trees were selected as sample trees in each stand. In May 2000, the trees were fertilized with 2.0 kg B ha–1 as borax (B), 2.0 kg B ha–1 and 40 kg P ha–1 as superphosphate (B+P) or 200 kg N ha–1 as urea (N). The control trees were not fertilized (0). The needle response to B fertilization was rapid, relatively high B concentrations being achieved already after one growing season. Boron fertilization cured the growth disorders and increased height growth within four years, but had no effect on diameter growth. The trees also recovered without B fertilization, but to a lesser extent compared to the B fertilized trees. Compared to the control, boron fertilization increased the height growth in all the disorder classes, i.e. 5, 17 and 19 cm yr–1 for healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees, respectively. As the healthy trees also seemed to benefit from B fertilization, this indicates that B deficiency in fact retards height growth before any disorder symptoms become apparent in individual trees. Compared with B alone, the application of P together with B gave no additional benefit. Nitrogen fertilization alone appeared to have a detrimental effect on height growth in the severely disturbed trees.
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Tamminen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 656, category Research article
Klaus Silfverberg, Markus Hartman. (1999). Effects of different phosphorus fertilisers on the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine stands on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 656.
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of phosphorus fertilisers of different solubility and different phosphorus doses. The material was collected from 8 field experiments situated on drained peatlands in southern and central Finland (60°–65°N). The sites were drained, oligotrophic pine fens and pine bogs, which had been fertilised between 1961 and 1977 with different combinations of N, K and P. In 1991–94 stand measurements and foliar and peat sampling were carried out on 162 sample plots. Apatite, rock phosphate and superphosphate affected basal area growth to a rather similar extent. However, apatite slightly surpassed superphosphate and rock phosphate at the end of the study period in two hollow-rich S. fuscum bogs. Higher doses of phosphorus did not significantly increase the basal area growth. The foliar phosphorus concentrations clearly reflected the effect of the P fertilisation. Especially on the pine bogs basic fertilisation with 66 kg P/ha maintained the needle phosphorus concentrations at a satisfactory level for more than 25 years after fertilisation. The amount of phosphorus in the 0–20 cm peat layer was not significantly increased either by basic fertilisation or refertilisation. The phosphorus reserves in the peat in the individual experiments were between 88 and 327 kg/ha. There was a strong correlation between the amounts of phosphorus and iron in the peat. Large amounts of iron in peat may reduce the solubility and availability of phosphorus. According to the foliar phosphorus concentrations in the basic-fertilised plots, the need for refertilisation seems to be unnecessary during the 25-year postfertilisation period at least. None of the basic fertilisation treatments seriously retarded the basal area growth compared to the refertilised treatments. There seems to be a greater shortage of potassium than of phosphorus, because the foliar potassium concentrations and the amounts of potassium in the 0–20 cm peat layer were very low in several of the experiments.
  • Silfverberg, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Hartman, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 661, category Research article
Eira-Maija Savonen, Anna Saarsalmi. (1999). Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 661.
Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar nutrient concentrations of Scots pine grafts were investigated in a seed orchard in southern Finland. The seed and foliar samples for chemical analyses were collected during winters 1985–86 and 1988–89 from 39 grafts per clone fertilized in spring 1986. There were 6 clones and 13 treatments for each clone with three replications. The treatments consisted of N, P, K in various combinations, micronutrients, wood ash and grass control. Macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, B) were analysed. There were statistically significant differences between the clones in seed nutrient concentrations. The variation of the K, Mg, Ca, Zn and Cu concentrations between the two study years was considerably larger in the seeds than in the needles. The concentrations of these elements in the seeds were low in the year of an abundant seed crop in spite of fertilization. This had, however, no negative effects on germination of seeds. The proportions of crude fat and crude protein were high in both years (34% and 35% in 1985 ; 33% and 38% in 1988). Fertilization had only minor or no effect at all on the seed chemical composition in the orchard with a satisfactory nutrient status of the soil. Also on the foliar nutrient concentrations the effect of the clone was stronger than that of fertilization. Grafts with large needles produced heavy seeds, which had more storage proteins than the lighter seeds.
  • Savonen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5565, category Article
Tytti Sarjala, Seppo Kaunisto. (1996). Effect of different potassium sources on the seasonal variation of potassium and free polyamines in Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5565.

Seasonal fluctuations in free polyamines, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and potassium concentrations were studied for two years (1992–1993) in three needle years of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on a drained mire in western Finland. Seven different fertilizer treatments involving five different sources of potassium were used.

Putrescine concentrations were high in winter and in May but low in summer. High peaks in putrescine in March and May could be found in unrefertilized or rock phosphate treatments. Spermidine and spermine concentrations were high in March and May. In December spermine concentrations were low. Biotite increased the needle potassium concentrations less than the other potassium fertilizers but the putrescine concentrations or the putrescine/spermidine ratio to about the same level. This suggests that biotite, although very slowly soluble, can reasonably satisfy potassium nutrition of young pine trees.

The potassium concentrations of needles in all the fertilization treatments were higher in winter than in summer. The response of putrescine to the potassium concentration was strongly negative in all the needle years and sampling times. In March, May and December the response of putrescine to potassium was fairly similar in both years but not in June and August. The results suggest that the potassium concentrations during the growing season cannot be used for estimating the potassium nutrition of trees, because the variation between the years may be substantial, whereas the needle putrescine concentration or putrescine/spermidine ratio indicates the suboptimum potassium status of Scots pine fairly well. Needle putrescine concentrations over 500 nmol g-1FW quite regularly coincided with a unsatisfactory potassium nutrition and concentrations over 1,000 nmol g-1FW were a reliable indication of potassium deficiency. Putrescine/spermidine ratios below 5 indicated a satisfactory potassium nutrition in all needle years throughout the year.

  • Sarjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaunisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5527, category Article
Leena Finér. (1994). Variation in needle nutrient concentrations in the crown of Scots pine on peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5527.

Variation in needle nutrient concentrations with age and vertical location in the crown was studied in three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on peat soils in Eastern Finland. The concentrations of N, P, Fe and Zn decreased down the crown and those of Ca and Mn increased. Potassium and magnesium concentration patterns differed between sites.

Potassium and Mg concentrations were highest in the current needles at all heights in the crown, iron and manganese concentrations were highest in the oldest needles. The concentrations of N, P and Zn did not vary with needle age.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5482, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari. (1992). Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5482.

Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied during 1984–86 in three stands of different stages of development. The dry weight of current needles was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the tree top than in a composite sample representing the whole crown. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of nutrients in needles between upper and lower crown levels. The concentrations of mobile nutrients N, P, K and Mg decreased with increasing needle age whereas the concentrations of poorly mobile nutrients Ca, Mn and Fe increased during needle ageing. The coefficient of variation for nutrient concentrations varied irregularly when only a few trees were sampled but stabilized when tree number was ten or more.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Helmisaari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5377, category Article
Maija Jarva, Arja Tervahauta. (1989). Neulasten rikkianalyysi. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5377.
English title: A comparison of sulphur analysis of conifer needle samples.

The results of an intercalibration of sulphur analysis by 24 laboratories are evaluated. The analysis was made by one or more of six methods. The following three methods were found to be satisfactory as regards relative speed and reliability: Leco S analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and vacuum ICO emission spectroscopy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Jarva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervahauta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5367, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of Scots pine needles along a pollutant gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5367.

Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of living Scots pine needles was studied along an atmospheric pollutant gradient in the surroundings of the industrial town Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Two 9-km-long transects, each with nine sample plots, running to the S and SW from factory complex were delimited in a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest. Needle samples were taken from 10 trees at each site, and from two separate sites in Tuusula near Helsinki. There was considerable spatial variation in the elemental composition of the needles. Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn) showed a clear pattern of exponentially decreasing concentration with increasing distance from the emission source. Sodium and potassium concentrations, as well as the ash weight and air-dry weight, also decreased. Magnesium, manganese and calcium concentrations increased with increasing distance.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5358, category Article
Lauri Kärenlampi, Andrew J. Friedland. (1988). Cytopathological and external observations on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles damaged in winter in Vermont. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5358.

The red spruce (Picea rubens sarg.) population in the Green Mountains in Vermont has showed foliar deterioration that has not been fully explained. The most characteristic needle injuries of the sensitive trees appear in late winter when the first-year needles turn brown. The cytopathological and external observations on the symptoms support the interpretation that winter stress triggers the damage. It is possible that some anthropogenic stress factors (components of acid deposition or ozone) and/or natural factors predispose the trees to the damage.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Friedland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5356, category Article
Pekka Lähdesmäki, Pekka Pietiläinen. (1988). Seasonal variation in the nitrogen metabolism of young Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5356.

Seasonal changed in total nitrogen, protein, amino acid, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities in the needles, buds and shoots of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied. A relationship between the variation in the nitrogen metabolism and both winter dormancy and its breaking was proposed. Pine tissues stored soluble nitrogen over the winter largely in the form of arginine which, in addition to a high nitrogen content, can neutralize acidic cytoplasmic constituents such as nitrates and nitrites. Specific nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities were highest in late summer or autumn, and is apparently connected to the mobilization of nitrogen reserves for the winter.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähdesmäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietiläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5193, category Article
Juhani Jokinen, Antti Häkkinen, Reijo Karjalainen, Kari Markkanen, Tapani Säynätkari. (1983). Effects of air pollution on Scots pine needles. I. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5193.

The effect of meteorological factors, the total sulphur content of the needles, and SO2 concentration in the ambient air on total peroxidase activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was investigated in material obtained from Southern Finland. The correlation between temperature and total peroxidase activity was highest during the most active growing period. Linear correlation between relative humidity and total peroxidase activity appears to be low. The correlation between atmospheric SO2 concentration and total peroxidase activity was also low and varied inconsistently. The detected low association between the sulphur dioxide pollutant and the total peroxidase activity was assumed to be related to the sensitivity of peroxidase activity, many eco-physiological factors and to the genetic variation in conifers. It is difficult to separate a response due to this pollutant from environmental and genetic factors in a complex coniferous forest. Using total peroxidase activity as a routine indicator of air pollution seems to be unsuitable because of the large sample size required in order to obtain a reliable measurement of the pollutant’s effect under low pollution levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Häkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Karjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Markkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Säynätkari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5189, category Article
Anneli Viherä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Havaintoja nuorten mäntyjen latvusten hienorakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5189.
English title: Observations on structure and growth of crowns of young Scots pines.

A study based on four young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed that the number of needle-covered shoots per crown volume unit was independent on tree position representing a constant value of 600–700 shoots/m3. This was true, even though the total shoot number decreased with deteriorating tree position. In tree crown there were fourth-order shoots in good light conditions but only first- and second-order-shoots, when light conditions were poor. The length of shoots decreased in accordance with increasing order of the shoot.

The share of the needle biomass and growth increased, when the shoot order increased. Similarly, the share of needles increased with deteriorating tree position. This was especially true in the upper crown. On the other hand, the share of the crown from the total biomass and growth increased with improving tree position. The percentage of crown system of a dominant tree in a sparse stand was 64% of that of biomass and 83% of that of growth. The corresponding values for a suppressed tree in a dense stand were 36% and 35%. The growth of wood, bark and needles in crown systems was linearly correlated with prevailing light conditions around the branch. It is evident that the tree position and light condition within the stand control the wood, bark and needle growth in the crown system and their interrelationships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Viherä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5171, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1983). Canopy structure and light climate in a young Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5171.

The needle area distribution and crown structure of a young planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand are described. The crown structure and crown shape showed apparent regularity in crown structure regardless of stand dynamics. Similarly, the shoot structure and individual needle area showed regularity in the number of needles per branch and shoot length unit, and consequent phytoarea density inside the needle cylinder. Also, the shoot area and needle area distributions were found to show a regular distribution of needle biomass throughout the crown, also inside the crown, in the dominant trees. In the suppressed trees the needle biomass was located in the upper crown and on the surface area of the crown. Estimates of the canopy needle area and distributions are given. The results were applied in calculations of the within-stand light regime. The results correlated well with the empirical results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oker-Blom, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5167, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi, Raimo Hiltunen, Riitta Löyttyniemi, Seppo Räisänen. (1982). Monoterpene composition of needle oil of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus caribaea. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5167.

The monoterpene composition of the needle oil of Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. and Pinus caribaea Morelet growing in Zambia were studied by means of GC-MS. P. oocarpa needle samples were taken from 29 trees representing different clones in a seed orchard and from 43 trees in a commercial plantation in 1980. The P. caribaea needle samples were collected from 17 clones in a seed orchard.

Nine compounds were positively identified in the monoterpene fraction of P. oocarpa and eight in that of P. caribaea. The amounts of these compounds showed marked tree-to-tree variation and the sample trees were screened into distinct groups on the basis of the variation. The results give a basis for selection in favour of pest resistance and turpentine yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5153, category Article
T. Raunemaa, R. Erkinjuntti, M. Gerlander, A. Hautojärvi, K. Kaisla, H.-S. Katainen. (1981). Multielement analysis of treated pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5153.

A comparison study concerning the effects of acid rain on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings has been performed. Two different X-ray fluorescence methods, PIXE and IXRF, were employed to produce multielement analyses of the samples. Seedlings were treated for 3 months with watering of pH=7 or pH=3 liquids on the needles and on the roots. One year and two years old needles of the seedlings were inspected for changes in photosynthetic rate as well as for changes in elemental concentrations.

Twelve elements from Si to Zn were compared in the samples. The PIXE results show that the amounts of most of these elements in the needles of the seedlings grown in sand increase, when treated with acid water. This growth is clearer when the roots are treated with acid water. The elemental concentrations of the needles in the seedlings grown in soil on the other hand decrease slightly.

  • Raunemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erkinjuntti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gerlander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hautojärvi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaisla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5148, category Article
A. Hautojärvi, S. Ahonen, R. Erkinjuntti, H.-S. Katainen, T. Lappalainen, T. Raunemaa. (1981). Surface concentration of sulphur on Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5148.

A method to determine sulphur as sulphate has been applied to search for surface concentration of sulphate sulphur on needle samples. The method is based on reducing sulphates as volatile hydrogen sulphide gas by using hydriodic acid. The hydrogen sulphide gas is swept with nitrogen into an absorbent solution. Sulphide ion concentration in solution is then measured using ion selective electrodes.

The method was applied on one to four years old needle samples collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at 0.9 to 15.9 km distances from a 1,064 MW coal-fired power plant in Southern Finland. Surface sulphate values found in the samples closer than 4 km to the power plant were 50 to 100% higher than a nearly constant background level. No significant variation of values with needle age was found. The advantages of the method compares to other methods for sulphur determination are speed, reasonable sensitivity and low detection limit.

  • Hautojärvi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erkinjuntti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lappalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raunemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5146, category Article
J. N. Cape, D. Fowler. (1981). Changes in epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris exposed to polluted air. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5146.

Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study structural changes in epicuticular vax of Pinus sylvestris L. with time. Changes in the contact angle of water droplets and in cuticular transpiration were also measured. By using material from a polluted and an unpolluted site it was shown that the ageing process occurs faster on polluted air, leading to greater cuticular transpiration and smaller contact angles at polluted sites.

  • Cape, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fowler, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5145, category Article
Torleif Bramryd. (1981). Environmental effects of heavy metals distributed from power plants. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5145.

Increased prices on oil have resulted in the search for alternative energy sources, e.g. coal, peat, biomass, different types of waste. Combustion especially of waste, coal and peat emits large quantities of air pollutants such as heavy metals but also harmful organic substances. Heavy metals are not easily separated from the smoke, and the concentrations are often high in the emissions even with advanced fly-ash separators.

Ecological investigations carried out around a coal burning power plant in Finland using mosses and pine needles as parameters are presented in the paper. Increased concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and V have been found near the plant. Often a clear gradient was found with increased concentrations at decreased distance from the power plant.

  • Bramryd, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5139, category Article
Boguslaw Molski, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Wojciech Dmuchowski. (1981). Content of sulphur and fluorine compounds in Scots pine needles as an indicator of air pollution in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5139.

Our preliminary findings indicate that the content of total sulphur and soluble fluorides in needles of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reflects the degree of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. A project for a map of air pollution in Poland, based on chemical analysis of Scots pine needles, is presented. Results of the total sulphur and soluble fluoride content in 2-year old needles from 15- to 25-year-old trees should yield a picture of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. The first stage will involve the preparation of a map of the area between the Warsaw and Plock agglomerations. This area will be divided into 10 squares with side dimension of 25 km each. Samples will be taken at 5 different sites in each square and also approximately every 5 km along a straight line between these towns.

  • Molski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bytnerowicz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dmuchowski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5138, category Article
K. Kvist, C. Jakobsson. (1981). Vegetation injury occurring after winter at a fertilizer factory. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5138.

Air pollution injury to vegetation often occurs near a fertilizer factory in Central Sweden. The causing incidence often occurs in the winter and the symptoms appear when metabolism starts in the spring. Deciduous and coniferous trees and bushes were injured in the spring of 1979. Samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were analysed for sulphur, total fluorine and nitrogen content, some of them for nitrate and ammonium. All the compounds showed elevated levels, clearly connected with the degree of exposure of the sampling site. The levels were higher in the spring than later in the growing season, indicating involvement in metabolism or leaching. None of the compounds was significantly in excess, although, elevated to an extent to indicate the cause of injury. Most probably the nitrogen compounds were involved. The problems encountered in tracing the causing pollutant, when injury appeared long after the incidence, might be easier solved with regularly used technical monitoring and bioindicator technique.

  • Kvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jakobsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5136, category Article
Sirkka Soikkeli. (1981). The types of ultrastructural injuries in conifer needles of northern industrial environments. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5136.

Ultrastructure of mesophyll of second-year green needles of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Pinus sylvestris (L.) has been studied in several polluted areas in Finland since 1976 (Soikkeli and Tuovinen 1979, Soikkeli 1981a). Four different types of injuries have been found. The types differ with the origin of the material:

1) In needles collected from areas pollute by S-communds the types with reduced grana and/or the with lightening of plastogobuli with simultaneous accumulation of lipid-like material are observed.

2) In needles expose to fluorides (alone or in addition to other pollutants) the type with swollen and/or that with curled thylakoids are found. Both of the latter have also stretched envelopes. In each type of the injury three stages of cell disruption have been described: slight-medium, severe and very severe. On the slight-medium stage the injuries are usually found only in chloroplasts. On severe stage other organelles show injuries, too. In very severe injury all cell organelles are badly disorganized or they disappear completely. The most abundant injuries are usually in needles collected after their second winter. The severity of cell injury depends on the closeness of emission source or on the measured concentration of SO2.

  • Soikkeli, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5116, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1981). Specific needle area of Scots pine and its dependence on light conditions inside the canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5116.

The specific needle area of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed a substantial within-tree and between-tree variation which was associated with the position of the tree and the position of the whorl as indicated by the prevailing crown and branch illumination. In suppressed trees the values of the specific needle area were three to four times those in dominating trees. A similar morphogenesis was discernible in comparison of the lower and the upper part of the crown. The mean specific needle area value for the whole stand was 184 cm2/g.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oker-Blom, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5110, category Article
Helena Lehtiö. (1981). Effect of air pollution on the volatile oil in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5110.

The amount of volatile oil and monoterpene composition in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied in trees growing near two factories and in the city of Kuopio, Central Finland. Trees in these locations are exposed principally to sulphur dioxide and fluoride emissions.

The amount of volatile oil increased with increasing injury class in the trees growing near the fertilizer factory. The amounts of volatile oil in trees near the pulp mill differed in the various injury classes. More oil was found in younger needles. The greatest differences in monoterpene composition were in the amounts of camphene, α-pinene, myrcene and tricyclene.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtiö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946.
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4802, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Äkämäpunkkilaji (Nalepella haarlovi var. piceae-abietis Löyttyniemi, Acarina, Eriophyidae) kuusen taimien tuholaisena taimitarhoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4802.
English title: An Eriophyidae species damaging Norway spruce seedlings in nurseries in Finland.

In Finland the mite Nalepella is found in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in forests practically in every tree, and even in the nurseries. The paper reports on the occurrence of Nalepella Haarlovi var. picea-abietis Löyttyniemi in Finland in tree nurseries in Finland. The study is based on a large material, collected in connection with an investigation into spruce spider mites.

Nalepella lives vagrantly on the needles. Due to the sucking of the mites, the needles turn yellow, become dry an die. Single patches from sucking cannot be seen by the naked eye. They occur on all sides of the needles. The worst damage to spruce seedlings in nurseries is caused to the needles located in the top of the seedling. Sometimes the terminal bud dryes and the whole terminal shoot can die. However, the whole seedlings seldom die in consequence of the Nalepella mite alone. Subsequent damage to the injured needles is often caused by fungus Cladosporium herbarum.

The study shows that the mite causes economically significant damages only in the nurseries. In forests no such damages were observed in seedlings or in older trees. In 1965–68, significant damages occurred in 16 nurseries in Finland. About 600,000 four-year-old seedlings were destroyed in 1967. The damages were economically important only in the 4-year-old seedlings.

According to the study, seedlings damaged by Nalepella can be used for planting as they recover rather well after planting in the forest. Moreover, the damages end after planting, and density of the mite population decreases during the first summer.

The mite overwinters as egg on needles. The eggs hatch in Southern Finland in the end of April and in the beginning of May.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7532, category Article
August Renvall. (1914). Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der sog. partiellen Variabilität der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 7532.
English title: Paper on knowledge about so-called partial variability of pine.

The article deals with outer characters of a pine from Patsjoki-river, in Finnish Lapland (Pinus silvestris L. var. lapponica (Fr.) Hn.). The tables describe the length of the needles, length of the shoots, branching and inflorescence. The statistical calculations of the data are based on W. Johannsen’s  (Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre, Jena 1909)  (Elements of exact genetics) methods. The results cannot be generalized because of the insufficient amount of data. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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