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Articles containing the keyword 'nutrients'.

Category: Research article

article id 1704, category Research article
Inger Sundheim Fløistad, Toril Drabløs Eldhuset. (2017). Effect of photoperiod and fertilization on shoot and fine root growth in Picea abies seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1704
Highlights: Effects of photoperiod and fertilization treatment on Norway spruce seedling growth were examined; Short day treatment and ordinary K:N ratio in the fertilization proved the best combination for achieving seedlings with suitable root and shoot properties for field establishment; Increased K:N ratio in the fertilization did not reduce shoot height growth.

Picea abies seedlings were given three different fertilization treatments in the nutrient solution by varying the potassium:nitrogen (K:N) ratios (2.5, 3.0 or 3.9 g g–1). All fertilization treatments were combined with short-day (SD) treatment or no such treatment (control). Above- and belowground growth responses in the seedlings were analyzed. The SD treatment resulted in significantly reduced shoot height, compared to untreated control, irrespective of K:N ratio. No combination of photoperiod treatment or fertilization treatment affected the root collar diameter. In the current year root fraction with diameter < 0.5 mm, the highest K:N ratio led to significantly increased root length in control plants. In each 0.1 mm root diameter class up to 0.5 mm, the highest K:N ratio significantly stimulated root growth in control plants, while the effect was less evident for SD plants. SD treatment stimulated length growth in some fine root diameter classes. We conclude that SD treatment is a good and sufficient measure to reduce height growth without compromising fine root growth of P. abies seedlings. Fertilization treatment did not significantly improve aboveground growth in SD treated seedlings, and only limited effects on root growth was seen on control plants.

  • Fløistad, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: inger.floistad@nibio.no (email)
  • Eldhuset, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: toril.eldhuset@nibio.no
article id 1301, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Jyrki Hytönen, Hannu Hökkä, Anssi Ahtikoski. (2015). Fertilization increased growth of Scots pine and financial performance of forest management in a drained peatland in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1301. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1301
Highlights: All fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium improved the P and K status and the stem growth of Scots pine still 26 years from application; Wood ash, containing more nutrients than other fertilizers, gave the strongest stand growth response and the highest net present value; Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments and control in net present value, regardless of the applied discount rate, 3%, 4% or 5%.

The long-term effects of fertilization on the needle nutrient concentrations, growth and financial performance of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was examined in a thick-peated drained peatland forest located in Central Finland. At the trial establishment in 1985, the trees were suffering from P and K deficiencies, but their N status was good. The fertilizer treatments were Control, PK (rock phosphate + potassium chloride), ApaBio (apatite phosphorus + biotite) and wood ash, applied both with and without N and replicated six times. All treatments containing phosphorus and potassium increased foliar P and K concentrations above the deficiency limits up to the end of the study period of 26 years. The effect of the fertilization on stand volume growth of Scots pine was strong and continued still at the end of the study period. The trees on ApaBio and PK plots grew nearly two-fold and those on Ash plots over two-fold compared with the control plots. In a thinning made at the end of the study period the total logging removal on fertilized plots was 1.5–2.2 times greater and included more saw logs than on the control plots. Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments as well as the control. With a 5% discounted equivalent annual income (EAI) of Ash fertilizer treatment was statistically significantly (p=0.009) almost three times higher than that of control. As a conclusion, fertilization (either using PK fertilizers or Ash) in N-rich drained peatlands is a financially feasible method of management.

  • Moilanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@luke.fi (email)
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Silmäjärventie 2, FI-69100 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi
  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
article id 1107, category Research article
Arvo Tullus, Arne Sellin, Priit Kupper, Reimo Lutter, Linnar Pärn, Anna K. Jasinska, Meeli Alber, Maarja Kukk, Tea Tullus, Hardi Tullus, Krista Lõhmus, Anu Sõber. (2014). Increasing air humidity – a climate trend predicted for northern latitudes – alters the chemical composition of stemwood in silver birch and hybrid aspen. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1107. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1107
Highlights: Hybrid aspen and silver birch trees grew more slowly under increased air humidity conditions and had higher concentrations of N and P and a lower K to N ratio in stemwood; Minor species-specific changes were detected in stemwood concentrations of cellulose and hemicellulose; Density, calorific value and concentrations of lignin and ash in stemwood were not affected by elevated humidity.
We studied the physicochemical properties of stemwood in saplings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.), grown for four years under artificially elevated relative air humidity (on average by 7%) in field conditions, using the Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) research facility in Estonia. Altogether 91 sample trees from three experimental plots with manipulated air humidity and from three control plots were cut in the dormant season and sampled for the analysis of cellulose, hemicellulose, acid detergent lignin, macronutrients (N, P, K), ash content, density, and calorific value of wood. The analysed trees grew significantly more slowly under elevated humidity conditions, with a more pronounced effect on aspens. Significantly higher concentrations of N and P were observed in the stemwood of both aspens and birches grown under elevated humidity. This could be the result of a change in the content of living parenchyma cells and/or enhanced retranslocation of nutrients into wood parenchyma. Additionally, humidification resulted in a significantly higher concentration of cellulose and a lower concentration of hemicellulose in aspen stemwood, and in significantly lower concentrations of cellulose and K in birch stemwood. Elevated humidity did not affect lignin concentration, ash content, basic density and calorific value of stemwood. Results from the FAHM experiment suggest that the increasing air humidity accompanying global warming at northern latitudes will affect the growth and functioning of deciduous trees and forests, with obvious consequences also for forest management and industry.
  • Tullus, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: arvo.tullus@ut.ee (email)
  • Sellin, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: arne.sellin@ut.ee
  • Kupper, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: priit.kupper@ut.ee
  • Lutter, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: reimo.lutter@emu.ee
  • Pärn, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: linnar.parn@emu.ee
  • Jasinska, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia & Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: jasiak9@wp.pl
  • Alber, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: meeli.alber@ut.ee
  • Kukk, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: maarja.kukk@ut.ee
  • Tullus, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: tea.tullus@emu.ee
  • Tullus, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: hardi.tullus@emu.ee
  • Lõhmus, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: krista.lohmus@ut.ee
  • Sõber, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Lai 40, Tartu 51005, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: anu.sober@ut.ee
article id 40, category Research article
Jorge Martín-García, Elba Espiga, Valentín Pando, Julio Javier Diez. (2011). Factors influencing endophytic communities in poplar plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 40. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.40
The fungal species associated with leaves and twigs from stands of Populus x euramericana in northern Spain were studied with the aim of evaluating the effects of several factors on endophytic communities in these plantations. Endophyte assemblages were analysed in 12 poplar plantations (clone I-214), chosen according to a factorial scheme with two factors: age and site quality. Crown condition, dendrometric variables and foliar nutrients were recorded in each sampled tree to evaluate their effects on endophytic communities. Fungal species richness and relative isolation frequency (RIF) were higher in young stands than in adult stands. Moreover, the age-related differences depended on site quality, with the lowest richness levels observed in adult stands located in poor sites. At stand level, endophyte assemblages varied among stands according to site quality and, to a lesser extent, stand age. On the other hand, crown discoloration, total height and foliar concentrations of iron and zinc may be key indicators of endophytic communities in poplar plantations, at tree level.
  • Martín-García, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida de Madrid 57, 34004 Palencia, Spain, and Forestry Engineering, University of Extremadura, Plasencia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jorgemg@pvs.uva.es (email)
  • Espiga, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Palencia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pando, Statistics and Operations Research Department, University of Valladolid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Diez, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Palencia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 233, category Research article
Raija Laiho, Sakari Sarkkola, Seppo Kaunisto, Jukka Laine, Kari Minkkinen. (2008). Macroscale variation in peat element concentrations in drained boreal peatland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.233
Information on the variation in soil element concentrations at different spatial scales is needed for, e.g., designing efficient sampling strategies, upscaling the processes related to carbon cycling, and planning land use and management. In spite of intensive land use, such information concerning peat soils is still scarce. We analyzed the variation in peat mineral element concentrations in boreal peatland forests drained 50–60 years earlier. We wanted to quantify the proportions of variation deriving from differences between regions and peatland basins and from within-peatland heterogeneity, and to model the variation using relatively easily measurable site and soil characteristics. We utilized 878 peat samples representing the 0–20 cm layer and collected from 289 sites in 79 peatland basins. The sites represented three different drained peatland forest site types. The two strongest gradients in the element composition captured by principal component analysis were correlated with both the North-South gradient and the site type variation, and the East-West gradient. In general, most of the variation in the element concentrations was contributed by differences among peatland basins, and variation within the floristically determined sites. Most of the element concentrations were best modeled when either the bulk density or the ash content of the peat, or both, were used in addition to site type and geographical location. The explanatory power remained modest for most element concentrations. As for the P concentrations in soil, however, our models provide means for estimating a large part of the variation among drained pine mire sites.
  • Laiho, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Sarkkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 305, category Research article
Anna-Maria Veijalainen, Marja-Liisa Juntunen, Arja Lilja, Helvi Heinonen-Tanski, Leo Tervo. (2007). Forest nursery waste composting in windrows with or without horse manure or urea – the composting process and nutrient leaching. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 305. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.305
In order to find the best management practices for forest nursery waste composting, organic waste was composted without or with horse manure or urea in six windrows for two years. The windrows were built in four consecutive years during 1999–2002. In 1999, no extra-nutrients were added to the windrow (N99). In 2000, urea fertilizer was used as a nitrogen source (U00). Despite this, the process did not function properly. In 2001, two windrows were built, one (H01) with and the other (N01) without horse manure. Horse manure slightly accelerated the heating process. Consequently, two windrows with more horse manure were built in 2002. One was aerated passively (H02) as earlier windrows, and the other was aerated forcedly (HA02). Horse manure and forced aeration were needed to keep the temperature above 55°C for long enough to ensure microbial hygiene of the material. The degradation of cellulose was greater during the curing stage. Nutrient leaching was low, although the additives increased leaching in conjunction with the inefficient process. The results showed that forest nursery waste alone is ineffective at raising the temperature of the compost, and degrades slowly due to its low nutrient and easily available carbon content. The best management practice for forest nursery waste composting is to use horse manure and aeration to ensure the heating process. Environmental contamination can be avoided by collecting the leachates. Further research is needed to evaluate the usability of the compost.
  • Veijalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Juntunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, Finnish Forest Research Institute, PO Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen-Tanski, Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environm. Sc., PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 330, category Research article
Benoit Lapointe, Robert Bradley, William Parsons, Suzanne Brais. (2006). Nutrient and light availability to white spruce seedlings in partial and clearcut harvested aspen stands. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 330. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.330
White spruce is a commercially important tree species in Canada’s boreal forest, and studies are underway to determine the best conditions for planting nursery grown seedlings in the field. Here, we studied effects of low thinning (1/3 harvested), shelterwood (2/3 harvested), and clear-cut harvesting on soil chemical properties, on the growth and nutrition of white spruce seedlings, and on diffuse non-intercepted (DIFN) light levels at 75 cm above the soil surface. The study was conducted on a nutrient-rich clayey soil in the Abitibi region of Québec. DIFN light was lowest in non-harvested control plots and increased curvilinearly with basal area removal. Thus, DIFN light in clear-cut plots was more than twice the amount in shelterwood plots. At three years post-planting, significant linear relationships were found between DIFN light and seedling growth parameters, which were significantly higher in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. Harvesting treatments had no significant effects on soil chemical properties or on four indices of mineral N availability. Needle mass increased with harvesting intensity. Mg and K concentrations in current-year needles were lower in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. In previous-year needles, Ca concentration was higher and Mg concentrations lower in clear-cut plots, whereas as K concentration was higher in non-harvested control plots. Nutrient concentrations were nearly all sufficient in all harvesting treatments according to diagnostic norms established for white spruce. Relative nutrient content (mg nutrient needle–1) of current-year late-summer needles increased, whereas relative nutrient concentration (mg nutrient mg–1 needle) varied slightly, with increasing harvesting intensity, indicating that all nutrients were sufficient in all treatments. There were significant linear relationships between seedling growth and needle Ca, Mg and K concentrations. We conclude that light availability, rather than nutrient limitations, is the main determinant of white spruce seedling growth on these fertile soils.
  • Lapointe, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bradley, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.bradley@usherbrooke.ca (email)
  • Parsons, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Brais, UQAT, 445 boulevard Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E4 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 328, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Markku Lahti, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo, Aino Rummukainen, Hannu Mannerkoski, Leena Finér. (2006). Responses of silver birch saplings to low soil temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.328
Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula) saplings were grown for a third growing season in controlled-environment rooms (dasotrons) at three soil temperatures (5, 10, and 20 °C). All trees grew the first flush of leaves, but the growth of the second flush was almost completely inhibited at the two lower temperatures. The dry weight of the second-flush leaves was 50 times larger at 20 °C than at 5 and 10 °C, with about 100 times more nitrogen. Root growth was less affected than shoot growth. Chlorophyll content, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were lower at low soil temperatures. The value of the cytoplasm resistance estimated from the electric impedance spectra was lower at 5 °C than at 10 or 20 °C. Leaf water potential was highest at the lowest soil temperature, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was only slightly lower in saplings growing in cooler soil. We conclude that the effect of long-term exposure to cold soil on net assimilation and growth was not caused by stomatal closure alone. It is likely to be additionally mediated by the limited nitrogen acquisition at the low soil temperatures, and perhaps additionally by some other factor. As the growth depression of aboveground parts in response to low soil temperature was more significant in silver birch than what has earlier been found in conifers, the relative changes in air and soil temperature may eventually determine whether birch will become more dominant in boreal forests with climate change.
  • Aphalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.lehto@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rummukainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 433, category Research article
Raija Laiho, Timo Penttilä, Jukka Laine. (2004). Variation in soil nutrient concentrations and bulk density within peatland forest sites. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 433. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.433
The within-site variability of soil characteristics on sites with different soil types remains poorly quantified, although this information is crucial for the success of research on soil properties, and especially for monitoring soil properties over time. We used coefficients of variation and multilevel variance component models to examine the within-site variation of soil (0–30 cm) mineral nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, mg g–1; Mn, Zn, mg g–1) and bulk density (kg m–3) on boreal deep-peat sites. We then evaluated the reliability of the site-level estimates (sample means) obtained using different sampling intensities (numbers of samples per site). Our 11 sites represented a single original site type within the oligotrophic nutrient level. Two of the sites were undrained while the rest had been drained for forestry at different points in time. Overall, P concentrations showed the smallest and Mn concentrations the largest within-site variation. The sampling depth contributed more than 50% of the total variance in all other characteristics except the concentrations of P and Fe, and bulk density. The variance proportions of peatland basin, site (within basin), and sampling location (within site) varied by sampling depth for most soil characteristics. The estimates obtained when using a certain number of samples per site were always more reliable for the 0–30 cm layer’s composite samples than for any single 10-cm layer at any depth sampled. On average, it was found that between 4 (P) and some 200 (Mn) samples per site would be needed for the estimates to have a theoretical 10% maximum deviation.
  • Laiho, Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Peatland Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Penttilä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Peatland Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 512, category Research article
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2003). Multidimensional site description of peatlands drained for forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.512
Sites (n = 119) on drained mires located in the southern aapa mire zone in Finland were analysed by multivariate techniques. The compositional trends of the understorey vegetation were analysed by means of hybrid multidimensional scaling (HMDS). In addition to field classification, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and flexible unweighted paired group arithmetic average (FUPGMA) classifications were used. The 1st HMDS dimension primarily reflected variation along a gradient from spruce mire influence to hummock-level bog influence. Variation in nutrient status was also connected to this gradient. Factors underlying the 2nd dimension were variation in nutrient status and drainage succession (moisture). Some sample plots representing herb-rich or Molinia-rich types were separated along the 3rd dimension. The variation in understorey vegetation (i.e. the ordination space) showed high maximum correlation with stand volume r = 0.81, mean annual stand volume increment r = 0.76, and post-drainage dominant height r = 0.75. The covariation between the vegetation and peat bulk density in both the 0–10 and 10–20 cm peat layers was also strong: r = 0.55 and r = 0.80. The correlations for Hv.Post were 0.64 and 0.81, respectively. Of the total macronutrient concentrations, phosphorus (r = 0.73, r = 0.75) and nitrogen (r = 0.59, r = 0.64) were the most strongly correlated with species composition. The environmental sample variables were also presented by the vegetation units of numerical classification. Most of the recorded variables, including nutrient amounts (kg ha–1), were examined in site quality (fertility) classes by succession phases as well. Border variants or transitional forms of the site types were common. Additional vegetation criteria (e.g. surface-water influence) more closely defined the ecology of the site. In addition to the site quality classes, a considerable amount of information about the tree stands, vegetation diversity and peat properties was associated with the separation of the succession phases, i.e. in this study transforming (phase II) vs. transformed (final phase III) sites. In conclusion, the actual vegetation appeared to well reflect various aspects of the ecological conditions, even in labile communities of commercial forests on drained peatlands.
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O.Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi (email)
article id 590, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Eino Mälkönen, Sirpa Piirainen. (2001). Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest soil chemical properties. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.590
The effects of wood ash fertilization on soil chemical properties were studied in three young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations and a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantation with different site fertility in southern Finland. The dose of 3 t ha–1 of loose wood ash was applied to 4 replicate plots (25 x 25 m) at each experiment. Humus layer and mineral soil samples were taken before the treatment and 7 and 16 years after wood ash application. Results showed that neutralization as well as fertilization effects of wood ash on forest soil were of long duration. An ash-induced pH increase of 0.6–1.0 pH units and exchangeable acidity (EA) decrease of 58–83% were detected in the humus layer 16 years after wood ash application. The decrease in acidity was most pronounced on the Calluna site with initially the lowest pH and highest EA. In the mineral soil the increase in pH was observed later than in the humus layer. After 16 years, the mineral soil pH was increased (0.2–0.3 pH units) on the Vaccinium and Myrtillus sites. A corresponding and in most cases a significant increase in the extractable Ca and Mg concentrations was detected in both the humus layer and in the mineral soil. Wood ash significantly increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) and base saturation (BS) but decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in both soil layers on all the sites. No response of N availability to wood ash application could be found.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Mälkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 599, category Research article
Chun-Jiang Liu, Carl J. Westman, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2001). Matter and nutrient dynamics of pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and oak (Quercus variabilis) litter in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.599
In the mountainous area of North China, a distinguishing feature of climate is the serious drought of spring and the humidity and high temperature of summer by which the litter production and decomposition of forest litter were strongly characterized. We investigated the dynamic and nutrient characteristics of litter in a 30-year-old mixed stand of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and deciduous orient oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) and two comparable pure stands. Oak litterfall peaked in November and pine litterfall in December. The oak stand had the largest annual litterfall (347 g m–2) and the forest floor mass (950 g m–2), the mixed stand the second (236 g m–2 and 634 g m–2), and the pine stand the least (217 g m–2 and 615 g m–2). The nutrient return through litterfall and the storage in forest floor followed corresponding order between three stands. The weight loss of pine and oak foliage litter in first year was 25% and 20%. For senesced pine and oak leaves, the translocation rates of N, P and K were 56–83%. Nutrient concentrations were higher in oak leaf litter than pine needle litter, and the concentration of N and Ca appeared to rise while K concentration decreased in both decomposing litter.
  • Liu, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: cliu@silvia.helsinki.fi (email)
  • Westman, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvesniemi, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5544, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1995). Effect of fertilizer treatment on the biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-rotation willow on cut-away peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9195

The effects of fertilized treatment on the soil nutrient concentrations, biomass production and nutrient consumption of Salix x dasyclados and Salix ’Aquatica’ were studied in five experiments on three cut-away peatland sites in western and eastern Finland during three years. Factorial experiments with all combinations of N (100 kg ha-1 a-1), P (30 kg ha-1 a-1) and K (80 kg ha-1 a-1) were conducted.

The application of P and K fertilizers increased the concentrations of corresponding extractable nutrients in the soil as well as in willow foliage. N-fertilization increased foliar nitrogen concentration. An increase in age usually led to decreases in bark and wood N, P and K concentrations and increases in bark Ca concentrations. N-fertilization increased the three-year biomass yield 1.5–2.7 times when compared to control plots. P-fertilization increased the yield only in those experimental fields whose substrates had the lowest phosphorus concentration. K-fertilization did not increase the yield in any of the experimental fields. The highest total biomass yield of NPK-fertilized willow after three growing seasons, 23 t ha-1, was distributed in the following way: wood 42%, bark 19%, foliage 17%, stumps 6% and roots 16%. As the yield and stand age increased, more biomass was allocated in above-ground wood. Three-year-old stands (above-ground biomass 18 t ha-1) contained as much as 196 kg N ha-1, 26 kg P ha-1, 101 kg K ha-1, 74 kg Ca ha-1 and 37 kg Mg ha -1. By far the highest proportion of nutrients accumulated in the foliage. The bark and wood contained relatively high proportions of calcium and phosphorus. With an increase in age and size, the amount of nitrogen and potassium bound in one dry-mass ton of willow biomass decreased while that of phosphorus remained unchanged.

  • Hytönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5531, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Anna Saarsalmi. (1994). Growth and nutrition of willow clones. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9171

Growth and nutrition of 20 clones representing different species and interspecific hybrids of willows (Salix spp.) growing on an abandoned field were studied. There were highly significant differences between the clones as regards the survival, number of sprouts per stool, sprout mean height and diameter and stem biomass production per stool. The differences between the clones in the concentration of all nutrients in both the leaves and stems were highly significant. 

  • Viherä-Aarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarsalmi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5482, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari. (1992). Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5482. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15643

Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied during 1984–86 in three stands of different stages of development. The dry weight of current needles was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the tree top than in a composite sample representing the whole crown. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of nutrients in needles between upper and lower crown levels. The concentrations of mobile nutrients N, P, K and Mg decreased with increasing needle age whereas the concentrations of poorly mobile nutrients Ca, Mn and Fe increased during needle ageing. The coefficient of variation for nutrient concentrations varied irregularly when only a few trees were sampled but stabilized when tree number was ten or more.
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  • Helmisaari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5432, category Article
Risto Rikala, Helen J. Jozefek. (1990). Effect of dolomite lime and wood ash on peat substrate and development of tree seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 4 article id 5432. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15586

Effect of dolomite lime and wood ash (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 kg m-3) on the chemical composition of low humified Sphagnum peat was studied. Germination of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and the subsequent growth of these seedlings were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Nutrient concentrations in shoots and roots of pine seedlings were also analysed. The pH of peat increased asymptotically from 3.8 to about 7.0 with increasing lime regimen and to about 8.0 with increasing ash regimen. Wood ash linearly increased electrical conductivity and P, K, and Ca concentrations of peat. Rate of germination, within 7 days, of pine and spruce was best at low pH (<5) while birch seeds had a slightly higher pH optimum (4–6). Germination capacity, within 21 days, was not affected by pH or application regimen of either lime or ash. Pine and spruce seedlings grew best with lime and ash doses of 0.5–2.0 kg m-3, the pH of peat being 4–5. Lime and ash treatments did not affect the growth of birch seedlings, but wood ash increased nutrient concentration of pine seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rikala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jozefek, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5411, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1990). Effect of refertilization of pine and birch stands on a drained fertile mire. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5411. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15563

Refertilization with PK, about 15 years after the first fertilizer application, increased tree growth and the amount of nutrients in tree litter in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (mainly Betula pubescens Erhr.) stands on a drained fertile mire in Northern Finland (65°34 N’, 25°42’ E). The increase in growth and nutrient contents after refertilization was greatest in the mature pine stand where the application of nitrogen and micronutrients gave an additional response compared to the PK-application.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5367, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of Scots pine needles along a pollutant gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5367. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15526

Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of living Scots pine needles was studied along an atmospheric pollutant gradient in the surroundings of the industrial town Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Two 9-km-long transects, each with nine sample plots, running to the S and SW from factory complex were delimited in a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest. Needle samples were taken from 10 trees at each site, and from two separate sites in Tuusula near Helsinki. There was considerable spatial variation in the elemental composition of the needles. Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn) showed a clear pattern of exponentially decreasing concentration with increasing distance from the emission source. Sodium and potassium concentrations, as well as the ash weight and air-dry weight, also decreased. Magnesium, manganese and calcium concentrations increased with increasing distance.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7064, category Article
J. Valmari. (1921). Beiträge zur chemischen Bodenanalyse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 7064. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7064
English title: Paper on chemical soil analyses.

The article tries to develop the method for defining the requirements of fertilizers for soil. The chemical soil analysis is also seen as the requirement for exact site classification based on height over age. The study is based on 1500 soil samples, one half of them from forest soils, the other half from arable land soils.    

The productivity of different forest types and the results of soil analyses are in line with each other. The most important growth factors are discerned.  Some shortcomings of the method are discussed.  Combining the soil analysis and the plant analyses of the sample plots seems to give the most accurate about the amount of nutrients that are available for the plants.

  • Valmari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5232, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Jukka Laine, Michael Starr. (1985). A comparison of gravimetric and volumetric soil properties in peatland and upland sites. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15411

Transects from upland to peatland sites were laid out so as to encounter a wide range of nutritional and hydrological conditions and volumetric soil samples were taken at 20 m intervals. For organic material, in particular peats, the correlation of ignition loss with CEC and total N were clearly higher when the variables were expressed volumetrically. The volumetric expression of variables made comparison of soils with varying organic matter contents possible. In preliminary analyses of the relationships between soil variables and dominant height of the tree stand on mineral soil sites volumetric exchangeable bases, pH and C/N -ratio in the raw humus layer showed a significant correlation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5194, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Matti Nummelin. (1983). Changes in the community structure of forest floor vegetation after repeated litter disturbance by raking. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15177

The tolerance of disturbance of the ground and field layer vegetation in a moderately fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest in Southern Finland was studied. One of the sites, a summer cottage yard had been raked regularly during the last 25 years. The structure of the vegetation was quite different compared to the other sample site situated in a virgin forest. The phytomass and percentual coverage of the vegetation was remarkable lower in the raked habitat. Tall mosses, Pleuroxium schreberi and Hylocomnium splendens had especially disappeared. Most grass shrubs had also deteriorated. Only Deschampsia flexuosa was quite tolerant to raking. The phytomass of the dwarf shrubs was lower in the raked area but their relative production was higher. Three different kinds strategies of species were described: species of virgin shaded forest, species of meadow-like forest floor and species which tolerate or benefit from disturbance. The raked habitat had a higher species diversity than the virgin area. Nitrogen and carbon contents were lower in the soil of the raked area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummelin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4990, category Article
Michael Starr, Carl Johan Westman. (1978). Easily extractable nutrients in the surface peat layer of virgin sedge-pine swamps. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4990. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14844

The paper deals with the nutrient status of surface peat layer from virgin sedge-pine swamps and its relationship to peatland types. When the nutrients are expressed in mg/100 g peat, only easily extractable Ca and Mg correspond to the productivity status of the peatland type. N, P, and K levels in the herb rich sedge-pine swamp are generally lower than in the small sedge-pine swamps, which are the least productive ones. The differences between the site types in all the five nutrients become much clearer when the results are expressed in kg/ha. P, K, and Ca are significantly different between the site types, and correspond to the productivity of the site type. For N and Mg the same tendency can be seen. The organically bound nutrients N, and to a lesser extent, P appear to comply with the hypothesis of an increase in nutrient availability in Southern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7681, category Article
Eero Nikinmaa. (1992). Analyses of the growth of Scots pine: matching structure with function. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 235 article id 7681. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7681

A theoretical framework to analyse the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is presented. Material exchange processes and internal processes that transport, transform and consume materials are identified as the components of growth. Hierarchical system is lined out. Momentary uptake of material at a single exchange site depends on the environmental condition next to the exchange site, the internal state of the biochemical system of the plant and the structure of the plant. The internal state depends on the exchange flows over period of time and the structural growth depends on the internal state. The response of these processes to the fluxes is controlled by the genetic composition of the plant.

The theoretical framework is formulated into a mathematical model. A concept of balanced internal state was applied to describe the poorly known internal processes. Internal substrate concentrations were assumed to remain constant but tissue-specific. A linear relationship between the quantity of foliage and wood cross-sectional area was assumed to describe balanced formation of structure. The exchange processes were thus described as a function of external conditions. The stand level interactions were derived from shading and effects of root density on nutrient uptake.

The approach was tested at different levels of hierarchy. Field measurements indicated that the hypothesis of the linear relationship described well the regularities between foliage and sapwood of a tree within a stand when measured at functionally corresponding height. There was considerable variation in the observed regularities in the range of geographic occurrence of Scots pine. Model simulations gave a realistic description of stand development in Southern Finland. The same model was also able to describe growth differences in Lapland after considering the effect of growing season length in the parameter values. Simulations to South Russia indicate stronger deviation from the observed patterns.

The simulations suggest interesting features of stand development. They indicate strong variability in the distribution of carbohydrates between tree parts during stand development. Internal circulation of nutrients and the reuse of the same transport structure by various needle generations had a strong influence on the simulation results.

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  • Nikinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7669, category Article
Leena Finér. (1991). Effect of fertilization on dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling in Scots pine on an ombrotrophic bog. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 223 article id 7669. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7669

The first three-year effects of PK(MgB) and NPK(MgB) fertilization on the dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling were studied in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a drained low-shrub pine bog in Eastern Finland. The total dry mass of the tree stand before fertilization was 78 tn/ha, of which the above-ground compartments accounted for 69%. The annual above-ground dry mass production was 6.3 tn/ha, 51% of it accumulating in the tree stand.

The study period was too short for detecting any fertilization response in the stems. The total dry mass accumulation was not affected, because the increase in foliar and cone dry masses after both fertilization treatments, and that of the living branches after NPK fertilization, were compensated by the decrease in the dry mass of dead branches.

The nutrients studied accounted for 392 kg/ha (0.49%) of the total dry mass of the tree stand before fertilization. The amounts were as follows; N 173 kg/ha (44%), Ca 90 kg (23%), K 58 kg/ha (15%). The rest (18%) consisted of P, Mg, S and micronutrients combined. The unfertilized trees took up the following amounts of nutrients of the soil: N 15.6, Ca 12.8, K 4.1, P 1.3, MG 1.7, and S and Mn 1.5 kg/ha. The uptake of Fe and Zn was 510 and 130 g/ha and that of B and Cu less than 100 g/ha. More than 50% of the nutrient uptake, except for that of K and Fe, was released in litterfall. The results indicated very efficient cycling of K, Mn and B between the soil and trees.

The fertilized stands accumulated more N, P, K and B than the unfertilized ones during the tree-year study period. The increased accumulation corresponded to 35% (52 kg/ha) of the N applied on the NPK fertilized plots, 10% of the P, 25% of the K and 10% of the B on the PK and NPK fertilized plots. The increased amount of B released in litterfall after fertilization was equivalent to 4% of the applied B. Fertilization inhibited the uptake of Mn and Ca.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7589, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1977).  . Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 155 article id 7589. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7589
English title: The effect of clear cutting upon the nutrient status of a spruce forest in Northern Finland (64 28'N).

The purpose of this paper was to determine the proportions of nutrients remaining in the forest and removed from the forest as a result of cutting. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) phytomass remaining after clear cutting was studied in the categories of tree-top waste, branches, twigs, needles and cones. The bole wood, measured in solid cubic metres, was converted to kilogrammes on the basis of relative density determinations, and the amount of stump and root material estimated from the known amount of bole wood and comparable data presented in the literature. The nutrients studied were N (Kjeldahl), P (colour reaction), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). The wood and bark were studied separately. Details of the mineral composition of the bedrock are also presented.  

The harvested timber was found to account for 46 % of the total phytomass, or 58 % of the aerial phytomass, while the stump and root material represented one fifth of the total phytomass. The needles and bark contained the highest proportions of nutrients, especially in the case of nitrogen and phosphorus, the needles containing 32 % of total nitrogen and 26 % of total phosphorus. The surface waste wood contained on average more than double the amount of nutrients compared with the harvested bole wood, including more than six times the amount of phosphorus. Approximately one fifth of the nutrient contained in the total phytomass was removed on cutting. The high proportion of basic rocks in the area is suggested as an explanation of the nutrient status at the site, which is in many ways better than that described in the results of other investigations.  

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7573, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Nutrient removal from Scots pine canopy on drained peatland by rain. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 139 article id 7573. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7573

The aim of the study was to assess the contents and quantities of macronutrients reaching the ground with precipitation, stemflow and throughfall in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on drained peatland, one of which was unfertilized and two of which had been fertilized three growing seasons before the measurements were carried out.

According to the results, the quantities of nutrients reaching the ground with precipitation were relatively large as compared, for example, with those removed with the stem wood carried away from the forest in logging. The nutrient most exposed to leaching from the canopy is potassium. Both the content of potassium in rainwater penetrating the canopy and the quantities reaching the ground are highest in stemflow, decreasing when moving from under the tree crowns toward the edge of the crown projection and into openings in the canopy. The results for phosphorus were similar, although not as clear as for potassium.

The contents of NO3-N were smaller in stemflow than in precipitation. The results did not support assumptions according to which nitrate nitrogen is leached from the canopy or is taken up by the canopy from precipitation. In the case both of precipitation and of throughfall and stemflow, the quantities of nitrite nitrogen recorded were smaller than the degree of precision applied in the determinations carried out (0.01 mg/1). The contents of NH4-N were on average higher in stemflow and throughfall than in precipitation.

Fertilizer application (600 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, 14-18-10) increased the contents of potassium in stemflow and throughfall. A slight increase in phosphorus was also observed. Leaching of inorganic nitrogen was not affected by fertilization.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7573, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Nutrient removal from Scots pine canopy on drained peatland by rain. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 139 article id 7573. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7573

The aim of the study was to assess the contents and quantities of macronutrients reaching the ground with precipitation, stemflow and throughfall in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on drained peatland, one of which was unfertilized and two of which had been fertilized three growing seasons before the measurements were carried out.

According to the results, the quantities of nutrients reaching the ground with precipitation were relatively large as compared, for example, with those removed with the stem wood carried away from the forest in logging. The nutrient most exposed to leaching from the canopy is potassium. Both the content of potassium in rainwater penetrating the canopy and the quantities reaching the ground are highest in stemflow, decreasing when moving from under the tree crowns toward the edge of the crown projection and into openings in the canopy. The results for phosphorus were similar, although not as clear as for potassium.

The contents of NO3-N were smaller in stemflow than in precipitation. The results did not support assumptions according to which nitrate nitrogen is leached from the canopy or is taken up by the canopy from precipitation. In the case both of precipitation and of throughfall and stemflow, the quantities of nitrite nitrogen recorded were smaller than the degree of precision applied in the determinations carried out (0.01 mg/1). The contents of NH4-N were on average higher in stemflow and throughfall than in precipitation.

Fertilizer application (600 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, 14-18-10) increased the contents of potassium in stemflow and throughfall. A slight increase in phosphorus was also observed. Leaching of inorganic nitrogen was not affected by fertilization.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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