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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'oil'.

Category: Research article

article id 10134, category Research article
Matti Sirén, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Kalle E.K. Kiilo, Aura Salmivaara, Ari Ryynänen. (2019). Soil disturbance by cut-to-length machinery on mid-grained soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10134
Highlights: The number of machine passes, volumetric water content in the mineral soil and the depth of the organic layer were the controlling factors for rut formation; The harvester rut depth was a good predictor of the forwarder rut formation; Changes in the penetration resistance were highest at depths of 20–40 cm.

Factors affecting soil disturbance caused by harvester and forwarder were studied on mid-grained soils in Finland. Sample plots were harvested using a one-grip harvester. The harvester operator processed the trees outside the strip roads, and the remaining residues were removed to exclude the covering effect of residues. Thereafter, a loaded forwarder made up to 5 passes over the sample plots. The average rut depth after four machine passes was positively correlated to the volumetric water content at a depth of 0–10 cm in mineral soil, as well as the thickness of the organic layer and the harvester rut depth, and negatively correlated with penetration resistance at depths of both 0–20 cm and 5–40 cm. We present 5 models to predict forwarder rut depth. Four include the cumulative mass driven over a measurement point and combinations of penetration resistance, water content and the depth of organic layer. The fifth model includes harvester rut depth and the cumulative overpassed mass and provided the best fit. Changes in the penetration resistance (PR) were highest at depths of 20–40 cm. Increase in BD and VWC decreased PR, which increased with total overdriven mass. After four to five machine passes PR values started to stabilize.

  • Sirén, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6671-7624 E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3793-1215 E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Kiilo, Versowood, Teollisuuskatu 1, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.kiilo@versowood.fi
  • Salmivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aura.salmivaara@luke.fi
  • Ryynänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.ryynanen@luke.fi
article id 10134, category Research article
Matti Sirén, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Kalle E.K. Kiilo, Aura Salmivaara, Ari Ryynänen. (2019). Soil disturbance by cut-to-length machinery on mid-grained soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10134
Highlights: The number of machine passes, volumetric water content in the mineral soil and the depth of the organic layer were the controlling factors for rut formation; The harvester rut depth was a good predictor of the forwarder rut formation; Changes in the penetration resistance were highest at depths of 20–40 cm.

Factors affecting soil disturbance caused by harvester and forwarder were studied on mid-grained soils in Finland. Sample plots were harvested using a one-grip harvester. The harvester operator processed the trees outside the strip roads, and the remaining residues were removed to exclude the covering effect of residues. Thereafter, a loaded forwarder made up to 5 passes over the sample plots. The average rut depth after four machine passes was positively correlated to the volumetric water content at a depth of 0–10 cm in mineral soil, as well as the thickness of the organic layer and the harvester rut depth, and negatively correlated with penetration resistance at depths of both 0–20 cm and 5–40 cm. We present 5 models to predict forwarder rut depth. Four include the cumulative mass driven over a measurement point and combinations of penetration resistance, water content and the depth of organic layer. The fifth model includes harvester rut depth and the cumulative overpassed mass and provided the best fit. Changes in the penetration resistance (PR) were highest at depths of 20–40 cm. Increase in BD and VWC decreased PR, which increased with total overdriven mass. After four to five machine passes PR values started to stabilize.

  • Sirén, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6671-7624 E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3793-1215 E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Kiilo, Versowood, Teollisuuskatu 1, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.kiilo@versowood.fi
  • Salmivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aura.salmivaara@luke.fi
  • Ryynänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.ryynanen@luke.fi
article id 10134, category Research article
Matti Sirén, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jori Uusitalo, Kalle E.K. Kiilo, Aura Salmivaara, Ari Ryynänen. (2019). Soil disturbance by cut-to-length machinery on mid-grained soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10134
Highlights: The number of machine passes, volumetric water content in the mineral soil and the depth of the organic layer were the controlling factors for rut formation; The harvester rut depth was a good predictor of the forwarder rut formation; Changes in the penetration resistance were highest at depths of 20–40 cm.

Factors affecting soil disturbance caused by harvester and forwarder were studied on mid-grained soils in Finland. Sample plots were harvested using a one-grip harvester. The harvester operator processed the trees outside the strip roads, and the remaining residues were removed to exclude the covering effect of residues. Thereafter, a loaded forwarder made up to 5 passes over the sample plots. The average rut depth after four machine passes was positively correlated to the volumetric water content at a depth of 0–10 cm in mineral soil, as well as the thickness of the organic layer and the harvester rut depth, and negatively correlated with penetration resistance at depths of both 0–20 cm and 5–40 cm. We present 5 models to predict forwarder rut depth. Four include the cumulative mass driven over a measurement point and combinations of penetration resistance, water content and the depth of organic layer. The fifth model includes harvester rut depth and the cumulative overpassed mass and provided the best fit. Changes in the penetration resistance (PR) were highest at depths of 20–40 cm. Increase in BD and VWC decreased PR, which increased with total overdriven mass. After four to five machine passes PR values started to stabilize.

  • Sirén, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) c/o Aalto University, P.O. Box 15600, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6671-7624 E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3793-1215 E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Kiilo, Versowood, Teollisuuskatu 1, FI-11130 Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.kiilo@versowood.fi
  • Salmivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: aura.salmivaara@luke.fi
  • Ryynänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.ryynanen@luke.fi
article id 10050, category Research article
Jori Uusitalo, Jari Ala-Ilomäki, Harri Lindeman, Jenny Toivio, Matti Siren. (2019). Modelling soil moisture – soil strength relationship of fine-grained upland forest soils. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10050
Highlights: Penetration resistance (PR) is best predicted with moisture content (MC), bulk density and clay content; In fully saturated silty or clayey soils PR range from 600 to 800 kPa; The models can be linked with mobility models predicting rutting of forest machines.

The strength of soil is known to be dependent on water content but the relationship is strongly affected by the type of soil. Accurate moisture content – soil strength models will provide forest managers with the improved ability to reduce soil disturbances and increase annual forest machine utilization rates. The aim of this study was to examine soil strength and how it is connected to the physical properties of fine-grained forest soils; and develop models that could be applied in practical forestry to make predictions on rutting induced by forest machines. Field studies were conducted on two separate forests in Southern Finland. The data consisted of parallel measurements of dry soil bulk density (BD), volumetric water content (VWC) and penetration resistance (PR). The model performance was logical, and the results were in harmony with earlier findings. The accuracy of the models created was tested with independent data. The models may be regarded rather trustworthy, since no significant bias was found. Mean absolute error of roughly 20% was found which may be regarded as acceptable taken into account the character of the penetrometer tool. The models can be linked with mobility models predicting either risks of rutting, compaction or rolling resistance.

  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi (email)
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems Maarintie 6, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Toivio, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: toiviojenny@gmail.com
  • Siren, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems Maarintie 6, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.siren@luke.fi
article id 10036, category Research article
Karin Hjelm, Lars Rytter. (2018). The demand of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) on site conditions for a successful establishment on forest land. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10036
Highlights: Low pH (below 3.5) reduced growth, but not survival, in a greenhouse study; Site preparation methods did not affect survival in field, but differences were found for growth; Mounding had generally the best effect on growth; Clonal differences were found that could be useful for improving establishment and growth.

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) is a deciduous tree species suitable for producing large amounts of renewable biomass during short rotations. Its potential under North European conditions could be largely extended if not only agricultural land but also forest land was used for cultivation. Unfortunately, the knowledge of appropriate forest site conditions and effects of site preparation methods on hybrid aspen establishment is limited. In this paper, two studies that explore these questions are presented. In the first study, the sensitivity to acid soils was tested under greenhouse conditions in two type of soils: a) peat soil limed to certain pH levels (3.4–5.7) and b) collected forest soils where pH varied from 3.9 to 5.3. The lowest pH level resulted in reduced growth, elsewhere no significant differences were found. The second study was applied in the field and investigated the effect of four site preparation methods on survival and growth. The methods were: 1) control with no site preparation, 2) patch scarification, 3) mounding and 4) soil inversion. While no differences were found for survival, mounding was generally the method with the highest growth and patch scarification was least successful. The result was probably an effect of good soil aeration and less competition from vegetation after mounding. The field study also revealed clonal differences in growth performance, which stresses the importance of clone selection prior to planting. The results of these studies indicate that hybrid aspen is less sensitive to variation in pH and site preparation methods compared with other poplar species, as have been found in similar studies.

  • Hjelm, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.hjelm@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Rytter, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6183-4832 E-mail: lars.rytter@skogforsk.se
article id 9933, category Research article
Timo Saksa, Jari Miina, Hilkka Haatainen, Kauko Kärkkäinen. (2018). Quality of spot mounding performed by continuously advancing mounders. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9933
Highlights: The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions;The main factors reducing the quality of spot mounding were steep terrain, a thick humus layer, fresh logging residues, stoniness and soil texture;With careful selection of timing and conditions for mounding, the quality obtained by continuously advancing mounders can be improved.

Operating conditions affecting the quality of spot mounding by Bracke continuously advancing mounders were investigated on 66 regeneration areas (124 ha) in eastern Finland. The quality of mounds was classified as suitable (good or acceptable after additional compression) or unsuitable for planting. Models were constructed for the number of suitable planting spots obtained per hectare (good and acceptable mounds), the probability of successful mounding (≥1600 planting spots ha–1) and the probability of creating a suitable mound as a function of terrain, site and soil characteristics, as well as slash conditions (removed, fresh or dry logging residues). The average number of mounds created was 1892 ± 290 mounds ha–1, of which 1398 ± 325 mounds ha–1 (74%) were classified as suitable for planting. The quality of spot mounding was reduced by steep terrain, a thick humus layer and fresh logging residues. Stoniness and soil texture also affected the number of planting spots created. Mounding after logging residues had dried increased the number of planting spots by 191 spots ha–1 compared with mounding in the presence of fresh residues. Removing residues did not significantly increase the number of planting spots compared with mounding amongst dry residues. A thick humus layer, very stony soil, steep slopes and valley terrain decreased the number of planting spots by 150–450 spots ha–1. The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions, but with careful selection of timing and sites the quality obtained by a continuously advancing mounder can be improved.

  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi
  • Haatainen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilkka.haatainen@storaenso.com
  • Kärkkäinen, Tornator Oyj, Muuntamontie 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.karkkainen@tornator.fi
article id 9927, category Research article
Eva Dařenová, Richard A. Crabbe, Robert Knott, Barbora Uherková, Jan Kadavý. (2018). Effect of coppicing, thinning and throughfall reduction on soil water content and soil CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9927
Highlights: The coppice stand reached similar soil CO2 efflux rates eight years after harvest as the original stand; Thinning increased SWC but did not affect soil CO2 efflux; 30% throughfall reduction decreased soil CO2 efflux by 50.7%.

In this study we determined the effect of transformation of a mature sessile oak forest stand into a coppiced forest, and of thinning and throughfall reduction in a coppice stand on soil water content (SWC) and soil CO2 efflux. The precipitation reduction was induced by installing parallel drainage channels in both unthinned and thinned coppice stands. The driving factor for temporal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in all plots was soil temperature. The other factor was soil water content but only up to about 15%. Above this threshold, there was no more effect on CO2 efflux. We found no clear difference in SWC or soil CO2 efflux between the mature and coppiced stand eight years after harvesting. On the other hand, thinning of the coppice stand resulted in increase in SWC up to 22% in proportion, which we assume to be a result of increased gap fraction of the canopy. However, no effect on soil CO2 efflux was observed two years after the thinning. Installation of the drainage channels in two plots covering 30% of the ground area resulted in decrease in SWC up to a proportional 30.5% and thus contributed up to 50.7% reduction in soil CO2 efflux.

  • Dařenová, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: darenova.e@czechglobe.cz (email)
  • Crabbe, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: crabbe.r@czechglobe.cz
  • Knott, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.knott@mendelu.cz
  • Uherková, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: xfedorov@node.mendelu.cz
  • Kadavý, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: jan.kadavy@mendelu.cz
article id 9927, category Research article
Eva Dařenová, Richard A. Crabbe, Robert Knott, Barbora Uherková, Jan Kadavý. (2018). Effect of coppicing, thinning and throughfall reduction on soil water content and soil CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9927
Highlights: The coppice stand reached similar soil CO2 efflux rates eight years after harvest as the original stand; Thinning increased SWC but did not affect soil CO2 efflux; 30% throughfall reduction decreased soil CO2 efflux by 50.7%.

In this study we determined the effect of transformation of a mature sessile oak forest stand into a coppiced forest, and of thinning and throughfall reduction in a coppice stand on soil water content (SWC) and soil CO2 efflux. The precipitation reduction was induced by installing parallel drainage channels in both unthinned and thinned coppice stands. The driving factor for temporal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in all plots was soil temperature. The other factor was soil water content but only up to about 15%. Above this threshold, there was no more effect on CO2 efflux. We found no clear difference in SWC or soil CO2 efflux between the mature and coppiced stand eight years after harvesting. On the other hand, thinning of the coppice stand resulted in increase in SWC up to 22% in proportion, which we assume to be a result of increased gap fraction of the canopy. However, no effect on soil CO2 efflux was observed two years after the thinning. Installation of the drainage channels in two plots covering 30% of the ground area resulted in decrease in SWC up to a proportional 30.5% and thus contributed up to 50.7% reduction in soil CO2 efflux.

  • Dařenová, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: darenova.e@czechglobe.cz (email)
  • Crabbe, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Belidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: crabbe.r@czechglobe.cz
  • Knott, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.knott@mendelu.cz
  • Uherková, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: xfedorov@node.mendelu.cz
  • Kadavý, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: jan.kadavy@mendelu.cz
article id 1665, category Research article
Lauri Haataja, Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa. (2018). Reliability of self-control method in the management of non-industrial private forests. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 1665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1665
Highlights: Self-control method was found reliable at the main stages of the forest regeneration process; Only slight overestimation was found in self-control results of soil preparation and planting and small underestimation in self-control of young stand management; Diverse utilizing of self-control data is possible in support of service providers operations.
This study seeks to determine the extent to which self-control data can be relied upon in the management of private forests. Self-control (SC) requires the forest workers to evaluate their own work quality to ensure the clients’ needs are met in terms of soil preparation, planting and young stand management. Self-control data were compared to an independent evaluation of the same worksites. Each dataset had a hierarchical structure (e.g., sample plot, regeneration area and contractor), and key quality indicators (i.e., number of prepared mounds, planted seedlings or crop trees) were measured for each plot.  Self-control and independent-assessments (IA) were analyzed by fitting a multi-level multivariate model containing explanatory variables. No significant differences were observed in terms of soil preparation (number of mounds) or young stand management (number of crop trees) between self-control and independent-assessments. However, the self-control planting data included a slight but significant overestimation of the number of planted seedlings. Discrepancies are discussed in terms of sampling error and other explanatory factors. According to overall results, self-control methods are reliable at every stage of the forest regeneration process. As such, the diverse utilizing of self-control data is possible in support of service providers operations.
  • Haataja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauritapiohaataja@gmail.com (email)
  • Kankaanhuhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.kankaanhuhta@luke.fi
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi
article id 7751, category Research article
Göran Nordlander, Euan G. Mason, Karin Hjelm, Henrik Nordenhem, Claes Hellqvist. (2017). Influence of climate and forest management on damage risk by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7751. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7751
Highlights: Analysis of survey data from 292 reforestation areas in northern Sweden show that the probability of pine weevil damage can be predicted with a standard error of 0.12; Three variables are important in the optimal model: proportion of seedlings in mineral soil, age of clear-cut, and temperature sum; Temperature sum in the model can be adjusted to reflect future climate scenarios.

The pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. is an economically important pest insect that kills high proportions of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. It is present in conifer forests all over Europe but weevil abundance and risk for damage varies considerably between areas. This study aimed to obtain a useful model for predicting damage risks by analyzing survey data from 292 regular forest plantations in northern Sweden. A model of pine weevil attack was constructed using various site characteristics, including both climatic factors and factors related to forest management activities. The optimal model was rather imprecise but showed that the risk of pine weevil attack can be predicted approximatively with three principal variables: 1) the proportion of seedlings expected to be planted in mineral soil rather than soil covered with duff and debris, 2) age of clear-cut at the time of planting, and 3) calculated temperature sum at the location. The model was constructed using long-run average temperature sums for epoch 2010, and so effects of climate change can be inferred from the model by adjustment to future epochs. Increased damage risks with a warmer climate are strongly indicated by the model. Effects of a warmer climate on the geographical distribution and abundance of the pine weevil are also discussed. The new tool to better estimate the risk of damage should provide a basis for foresters in their choice of countermeasures against pine weevil damage in northern Europe.

  • Nordlander, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Goran.Nordlander@slu.se
  • Mason, University of Canterbury, School of Forestry, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9024-9106 E-mail: euan.mason@canterbury.ac.nz (email)
  • Hjelm, Skogforsk, The Forest Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.hjelm@skogforsk.se
  • Nordenhem, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: h.nordenhem@telia.com
  • Hellqvist, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Claes.Hellqvist@slu.se
article id 2018, category Research article
Sima Mohtashami, Lars Eliasson, Gunnar Jansson, Johan Sonesson. (2017). Influence of soil type, cartographic depth-to-water, road reinforcement and traffic intensity on rut formation in logging operations: a survey study in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 2018. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.2018
Highlights: Soil type and traffic intensity had significant effects on rut formation; Further studies are required to identify all factors affecting rut formation, especially on soils with medium bearing capacity; The cartographic depth-to-water index (DTW) alone did not predict rut formation, but used in combination with other information, e.g. soil type, could be an interesting tool for delineating soil areas that are potentially vulnerable to rut formation in logging operations.

Rut formation caused by logging operations has been recognised as a challenge for Swedish forestry. Frequent traffic with heavy machines on extraction roads, together with a warmer climate, is one of the factors that increases the risk of rut formation in forests. One possible way to control this impact of logging operations is to design and apply decision support tools that enable operators to take sensitive areas into account when planning extraction roads. In this study, 16 different logging sites in south-eastern Sweden were surveyed after clear-cut. Information was collected about extraction roads (i.e. traffic intensity, whether the roads had been reinforced with slash) and ruts. Digital maps such as cartographic depth-to-water (DTW) index and soil type were also examined for any connection to rut positions. Soil type and traffic intensity were found to be significant factors in rut formation, while DTW and slash reinforcement were not. However, the DTW map combined with other information, such as soil type, could contribute to decision support tools that improve planning of extraction roads.

  • Mohtashami, The forestry research institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: sima.mohtashami@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Eliasson, The forestry research institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2038-9864 E-mail: lars.eliasson@skogforsk.se
  • Jansson, The forestry research institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3018-9161 E-mail: gunnar.jansson@skogforsk.se
  • Sonesson, The forestry research institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2018-7496 E-mail: johan.sonesson@skogforsk.se
article id 1683, category Research article
Karol Przeździecki, Jarosław Zawadzki, Chris Cieszewski, Pete Bettinger. (2017). Estimation of soil moisture across broad landscapes of Georgia and South Carolina using the triangle method applied to MODIS satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 1683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1683
Highlights: Temperature vegetation dryness indices were calculated from MODIS satellite imagery to estimate subsurface soil moisture at different depths using the triangle method; Observations were carried out over the vast areas of Georgia and South Carolina, USA, covered with diverse land uses that, included dense forests and agricultural areas; The triangle method may be useful in forestry management applications where the productivity potential of a region and the hydrologic role of forests in that region are of concern.

We describe here a study based on analysis of vegetation indices and land surface temperatures, which provides relevant information for estimating soil moisture at regional scales. Through an analysis of MODIS satellite imagery and in situ moisture data, the triangle method was used to develop a conceptual land surface temperature−vegetation index model, and spatial temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) values to describe soil moisture relationships for a broad landscape. This study was situated mainly within two states of the southern United States (Georgia and South Carolina). The total study area was about 30 million hectares. The analyses were conducted using information gathered from the 2009 growing season (from the end of March to September). The results of the study showed that soil moisture content was inversely proportional to TVDI, and that TVDI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had a slightly higher correlation with soil moisture than TVDI based on the enhanced vegetation index (EVI).

  • Przeździecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2275-5223 E-mail: karol_przezdziecki@is.pw.edu.pl (email)
  • Zawadzki, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, 00-653, Nowowiejska 20, Warszawa, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-0018 E-mail: j.j.zawadzki@gmail.com
  • Cieszewski, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2842-4406 E-mail: thebiomat@gmail.com
  • Bettinger, University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E Green St, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5454-3970 E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu
article id 6986, category Research article
Mari Tilk, Tea Tullus, Katri Ots. (2017). Effects of environmental factors on the species richness, composition and community horizontal structure of vascular plants in Scots pine forests on fixed sand dunes. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 6986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6986
Highlights: Factors affecting the species richness, composition and horizontal structure of vascular plants are related to dune topography, resulting in the differentiation of soils and therefore complexes of different microhabitats that are populated by various vascular plant species and causing vegetation zonation.

Different environmental factors were studied to determine which factors influence the species richness, composition and structure of vascular plants in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in a fixed dune landscape in south-western Estonia. In addition to site topographic factors, different environmental parameters were investigated. Thirty-four vascular plant species were recorded in 232 quadrats. The most abundant species was Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., which was in 82.8% of quadrats, followed by Vaccinium myrtillus L. (74.1%), Melampyrum pratense L. (71.1%) and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. (69.8%). The multiple response permutation procedure (MRPP) showed considerable differences in species composition at the bottoms of dunes compared with that on the slopes and at the tops of dunes. Indicator species analysis (ISA) determined species exhibited characteristics specific to zone: V. myrtillus had the highest indicator value at the bottoms of dunes; Calluna vulgaris L., at the tops. Soils were Haplic Podzols, and the presence of humus horizon depended on zone. Soil conditions on the dunes were variable and site specific, in general, soils at the bottoms of the dunes were more acidic and moist compared with those of the slopes and tops of the dunes, and the nutrient content decreased toward the dune tops. According to non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and linear mixed model analyses, species coverage, composition and richness were controlled by site-specific factors such as absolute height, location and aspect of the quadrat on the dune; soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents; soil pH and moisture; light conditions; and the thickness of the litter horizon.

  • Tilk, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014; Tallinn Botanic Garden, Kloostrimetsa Road 52, Tallinn, Estonia, 11913 ORCID ID:E-mail: Mari.Tilk@botaanikaaed.ee (email)
  • Tullus, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014 ORCID ID:E-mail: Tea.Tullus@emu.ee
  • Ots, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014 ORCID ID:E-mail: Katri.Ots@emu.ee
article id 1734, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä, Keith Little. (2017). Positive effects of wood ash fertilization and weed control on the growth of Scots pine on former peat-based agricultural land – a 21-year study. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 1734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1734
Highlights: Weed control decreased and fertilization increased vegetation height and shading of seedlings; Weed control decreased mortality, but fertilization had no effect; Despite improved foliar K concentration though ash fertilization, all trees in the trial had severe K deficiency after 21 years; Weed control increased growth by 20 m3 ha–1 and fertilization by 35 m3 ha–1 in 21 years.

The impacts of weed control, ash fertilization and their interaction were tested for the afforestation of former agricultural peat-based soil with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Finland in a factorial arrangement of four treatments. Weed control with herbicides was carried out in July 1 and 2 years from planting, and wood ash (5 Mg ha–1) was applied in the spring of the 2nd year. Various vegetation, tree growth and nutrient assessments were made over the 21-year study period. Weed control decreased the weed cover by 36–56 percentage points, vegetation height by 4–26 cm and thus shading of seedlings by vegetation for at least 4 years after planting. For the same period, ash fertilization increased vegetation height by 6–15 cm and shading of seedlings. Weed control reduced seedling mortality by 27 percentage points in 21 years, but ash fertilization had no significant effect. Ash fertilization increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, but its effect declined, and severe K-deficiency was recorded 21 years after planting. Up to the 9th year, weed control had a greater influence on growth than fertilization. Later the significance of fertilization increased due to an aggravated K-deficiency. Stand volume at year 21 for the untreated control plots was 8 m3 ha–1. Weed control and fertilization increased stand volume by 20 and 35 m3 ha–1, with a combined effect of 55 m3 ha–1. The effects of weed control and fertilization were additive and no significant interactions were found. Due to severe K-deficiencies, re-fertilization of all treatments would be necessary for the continued survival and growth of Scots pine.

  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8475-3568 E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@luke.fi
  • Little, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, George Campus, Western Cape, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: keith.little@nmmu.ac.za
article id 1579, category Research article
Oktay Yildiz, Ernaz Altundağ, Bilal Çeti̇n, Ş Teoman Guner, Murat Sarginci, Bulent Toprak. (2017). Afforestation restoration of saline-sodic soil in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey using gypsum and sulfur. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1579
Highlights: Significantly enhanced height and diameter growth of Elaeagnus angustifolia and height growth of Populus alba improved with soil chemical amendments in comparison to control; Infiltration rate on gypsum application sites was 55% higher than on sulfur application sites; Elaeagnus angustifolia survival rates with chemical treatments were 43% greater than controls; Tamarix smyrnensis had the highest mean survival rate of 80%, while Populus alba averaged 36%.

A significant amount of land area in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey has saline-sodic soil properties. The aim of the current study was to use both soil amendment and tree to restore these degraded lands. The primary objective was to ameliorate soils by leaching excess sodium with gypsum and sulfur applications. Following soil treatments, salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) and silver poplar (Populus alba L.) seedlings were planted on experimental and control sites to evaluate the effects of the treatments on survival and growth of these species. In the fall of 2013, three-year-old seedlings were planted using 1.5 × 1.5 m spacing on each plot. Survival rates were determined and height and diameter were measured at the end of September 2015. Second year infiltration measurements indicated that both chemical treatments had significantly increased the infiltration capacity of the soil (P = 0.0003). Soil infiltration capacity on gypsum treated sites was about 55% higher than on sulfur sites. Following the second growing season, salt cedar had the highest survival rates of 80%. Silver poplar had 36% survival rates across the treatments. Russian olive had 50 cm height growth on both gypsum and sulfur application sites vs. only 25 cm on controls. Diameters of Russian olive on gypsum and sulfur sites were about 9.3 mm vs. 5 mm on the controls. Silver poplars on gypsum treated sites grew 42% taller than controls. Salt cedar had no significant growth responses among treatments. With appropriate soil amendments, especially gypsum, Russian olive gave the best overall two-year results.

  • Yildiz, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: oktayyildiz@duzce.edu.tr (email)
  • Altundağ, Düzce University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: ernazaltundag@duzce.edu.tr
  • Çeti̇n, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: bilalcetin@duzce.edu.tr
  • Guner, Eskişehir Soil and Ecological Research Institute, General Directorate of Forestry, 06560 Yenimahalle/Ankara, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: stguner@ogm.gov.tr
  • Sarginci, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: muratsarginci@duzce.edu.tr
  • Toprak, Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry, 81620 Duzce, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: bulenttoprak@duzce.edu.tr
article id 1709, category Research article
Guoping Chen, Cong Shi, Shanshan Cheng, Tiejian Zhao, Guoquan Liu, Fuchen Shi. (2017). The structure and soil characteristics of a Pinus tabuliformis planted forest after 60 years of natural development in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1709
Highlights: Increasing proportions of broadleaf tree species was shown to affect nutrient content of the forest floor and soil, and the soil microbial community in the process of natural development of Pinus tabuliformis planted forest. In this regard, this study can act as a reference for management of the near-natural transformation of P. tabuliformis planted forests and for the choice of the tree species used.

This study evaluated the transformation of a Pinus tabuliformis Carrière forest into a near-natural forest after 60 years of natural development. The structure and soil characteristics of P. tabuliformis planted forest, the near-natural forest (coniferous-broadleaved P. tabuliformis mixed forest), and secondary forest (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. forest) were compared. Tree, shrub and herb species diversity of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests was higher than that of the planted P. tabuliformis forest. Examination of soil characteristics revealed that compared to the pure pine forest, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests increased in the forest floor and soil, but total carbon (C) concentration decreased in the forest floor, countered by increases in the soil. Furthermore, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH in the P. tabuliformis forest increased when deciduous broadleaved species were present. Total microbial biomass and bacterial biomass in the soils were greatest in the Q. mongolica forest, followed by the mixed, and then the P. tabuliformis forests. However, fungal biomass did not significantly differ among the three forests. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that different forest types can affect soil microbial biomass and community structure. Meanwhile, the natural development is recommended as a potential management alternative to near-natural transformation of a P. tabuliformis planted forest.

  • Chen, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: guopingchern@mail.nankai.edu.cn
  • Shi, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8689, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: cshi1@for.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
  • Cheng, School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 1401213932@sz.pku.edu.cn
  • Zhao, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaotiejiann456@sina.com
  • Liu, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: liuguoquan01@163.com
  • Shi, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fcshi@nankai.edu.cn (email)
article id 1709, category Research article
Guoping Chen, Cong Shi, Shanshan Cheng, Tiejian Zhao, Guoquan Liu, Fuchen Shi. (2017). The structure and soil characteristics of a Pinus tabuliformis planted forest after 60 years of natural development in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1709
Highlights: Increasing proportions of broadleaf tree species was shown to affect nutrient content of the forest floor and soil, and the soil microbial community in the process of natural development of Pinus tabuliformis planted forest. In this regard, this study can act as a reference for management of the near-natural transformation of P. tabuliformis planted forests and for the choice of the tree species used.

This study evaluated the transformation of a Pinus tabuliformis Carrière forest into a near-natural forest after 60 years of natural development. The structure and soil characteristics of P. tabuliformis planted forest, the near-natural forest (coniferous-broadleaved P. tabuliformis mixed forest), and secondary forest (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. forest) were compared. Tree, shrub and herb species diversity of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests was higher than that of the planted P. tabuliformis forest. Examination of soil characteristics revealed that compared to the pure pine forest, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of the mixed and Q. mongolica forests increased in the forest floor and soil, but total carbon (C) concentration decreased in the forest floor, countered by increases in the soil. Furthermore, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH in the P. tabuliformis forest increased when deciduous broadleaved species were present. Total microbial biomass and bacterial biomass in the soils were greatest in the Q. mongolica forest, followed by the mixed, and then the P. tabuliformis forests. However, fungal biomass did not significantly differ among the three forests. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that different forest types can affect soil microbial biomass and community structure. Meanwhile, the natural development is recommended as a potential management alternative to near-natural transformation of a P. tabuliformis planted forest.

  • Chen, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: guopingchern@mail.nankai.edu.cn
  • Shi, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8689, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: cshi1@for.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
  • Cheng, School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 1401213932@sz.pku.edu.cn
  • Zhao, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaotiejiann456@sina.com
  • Liu, Baxian Mountain National Nature Reserve, Tianjin 301900, China Received 29 September 2016 Revised ORCID ID:E-mail: liuguoquan01@163.com
  • Shi, Department of Plant Biology & Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fcshi@nankai.edu.cn (email)
article id 1628, category Research article
Jürgen Aosaar, Ülo Mander, Mats Varik, Hardo Becker, Gunnar Morozov, Martin Maddison, Veiko Uri. (2016). Biomass production and nitrogen balance of naturally afforested silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand in Estonia. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1628
Highlights: Leafless aboveground biomass of the 17-year-old natural silver birch stand growing in abandoned agricultural land reached 94 Mg ha–1; The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission; Nitrogen leaching was low; Soil N content increased with the stand age, soil C content remained stable; N2O and N2 fluxes in boreal deciduous forest were analysed.

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) is one of the main pioneer tree species occupying large areas of abandoned agricultural lands under natural succession in Estonia. We estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) dynamics during 17 growing seasons, and analysed soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) dynamics for 10 year period in a silver birch stand growing on former arable land. Main N fluxes were estimated and nitrogen budget for 10-year-old stand was compiled. The leafless AGB and stem mass of the stand at the age of 17-years were 94 and 76 Mg ha–1 respectively. The current annual increment (CAI) of stemwood fluctuated, peaking at 10 Mg ha–1 yr–1 at the age of 15 years; the mean annual increment (MAI) fluctuated at around 4–5 Mg ha–1. The annual leaf mass of the stand stabilised at around 3 Mg ha–1 yr–1. The stand density decreased from 11600 to 2700 trees ha–1 in the 8- and 17-year-old stand, respectively. The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission. The estimated fluxes of N2O and N2 were 0.12 and 83 kg ha–1 yr–1, respectively; N leaching was negligible. Nitrogen retranslocation from senescing leaves was approximately 45 kg ha–1, N was mainly retranslocated into stembark. The N content in the upper 0–10 cm soil layer increased significantly (145 kg ha–1) from 2004 to 2014; soil C content remained stable. Both the woody biomass dynamics and the N cycling of the stand witness the potential for bioenergetics of such ecosystems.

  • Aosaar, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrgen.aosaar@emu.ee (email)
  • Mander, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: ulo.mander@ut.ee
  • Varik, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.varik@emu.ee
  • Becker, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: hardo.becker@emu.ee
  • Morozov, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.morozov@emu.ee
  • Maddison, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: martin.maddison@ut.ee
  • Uri, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: veiko.uri@emu.ee
article id 1565, category Research article
Teija Ruuhola, Ari Nikula, Nivala Vesa, Seppo Nevalainen, Juho Matala. (2016). Effects of bedrock and surficial deposit composition on moose damage in young forest stands in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1565
Highlights: The effect of bedrock and soil on moose damage in forest plantations were examined; Moose damage were concentrated in nutrient rich bedrock areas; Bedrock of damaged stands contained a higher proportion of mafic and alkaline rocks; Pine-dominated stands on fine grained fertile forest sites had the highest damage risk.

There is evidence that moose are attracted to fertile growth habitats apparently due to better quality and larger quantities of food. The nutrients in mineral soils originate from the weathering of bedrock and the composition of parental bedrock affects the fertility of produced mineral soil, thus affecting also the import of nutrients into the whole food web. We surveyed the connection between moose damage in forest plantations and the composition of bedrock and surficial deposits in Finnish Lapland. We used a database of compensated moose damage in private forests in years 1997−2010. Undamaged stands in National Forest Inventories (NFI) from years 1986–2008 served as a control data and moose-damaged NFI-stands as a reference data. Bedrock and surficial depositions and the location of studied stands in relation to ancient shorelines were explored by using the digital databases of the Geological Survey of Finland. Moose-damaged stands were concentrated in southwestern and east Lapland in the areas of the Peräpohja Schist Belt and Lapland’s Greenstone Belt that are both composed of nutrient-rich rocks. The bedrock of damaged stands contained a higher proportion of mafic and alkaline rocks than did the control stands. Moose-damaged stands were pine-dominated and grew in more fertile forest sites than did control stands. Part of pine stands probably located in soils formerly occupied by spruce, which may increase the stands’ vulnerability to biotic threats. Especially, there were relatively more moose damage in pine plantations regenerated on fine-grained mineral soils derived from nutrient rich rocks than in less fertile soils.

  • Ruuhola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: teija.ruuhola@uef.fi
  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi (email)
  • Vesa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and Society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.nivala@luke.fi
  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@luke.fi
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
article id 1520, category Research article
Tomáš Kolář, Kyriaki Giagli, Miroslav Trnka, Emílie Bednářová, Hanuš Vavrčík, Michal Rybníček. (2016). Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1520
Highlights: The timing of leaf phenological phases in European beech is controlled by temperature; Tree-ring width variations in European beech positively reflect growing season precipitation and soil water availability; The water availability in the top 40 cm of soil layer is more important for European beech growth than that in the deeper layers; Extension of the phenological growing season does not increase tree-ring width.

Various environmental conditions (heat waves and drought events) strongly affect leaf and xylem phenology. Disentangling the influence of temperature, precipitation and soil moisture content (AWR) on the forest productivity remains an important research area. We analyzed the impact of climate variability on the leaf phenology (10 sample trees) and radial growth (17 sample trees) of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The study was conducted on 130-year-old European beech trees growing in a temperate forest stand in the Czech Republic. Detailed 20-year phenological monitoring was performed at the study site (1992–2011). As expected, leaf phenological events were mainly driven by the growing season temperatures. Leaf unfolding was highly affected positively by spring temperatures and the top-layer (to 40 cm) AWR in March. The correlation of tree-ring width with the interpolated climate data was positive significant for the growing season AWR and precipitation signal. Furthermore, the water availability in the top soil layer was found to be an important predictor of tree growth and extremely low growth occurrence. The extended phenological growing season, which was caused by a temperature increase, was not followed by an increased tree-ring width. The examined relationships point out the significance of the water availability in the top soil layer in European beech stands.

  • Kolář, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: koldatom@gmail.com (email)
  • Giagli, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: giagli@node.mendelu.cz
  • Trnka, Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Agrosystems and Bioclimatology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: mirek_trnka@yahoo.com
  • Bednářová, Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědelská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: bednarov@mendelu.cz
  • Vavrčík, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vavrcik@mendelu.cz
  • Rybníček, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: michalryb@post.cz
article id 1410, category Research article
Seppo Nevalainen, Juho Matala, Kari T. Korhonen, Antti Ihalainen, Ari Nikula. (2016). Moose damage in National Forest Inventories (1986–2008) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1410. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1410
Highlights: Almost 100 000 stands were studied; The proportion of damage doubled during the study period; Tree species mixture had a clear effect on the damage frequency; The damage was more common in mineral soils than in peatlands, in artificially than in naturally regenerated stands and in stands that needed thinning or clearing or in which soil preparation was used.

The occurrence of moose damage was studied using data from three National Forest Inventories (NFIs) accomplished between 1986 and 2008 in Finland. The combined data included a total of 97 390 young stands. The proportion of moose damage increased from 3.6% to 8.6% between the 8th NFI (1986–1994) and the 10th NFI (2004–2008). The majority (75%) of the damage occurred in Scots pine-dominated stands. The proportion of damage was higher in aspen-dominated stands than in stands dominated by any other tree species. The tree species mixture also had a clear effect on the occurrence of damage. Pure Scots pine stands had less damage than mixed Scots pine stands, and moose damage decreased linearly with the increasing proportion of Scots pine. Stands on mineral soil had more frequent moose damage than stands on peatlands. The fertility class of the site had no straightforward effect on the damage frequency. Artificially regenerated stands had more damage than naturally regenerated stands. Accomplished soil preparation measures and the need for thinning or clearing operations increased moose damage. High proportions of moose damage in young stands were found around the country. In the 10th NFI, the largest concentration of damage was found in southwestern Finland. Our study shows the temporal and spatial changes in the occurrence of moose damage and pinpoints some important silvicultural factors affecting the relative risk of young stands over a large geographical area.

  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@luke.fi (email)
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
  • Korhonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.t.korhonen@luke.fi
  • Ihalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.ihalainen@luke.fi
  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi
article id 1403, category Research article
Kristina Mjöfors, Monika Strömgren, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Annemieke Ingrid Gärdenäs. (2015). Impact of site-preparation on soil-surface CO2 fluxes and litter decomposition in a clear-cut in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1403. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1403
Highlights: Disturbances of the soil did not lead to higher CO2 emissions from the soil; Heavy mixing of the soil lead to lower CO2 emissions from the soil; Buried needles and coarse roots decomposed faster than those on the surface; Abundance of δ15N decreased in needles and roots after site preparation.

Boreal forest soil contains significant amounts of organic carbon. Soil disturbance, caused for example by site preparation or stump extraction, may increase decomposition and thus lead to higher CO2 emissions, contributing to global warming. The aim of this study was to quantify responses of soil-surface CO2 fluxes (Rs) and litter (needle and root) decomposition rates following various kinds of soil disturbance commonly caused by mechanical site preparation and stump harvest. For this purpose four treatments were applied in a clear-cut site in central Sweden: i) removal of the humus layer and top 2 cm of mineral soil, ii) placement of a humus layer and 2 cm of mineral soil upside down on top of undisturbed soil, forming a double humus layer buried under mineral soil, iii) heavy mixing of the humus layer and mineral soil, and iv) no disturbance (control). Rs measurements were acquired with a portable respiration system during two growing seasons. To assess the treatments’ effects on litter decomposition rates, needles or coarse roots (Ø = 6 mm) were incubated in litterbags at positions they would be located after the treatments (buried, or on top of the soil). The results indicate that site preparation-simulating treatments have no effect or may significantly reduce, rather than increase, CO2 emissions during the following two years. They also show that buried litter decomposes more rapidly than litter on the surface, but in other respects the treatments have little effect on litter decomposition rates.

  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.mjofors@slu.se (email)
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Monika.stromgren@slu.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Gärdenäs, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Annemieke.gardenas@slu.se
article id 1403, category Research article
Kristina Mjöfors, Monika Strömgren, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Annemieke Ingrid Gärdenäs. (2015). Impact of site-preparation on soil-surface CO2 fluxes and litter decomposition in a clear-cut in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1403. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1403
Highlights: Disturbances of the soil did not lead to higher CO2 emissions from the soil; Heavy mixing of the soil lead to lower CO2 emissions from the soil; Buried needles and coarse roots decomposed faster than those on the surface; Abundance of δ15N decreased in needles and roots after site preparation.

Boreal forest soil contains significant amounts of organic carbon. Soil disturbance, caused for example by site preparation or stump extraction, may increase decomposition and thus lead to higher CO2 emissions, contributing to global warming. The aim of this study was to quantify responses of soil-surface CO2 fluxes (Rs) and litter (needle and root) decomposition rates following various kinds of soil disturbance commonly caused by mechanical site preparation and stump harvest. For this purpose four treatments were applied in a clear-cut site in central Sweden: i) removal of the humus layer and top 2 cm of mineral soil, ii) placement of a humus layer and 2 cm of mineral soil upside down on top of undisturbed soil, forming a double humus layer buried under mineral soil, iii) heavy mixing of the humus layer and mineral soil, and iv) no disturbance (control). Rs measurements were acquired with a portable respiration system during two growing seasons. To assess the treatments’ effects on litter decomposition rates, needles or coarse roots (Ø = 6 mm) were incubated in litterbags at positions they would be located after the treatments (buried, or on top of the soil). The results indicate that site preparation-simulating treatments have no effect or may significantly reduce, rather than increase, CO2 emissions during the following two years. They also show that buried litter decomposes more rapidly than litter on the surface, but in other respects the treatments have little effect on litter decomposition rates.

  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.mjofors@slu.se (email)
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Monika.stromgren@slu.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Gärdenäs, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, 150 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Annemieke.gardenas@slu.se
article id 1312, category Research article
Simon Karl Nils Berg, Tomas Nordfjell, Dan Bergström. (2015). Effect of stump size and timing of stump harvesting on ground disturbance and root breakage diameter. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1312
Highlights: The ground disturbance and root breakage diameter during conventional stump harvesting on mineral soil were quantified; A function for estimating the disturbed area based on stump size was constructed; Many fine roots were found to be harvested; The total ground disturbance at the site after stump harvesting was similar to that caused by soil scarification.

Stump wood is a possible alternative to fossil fuel. Its harvesting, however, disturbs the ground and this has not yet been quantified at stump level. Such disturbance is likely to be dependent on stump size, type of soil and timing of stump harvesting. Therefore, we measured ground disturbance and root breakage diameter at two Norway spruce sites with sandy glacial till soil. The sites were harvested with a fork type head, 6 and 18 months after clear cutting. Measurements were made within 2 weeks of harvest. No difference was found between the two sites. The mean area of disturbed ground was 6.06 (std 3.14) m2 per stump and increased exponentially with stump size. A regression function modelling the relationship was constructed. Unexpectedly, many fine roots where extracted in the harvest. The arithmetic and basal area weighted mean root breakage diameter was 4.6 (std 2.2) and 29.5 (std 17.9) mm, respectively. There seems to be a limited increase in root breakage diameter with increased stump size. The small root breakage diameter is associated with reduced fuel quality and greater nutrient removal. It appears that much of the ground disturbance is associated with the creation of ruts rather than stump harvest per se. Stump harvesting disturbs a larger percentage of the area of a harvested site than mounding. Postponing stump harvest by one year did not decrease the ground disturbance or increase the root breakage diameter. To achieve less disturbance and larger root breakage diameter, probably new stump harvesting technology is required.

  • Berg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: phd.simon.berg@gmail.com (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.nordfjell@slu.se
  • Bergström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (SBT), Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dan.bergstrom@slu.se
article id 1265, category Research article
Eva Ring, Lars Högbom, Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Staffan Jacobson. (2015). Soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of logging residues at two harvested forest sites in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1265
Highlights: Soil-water chemistry, ground vegetation cover and water flux were affected by the amounts of logging residues stored on the ground after harvest; A strong response on soil-water chemistry was recorded at only one of the two sites; At the site showing a weak response, less residue remained after seven years in the treatments giving the most pronounced effects.
Logging residues (LR), i.e. tops, branches, and needles, are increasingly being harvested for energy production in Fennoscandia. These residues are temporarily piled on site awaiting transport. This study was undertaken to investigate effects on the soil and soil-water chemistry below different amounts of LR at two recently harvested coniferous sites in Sweden. Seven treatments were included and the studied amounts of LR ranged from no LR left on the ground to four times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands. Two treatments included eight times the estimated LR amount of the harvested stands but here the LR were removed after 7 or 20 weeks. Soil-water samples were collected during the first six or seven growing seasons. Effects of treatment were detected in the soil water for 11 chemical variables at the northern site, and for the NO3- and Cl- concentrations at the southern site. The strongest response was generally found in the treatment with four times the estimated LR amount, for which the highest concentrations were recorded in most cases. In the first three seasons, the water flux through the LR decreased with an increasing amount of residue. Effects on the exchangeable store of Ca2+ in the mor layer and the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil was detected at both sites. At the northern site, the weight of the remaining LR, ground vegetation and all other material above the mor layer in the treatments with two and four times the estimated LR amount was roughly twice the corresponding weights at the southern site seven years after treatment. Although strong effects on the soil-solution chemistry were detected at one of the study sites, in the treatments corresponding to two and four times the estimated logging residue amount, the effect on the leaching from an entire regeneration area is likely to be relatively small given the percentage of the area hosting these logging residue amounts (ca. 20% after stem-only harvesting and 9% after fuel-adapted felling).
  • Ring, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva.ring@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Högbom, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.hogbom@skogforsk.se
  • Nohrstedt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@slu.se
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.jacobson@skogforsk.se
article id 989, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Pekka Tamminen, Mikko Kukkola. (2014). Effects of long-term fertilisation on soil properties in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.989
Highlights: N fertilisation increased the amount of carbon in the organic layer; N fertilisation decreased the C/N ratio in the surface soil; N addition increased the amount of most nutrients in the organic layer; N fertilisation tended to lower pH, although only slightly.
The response of surface soil after 45- to 52-years to repeated nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation was studied. This study included 30 factorial experiments established in young (5- to 30-year-old) stands using plots of 900 m2, on average, and by randomising treatments within each experiment. Total amount of N added varied from 534 to 1908 kg ha–1 and that of P from 69 to 193 kg ha–1, repeated at every second N fertilisation. Liming was performed twice; in total, 6000 kg ha–1 of dolomite was applied. Nitrogen fertilisation increased the mass of the organic layer and the amount of carbon and consequently the amounts of most of the elements in the organic layer. In both the organic layer and the 0–10 cm layer of mineral soil, nitrogen fertilisation decreased the C/N ratio and tended to lower pH, although only slightly. Phosphorus fertilisation increased the amounts of P and Ca. Liming increased the total amounts of most elements in the organic layer, except for C and N. We were able to derive models to describe how changes in the chemical properties of the surface soil depended on doses of elements and on site and stand properties.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Tamminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.tamminen@metla.fi
  • Kukkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.kukkola@metla.fi
article id 970, category Research article
Zhen-Yu Du, Qing-Hua Wang, Shang-Jun Xing, Fang-Chun Liu, Bing-Yao Ma, Hai-Lin Ma, De-Xi Liu. (2013). Fine root distribution, characteristics and rhizosphere soil properties in a mixed stand of Robinia pseudoacacia and Fraxinus velutina in a saline soil. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.970
The spatial distribution and characteristics of fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter), and rhizosphere soil properties were studied in a mixed planted forest of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) 27 years after planting in a coastal saline soil of the Yellow River delta, China. The results of fine root analysis showed that the fine roots of both black locust and velvet ash were mainly distributed in the soil layer at 0–20 cm depth and 50–150 cm from trees. The fine root distribution of both species suggests a strategy of avoiding salinity rather than salt –tolerance. The horizontal spread distance of fine roots of velvet ash was evidently longer than that of black locust. The fine root biomass, specific root length, specific root area, specific root volume and root activity were significantly higher for velvet ash in comparison with black locust. The results of soil analysis showed that rhizosphere soil pH of black locust and velvet ash were significantly lower compared with non-rhizosphere soil. The available N content in rhizosphere soil of black locust was higher than that of velvet ash. However, the contents of soluble salt, organic matter, available P and available K in rhizosphere soil of velvet ash were higher than those of black locust. The above results indicated that the differences between black locust and velvet ash in fine root distribution, characteristics and rhizosphere soil properties were the major reasons for that velvet ash showed stronger acclimation responses than black locust to the coastal saline soil.
  • Du, Shandong Academy of Forestry, 42 Wenhua East Road, Jinan 250014, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: zydu@qq.com (email)
  • Wang, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: wqh0228@163.com
  • Xing, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: xingsj-126@126.com
  • Liu, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fchliu@126.com
  • Ma, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: mby777@163.com
  • Ma, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: mahlin@163.com
  • Liu, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: llyldx@163.com
article id 935, category Research article
Loice M. A. Omoro, Mike Starr, Petri K. E. Pellikka. (2013). Tree biomass and soil carbon stocks in indigenous forests in comparison to plantations of exotic species in the Taita Hills of Kenya. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 935. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.935
Carbon (C) densities of the tree biomass and soil (0–50 cm) in indigenous forest and plantations of eucalyptus, cypress and pine in the Taita Hills, Kenya were determined and compared. The cypress and pine plantations were about 30-years-old and eucalyptus plantations about 50-years-old. Biomass C densities were estimated from breast height diameter and wood density using allometric functions developed for tropical species and an assumed C content of 50%. Belowground biomass C densities were estimated using root:shoot biomass ratios. Soil organic C (SOC) densities were calculated from measured organic carbon contents (0–20 and 20–50 cm layers) and modelled bulk density values. Mean total biomass C and SOC densities for indigenous forest were greater than those of the plantations, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05) in the cases of cypress and pine biomass and pine SOC. The correlation between biomass C and SOC densities was nearly significant in the case of indigenous forest, but negative. Biomass C densities were not significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature or potential evapotranspiration, but pine biomass C densities were significantly correlated to actual evapotranspiration. SOC densities were more strongly correlated to mean annual precipitation than biomass C densities, but only significantly so in the case of pine. Neither biomass C nor SOC densities were correlated to plant available water capacity of the soil. Indigenous forest SOC densities were significantly correlated to soil clay contents, but negatively. Indigenous forests sequester more C in biomass and soil than do 30 to 50-year-old plantations of exotics, but it remains unclear if this is an intrinsic difference between indigenous forest and plantations of exotics or because of insufficient time for SOC levels in plantations to recover after clearance of original indigenous forest.
  • Omoro, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: loice.omoro@helsinki.fi
  • Starr, Department of Forest Sciences, P. O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mike.starr@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Pellikka, Department of Geosciences and Geography, P. O. Box 64 (Gustaf Hällströminkatu 2), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petri.pellikka@helsinki.fi
article id 893, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Timo Saksa, Jaana Luoranen. (2013). Soil preparation method affects outplanting success of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soils susceptible to frost heave. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 893. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.893
Soil preparation is a common practice that precedes outplanting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Finland as it enhances the survival and early growth of seedlings. Mounding in particular has become more common with Norway spruce planting in recent years. However, on fine-grained soils, the postplanting performance of seedlings has been poorer than on coarser soils even with mounding. This study examined the effects of different soil preparation treatments (spot and ditch mounding with varying mound height, inverting, unprepared control with or without a herbicide) on the postplanting performance of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soil susceptible to frost heave in two outplanting forest sites in central Finland. The results indicate higher soil temperature and lower soil water content especially in the highest mounds. Mounds, however, subsided gradually during the study years. Seedling mortality was higher and the proportion of vigorous seedlings was lower in the unprepared treatments, mainly due to increased pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage. Frost heave was present mainly on ditch mounded and inverted spots. Glyphosate herbicide treatment showed no benefit compared to the untreated control in two years. Consequently, seedling damage and conditions in the planting spots were reflected in seedling growth which was enhanced in the mounded spots. However, varying mound height or thickness of mineral capping showed no clear difference in seedling growth. The results therefore suggest that ditch or spot mounding should be used on frost heave susceptible forest soils to promote plantation establishment. Inverting or having no soil preparation with or without herbicide is not recommended.
  • Heiskanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.heiskanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi
article id 908, category Research article
Sattar Ezzati, Akbar Najafi, M. A. Rab, Eric K. Zenner. (2012). Recovery of soil bulk density, porosity and rutting from ground skidding over a 20-year period after timber harvesting in Iran. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.908
Ground-based skidding can have detrimental effects on soil properties trough soil profile disturbance and compaction that can persist for decades. We investigated the recovery of physical properties of disturbed brown soils on four abandoned downhill skid trails in a deciduous mountain forest in northern Iran. The most recent skidding operations had taken place 1–5 yrs, 6–10 yrs, 11–15 yrs, and 16–20 yrs ago, providing a 20-year chronosequence with four 5-year recovery periods. For each recovery period, mean values for soil bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MP), soil moisture content (SM), and rut depth (RD) were assessed for three levels of traffic intensity (Primary (PS), Secondary (SS) and Tertiary (TS) skid trails) and two levels of slope gradients (Gentle (G) and Steep (S)) and compared to those in undisturbed (control) areas. Over the 20-year recovery period, PS trails on gentle slopes exhibited mean values that were 35–42% (BD), 3–7% (SM), and 13–19 cm (RD) greater and 18–24% (TP) and 19–28% (MP) lower compared to undisturbed areas; on steep PS trails, values were 40–46% (BD), 2–13% (SM), and 13–21 cm (RD) greater and 23–27% (TP) and 28–35% (MP) lower, respectively. While RD and SM recovered, 20 years was not long enough for the other physical soil properties, particularly on steep slopes. To minimize soil disturbance, skidding should be confined to areas with gentle slopes and alternative harvesting methods such as cable yarding should be used where slope gradients exceed 20%.
  • Ezzati, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Najafi, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: a.najafi@modares.ac.ir (email)
  • Rab, Soil Physics Future Farming Systems Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zenner, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: eric.zenner@psu.edu
article id 908, category Research article
Sattar Ezzati, Akbar Najafi, M. A. Rab, Eric K. Zenner. (2012). Recovery of soil bulk density, porosity and rutting from ground skidding over a 20-year period after timber harvesting in Iran. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.908
Ground-based skidding can have detrimental effects on soil properties trough soil profile disturbance and compaction that can persist for decades. We investigated the recovery of physical properties of disturbed brown soils on four abandoned downhill skid trails in a deciduous mountain forest in northern Iran. The most recent skidding operations had taken place 1–5 yrs, 6–10 yrs, 11–15 yrs, and 16–20 yrs ago, providing a 20-year chronosequence with four 5-year recovery periods. For each recovery period, mean values for soil bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MP), soil moisture content (SM), and rut depth (RD) were assessed for three levels of traffic intensity (Primary (PS), Secondary (SS) and Tertiary (TS) skid trails) and two levels of slope gradients (Gentle (G) and Steep (S)) and compared to those in undisturbed (control) areas. Over the 20-year recovery period, PS trails on gentle slopes exhibited mean values that were 35–42% (BD), 3–7% (SM), and 13–19 cm (RD) greater and 18–24% (TP) and 19–28% (MP) lower compared to undisturbed areas; on steep PS trails, values were 40–46% (BD), 2–13% (SM), and 13–21 cm (RD) greater and 23–27% (TP) and 28–35% (MP) lower, respectively. While RD and SM recovered, 20 years was not long enough for the other physical soil properties, particularly on steep slopes. To minimize soil disturbance, skidding should be confined to areas with gentle slopes and alternative harvesting methods such as cable yarding should be used where slope gradients exceed 20%.
  • Ezzati, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Najafi, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: a.najafi@modares.ac.ir (email)
  • Rab, Soil Physics Future Farming Systems Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zenner, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: eric.zenner@psu.edu
article id 66, category Research article
Monika Strömgren, Kristina Mjöfors, Björn Holmström, Achim Grelle. (2012). Soil CO2 flux during the first years after stump harvesting in two Swedish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 66. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.66
One way of increasing the supply of renewable energy, thereby decreasing the use of fossil fuels, is to extract the stumps that remain after final stem harvesting. However, little is known about the environmental consequences of stump harvesting, and how ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, are affected by the practice. In the present paper, the effects on the soil carbon pool during the first months and years after stump harvesting in former Norway spruce stands are presented. The study was performed at two sites in mid- and southern Sweden. At both sites, the soil CO2 flux was measured on several occasions with a portable respiration system, to compare plots on which stump harvesting had occurred, with reference plots. At one of the sites, CO2 exchange was also followed continuously by means of eddy-covariance measurements before and after stump harvesting. Since there was no vegetation at the beginning of the study, almost all emitted CO2 could be assumed to come from heterotrophic sources, and the soil CO2 flux was measured. This study shows that the effect of stump harvesting on CO2 flux or soil decomposition processes is small or absent compared to site preparation such as mounding in a short-term perspective of months and years. The long-term consequences of stump harvesting are, however, still uncertain.
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.stromgren@slu.se (email)
  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holmström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grelle, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 66, category Research article
Monika Strömgren, Kristina Mjöfors, Björn Holmström, Achim Grelle. (2012). Soil CO2 flux during the first years after stump harvesting in two Swedish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 66. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.66
One way of increasing the supply of renewable energy, thereby decreasing the use of fossil fuels, is to extract the stumps that remain after final stem harvesting. However, little is known about the environmental consequences of stump harvesting, and how ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, are affected by the practice. In the present paper, the effects on the soil carbon pool during the first months and years after stump harvesting in former Norway spruce stands are presented. The study was performed at two sites in mid- and southern Sweden. At both sites, the soil CO2 flux was measured on several occasions with a portable respiration system, to compare plots on which stump harvesting had occurred, with reference plots. At one of the sites, CO2 exchange was also followed continuously by means of eddy-covariance measurements before and after stump harvesting. Since there was no vegetation at the beginning of the study, almost all emitted CO2 could be assumed to come from heterotrophic sources, and the soil CO2 flux was measured. This study shows that the effect of stump harvesting on CO2 flux or soil decomposition processes is small or absent compared to site preparation such as mounding in a short-term perspective of months and years. The long-term consequences of stump harvesting are, however, still uncertain.
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.stromgren@slu.se (email)
  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holmström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grelle, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 66, category Research article
Monika Strömgren, Kristina Mjöfors, Björn Holmström, Achim Grelle. (2012). Soil CO2 flux during the first years after stump harvesting in two Swedish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 66. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.66
One way of increasing the supply of renewable energy, thereby decreasing the use of fossil fuels, is to extract the stumps that remain after final stem harvesting. However, little is known about the environmental consequences of stump harvesting, and how ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, are affected by the practice. In the present paper, the effects on the soil carbon pool during the first months and years after stump harvesting in former Norway spruce stands are presented. The study was performed at two sites in mid- and southern Sweden. At both sites, the soil CO2 flux was measured on several occasions with a portable respiration system, to compare plots on which stump harvesting had occurred, with reference plots. At one of the sites, CO2 exchange was also followed continuously by means of eddy-covariance measurements before and after stump harvesting. Since there was no vegetation at the beginning of the study, almost all emitted CO2 could be assumed to come from heterotrophic sources, and the soil CO2 flux was measured. This study shows that the effect of stump harvesting on CO2 flux or soil decomposition processes is small or absent compared to site preparation such as mounding in a short-term perspective of months and years. The long-term consequences of stump harvesting are, however, still uncertain.
  • Strömgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.stromgren@slu.se (email)
  • Mjöfors, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holmström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grelle, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 98, category Research article
Meeri Pearson, Markku Saarinen, Kari Minkkinen, Niko Silvan, Jukka Laine. (2011). Mounding and scalping prior to reforestation of hydrologically sensitive deep-peated sites: factors behind Scots pine regeneration success. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 98. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.98
Watering up typically ensues after clearcutting forestry-drained peatland forests. Thus, the effectiveness of maintenance drainage and soil preparation procedures becomes paramount for establishing a new generation of commercial forest. Mounding is the primary method of soil preparation applied in regeneration sites lying on deep peat. As raised planting spots, mounds are resistant to waterlogging and assumed to be beneficial for organic matter (OM) decomposition via, e.g., increased soil aeration and temperature, which would also enhance seedling growth. In recent years, however, less intensive and cheaper alternatives like scalping have been sought with some reported cases of success. Our case study investigated the survival and growth of Scots pine outplants in mounds, scalps, and unprepared microsites along a moisture gradient. After three growing seasons, mounding accelerated neither seedling growth nor OM decomposition relative to the unprepared treatment. Survival in mounds was nonetheless superior overall. Scalps behaved as water collecting depressions leading to a catastrophic regeneration result. Based on our findings, water table level (WTL) overrides other growth-controlling factors in excess moisture conditions. To combat watering up coupled with greater than normal rainfall, we recommend reforestation strategies which provide elevated, prepared planting spots (i.e., mounds) or utilize unprepared, higher microforms.
  • Pearson, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: meeri.pearson@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silvan, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 30, category Research article
Hilppa Gregow, Heli Peltola, Mikko Laapas, Seppo Saku, Ari Venäläinen. (2011). Combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost with implications for risks to forestry in Finland under the current and changing climatic conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 30. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.30
This work focuses on the combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost with implications for risks to forestry in Finland under the current and changing climatic conditions. For this purpose, we employ meteorological datasets, available for the period of 1971–2009 and global climate model (GCM) simulations for the current climate 1971–2000, and periods 2046–65 and 2081–2100 applying the A1B-climate change scenario. Based on our results, the wind and snow induced risks to Finnish forests are projected to increase in the future although the change in the occurrence of strong winds is small. This is because soil frost depths that support tree anchorage from late autumn to early spring in Finland are projected to nearly disappear in the southern and central parts of the country. Heavy snow loads > 30 kg m–2 are becoming more common in southern and eastern Finland despite that the average cumulative 5-day snow loads decrease in these areas by 18 to 50%, respectively. As a result of the changes in the combined occurrence of wind, snow loading and soil frost, the risk of climatic conditions making conifers liable to uprooting are projected to increase in southern, central and eastern Finland. In the north, the risk of stem breakage is becoming more pronounced under snow loading > 20 kg m–2. Despite some uncertainties related to this work, we assume that the findings can serve as valuable support for the risk assessment of wind and snow induced damages to Finnish forests and for forestry, in general.
  • Gregow, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilppa.gregow@fmi.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
  • Laapas, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saku, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Venäläinen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 122, category Research article
Benoit Lafleur, Nicole J. Fenton, David Paré, Martin Simard, Yves Bergeron. (2010). Contrasting effects of season and method of harvest on soil properties and the growth of black spruce regeneration in the boreal forested peatlands of eastern Canada. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.122
It has been suggested that without sufficient soil disturbance, harvest in boreal forested peatlands may accelerate paludification and reduce forest productivity. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of harvest methods (clearcutting vs. careful logging) and season (summer vs. winter harvest) on black spruce regeneration and growth in boreal forested peatlands of eastern Canada, and to identify the soil variables that favour tree growth following harvest. Moreover, we sought to determine how stand growth following harvest compared with that observed following fire. The average tree height of summer clearcuts was greater than that of summer carefully logged stands and that of all winter harvested sites. Summer clearcutting also resulted in a higher density of trees > 3 m and > 4 m tall and in a 50% reduction in Rhododendron groenlandicum cover, a species associated with reduced black spruce growth. Height growth of sample trees was related to foliar N and P concentrations, and to soil total N, pH and available Ca and Mg but not to harvest method or season. Our results also indicate that summer clearcutting could produce stand productivity levels comparable to those observed after high-severity soil burns. These results suggest that summer clearcutting could be used to restore forest productivity following harvest in forested peatlands, and offer further support to the idea that sufficient levels of soil disturbance may be required to restore productivity in ecosystems undergoing paludification.
  • Lafleur, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail: benoit.lafleur@uqat.ca (email)
  • Fenton, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paré, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, 1055 du P.E.P.S., P.O. Box 10380, Stn. Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4C7, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Simard, Département de Géographie, Université Laval, Pavillon Abitibi-Price, 2405 rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergeron, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 146, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Juho Rantala, Timo Saksa, Pertti Harstela. (2010). Effect of soil preparation method on economic result of Norway spruce regeneration chain. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 146. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.146
Economic result of forest regeneration chains, based either on spot mounding or on disc trenching and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings, were clarified and compared to each other. First, effects of soil preparation method on early development of Norway spruce stands were measured from field experiments. Second, the effects of soil preparation method on stand level management programs were modelled. The modelling was based on growth simulation and investment calculations. The soil preparation methods substantially affected early development of a stand. The density of the removed trees in early cleaning was 56% higher on the disc-trenched area compared to the spot-mounded area. The difference was especially high (120%), close by (< 25 cm) the remained spruce seedlings. There was also a difference between the methods in the growth of crop spruces; at biological age of 8 years, the mean height of spruce was 110 cm on the spot-mounded area and 68 cm on the disc-trenched area. The differences led to divergent management programs between the areas. The disc-trenched area needed three young stand management operations whereas two was enough at the spot-mounded area. Although disc trenching is a less expensive method than spot mounding, the total management costs were higher in disc trenching than in spot mounding. Furthermore, incomes from the first commercial thinning were higher when regeneration based on spot mounding. At the interest rate of 3%, the investment in spot mounding had 329 EUR ha–1 higher net present value than the investment in disc trenching.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karri.uotila@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 455, category Research article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Maajärvi, Harri Strandman, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.455
This study considered how climate change affects the accumulation of snow, the soil moisture and soil frost at sites without tree cover in boreal conditions in Finland (60°–70°N). An increase of 4.5 °C in annual mean temperature and 20 % in annual precipitation were assumed for Finland by the year 2100 according to A2 emission scenario. Along with climate, the soil type of the permanent inventory plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory was used. Soil and climate data were combined by using a process-based ecosystem model. Calculations were done for four periods: current climate (1971–2000), near future (2001–2020), mid-term future (2021–2050) and long-term future (2071–2100). According to our simulations, the average monthly duration and depth of snow decreased over the simulation period. However, the increasing precipitation may locally increase the snow depths in the mid-term calculations. In the autumn and winter, the average volumetric soil moisture content slightly increased in southern Finland during the near future, but decreased towards the end of the century, but still remained on a higher level than presently. In northern Finland, the soil moisture in the autumn and winter increased by the end of this century. In the summertime soil moisture decreased slightly regardless of the region. Throughout Finland, the length and the depth of soil frost decreased by the end of the century. In the south, the reduction in the depth was largest in the autumn and spring, while in the mid-winter it remained relatively deep in the middle of the century. In the north, the depth tended to increase during the first two calculation periods, in some areas, even during the third calculation period (2071–2100) due to reduced insulation effects of snow during cold spells. The wintertime increase in soil moisture and reduced soil frost may be reflected to reduced carrying capacity of soil for timber harvesting.
  • Kellomäki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi (email)
  • Maajärvi, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Strandman, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 455, category Research article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Maajärvi, Harri Strandman, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.455
This study considered how climate change affects the accumulation of snow, the soil moisture and soil frost at sites without tree cover in boreal conditions in Finland (60°–70°N). An increase of 4.5 °C in annual mean temperature and 20 % in annual precipitation were assumed for Finland by the year 2100 according to A2 emission scenario. Along with climate, the soil type of the permanent inventory plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory was used. Soil and climate data were combined by using a process-based ecosystem model. Calculations were done for four periods: current climate (1971–2000), near future (2001–2020), mid-term future (2021–2050) and long-term future (2071–2100). According to our simulations, the average monthly duration and depth of snow decreased over the simulation period. However, the increasing precipitation may locally increase the snow depths in the mid-term calculations. In the autumn and winter, the average volumetric soil moisture content slightly increased in southern Finland during the near future, but decreased towards the end of the century, but still remained on a higher level than presently. In northern Finland, the soil moisture in the autumn and winter increased by the end of this century. In the summertime soil moisture decreased slightly regardless of the region. Throughout Finland, the length and the depth of soil frost decreased by the end of the century. In the south, the reduction in the depth was largest in the autumn and spring, while in the mid-winter it remained relatively deep in the middle of the century. In the north, the depth tended to increase during the first two calculation periods, in some areas, even during the third calculation period (2071–2100) due to reduced insulation effects of snow during cold spells. The wintertime increase in soil moisture and reduced soil frost may be reflected to reduced carrying capacity of soil for timber harvesting.
  • Kellomäki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi (email)
  • Maajärvi, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Strandman, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 455, category Research article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Maajärvi, Harri Strandman, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.455
This study considered how climate change affects the accumulation of snow, the soil moisture and soil frost at sites without tree cover in boreal conditions in Finland (60°–70°N). An increase of 4.5 °C in annual mean temperature and 20 % in annual precipitation were assumed for Finland by the year 2100 according to A2 emission scenario. Along with climate, the soil type of the permanent inventory plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory was used. Soil and climate data were combined by using a process-based ecosystem model. Calculations were done for four periods: current climate (1971–2000), near future (2001–2020), mid-term future (2021–2050) and long-term future (2071–2100). According to our simulations, the average monthly duration and depth of snow decreased over the simulation period. However, the increasing precipitation may locally increase the snow depths in the mid-term calculations. In the autumn and winter, the average volumetric soil moisture content slightly increased in southern Finland during the near future, but decreased towards the end of the century, but still remained on a higher level than presently. In northern Finland, the soil moisture in the autumn and winter increased by the end of this century. In the summertime soil moisture decreased slightly regardless of the region. Throughout Finland, the length and the depth of soil frost decreased by the end of the century. In the south, the reduction in the depth was largest in the autumn and spring, while in the mid-winter it remained relatively deep in the middle of the century. In the north, the depth tended to increase during the first two calculation periods, in some areas, even during the third calculation period (2071–2100) due to reduced insulation effects of snow during cold spells. The wintertime increase in soil moisture and reduced soil frost may be reflected to reduced carrying capacity of soil for timber harvesting.
  • Kellomäki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi (email)
  • Maajärvi, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Strandman, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 162, category Research article
Ruut Rabinowitsch-Jokinen, Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa. (2010). Immediate effects of logging, mounding and removal of logging residues and stumps on coarse woody debris in managed boreal Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 162. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.162
Wood fuel production has increased remarkably, but its environmental effects within the forest ecosystem have not yet been studied much. We investigated the immediate effects of two series of forest management treatments, which produce timber and forest chips, on the volume and decay classes of coarse woody debris (CWD). One of the treatment series included logging and residue harvesting (LRH) and mounding (M), while the other series included LRH and mounding combined with stump harvesting (MSH). We hypothesized that, i) LRH reduces CWD, excluding stumps; ii) the more intense the soil preparation treatment is, M vs. MSH, the more CWD is destroyed; iii) both LRH and soil preparation treatments (M and MSH) reduce the occurence of snags, highly decayed CWD and deciduous CWD in particular. Ten sample plots in mature managed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated forests were located in Southern Finland. The total volume of CWD on the sample plots was measured three times: before and after LRH, and after M or MSH. LRH significantly decreased the volume of snags and the combined volume of snags and logs. MSH significantly decreased the total volume of CWD, while M had no significant effect on the volume of CWD. The middle and highly decayed CWD were destroyed most easily in the treatments.
  • Rabinowitsch-Jokinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanha-Majamaa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ilkka.vanha-majamaa@metla.fi (email)
article id 159, category Research article
Johan Stendahl, Maj-Britt Johansson, Erik Eriksson, Åke Nilsson, Ola Langvall. (2010). Soil organic carbon in Swedish spruce and pine forests – differences in stock levels and regional patterns. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 159. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.159
The selection of tree species is one factor to consider if we want to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through forest management. The objectives of this study were to estimate the differences in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests and to examine causes of differences in the accumulation of carbon in the forest soil. Large-scale inventory data was used to quantify variations in SOC stock in relation to stand type and the accumulation of carbon for spruce and pine stands was analysed by simulation. Based on field data, the national mean SOC stock was 9.2 kg m–2 in spruce dominated stands and 5.7 kg m–2 in pine dominated stands. For both species, the SOC stock, measured in the field inventory, increased significantly with increasing temperature, although at different rates. The SOC stock was larger for spruce under all temperature conditions, but the difference between species diminished with increasing temperature. The simulations indicated that the build-up of SOC over several rotations was 22% higher in spruce stands than in pine stands under similar environmental conditions. The main difference was found to be the greater input of harvest residues for spruce. Further, the simulations showed that ground vegetation contributed considerably more to the litter production under pine than under spruce. On sites where both Scots pine and Norway spruce are considered suitable, the latter should be selected if the aim of the forest management policy is to maximize the accumulation of SOC in the forest. Further, spruce is more favourable for SOC accumulation in areas with cold temperatures and on sites with low productivity.
  • Stendahl, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7001, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.stendahl@mark.slu.se (email)
  • Johansson, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7001, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Department of Energy and Technology, P.O. Box 7061, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Department of Soil and Environment, P.O. Box 7001, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Langvall, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Experimental Forest and Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-36030 Lammhult, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 170, category Research article
Ryoichi Doi, Senaratne L. Ranamukhaarachchi. (2009). Community-level physiological profiling in monitoring rehabilitative effects of Acacia auriculiformis plantation on degraded land in Sakaerat, Thailand. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 170. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.170
This study was conducted to investigate the rehabilitative effects of planting Acacia auriculiformis trees on degraded land by observing variations in soil bacterial community profiles provided by community-level physiological profiling. Soil bacterial and physicochemical comparisons between an original evergreen forest and the Acacia plantation plot, established on an area severely degraded as a result of deforestation, showed that most soil characteristics were rehabilitated 18 to 19 years after the plantation of Acacia according to single variables, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices based on the community-level physiological profiles, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis. However, a more strict statistical comparison, discriminant analysis, completely discriminated between the Acacia plantation and the evergreen forest soils when the community-level physiological profiles were compared. Thus, the Acacia plantation soil was shown to still be in the process to full recovery. Here, we discuss the relevance of planting A. auriculiformis in land rehabilitation schemes in savanna regions.
  • Doi, AFE Building, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand ORCID ID:E-mail: roird@aeiou.pt (email)
  • Ranamukhaarachchi, AFE Building, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 210, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Markku Lahti, Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2009). Nutrient loading has a transitory effect on the nitrogen status and growth of outplanted Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 210. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.210
In recent years increased fertilization provided to tree seedlings in the nursery in the previous autumn has been introduced in order to promote good outplanting performance. In this paper this nutrient loading has been studied in order to determine how the increased seedling nutrient status with unaffected seedling size affects both the growth and the nutrient concentration, content and uptake of two-year-old Norway spruce container seedlings (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) after outplanting. Seedling development was monitored for three years at two contrasting soil fertility levels on a sandy test field in two planting years and on one natural forest outplanting site in central Finland. Nutrient loading was shown to increase shoot and root growth in a poor fertility soil during the first growing season after planting, while, after the first growing season, nutrient loading was not found to affect seedling performance. However, although nutrient loading cannot compensate for the availability of nutrients to the seedlings from the soil, it may provide an additional input for fast plantation establishment on poorer sites during the first crucial growing season after outplanting.
  • Heiskanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.heiskanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luoranen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 207, category Research article
Mats T. Olsson, Maria Erlandsson, Lars Lundin, Torbjörn Nilsson, Åke Nilsson, Johan Stendahl. (2009). Organic carbon stocks in Swedish Podzol soils in relation to soil hydrology and other site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.207
Site characteristics influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. In Podzols under Swedish forest land, SOC stocks were related to latitude, altitude, soil hydrological class categorized by mean groundwater level, mean annual precipitation, temperature sum during the growing season, total annual nitrogen (N) deposition and site capacity. SOC stocks were determined for the O-horizon and for total soil (O-horizon + mineral soil to a depth of 50 cm). Data from the Swedish National Forest Soil Inventory 1993–2001 were used (1477 field plots). The O-horizon was sampled with a core sampler and carbon (C) stocks were determined. For the mineral soil layers the SOC stock was calculated based on the SOC concentrations, bulk density and content of rock fragments. The results showed that the overall mean SOC stock was 2.8 and 8.2 kg C m–2 for O-horizon and total soil, respectively. Soil hydrological class strongly affected SOC stocks, which increased from on average 6.7 kg C m–2 at dry sites to 9.7 kg C m–2 at slightly moist sites. Corresponding values for the O-horizon were 2.0 to 4.4 kg C m–2. The correlation coefficients for the linear relationship between SOC stock and site characteristics were highest for N deposition, which explained up to 25% of variation, and latitude, which explained up to 20% of variation. Altitude had the lowest degree of explanation.
  • Olsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erlandsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundin, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torbjorn.nilsson@mark.slu.se (email)
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Stendahl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 207, category Research article
Mats T. Olsson, Maria Erlandsson, Lars Lundin, Torbjörn Nilsson, Åke Nilsson, Johan Stendahl. (2009). Organic carbon stocks in Swedish Podzol soils in relation to soil hydrology and other site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.207
Site characteristics influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. In Podzols under Swedish forest land, SOC stocks were related to latitude, altitude, soil hydrological class categorized by mean groundwater level, mean annual precipitation, temperature sum during the growing season, total annual nitrogen (N) deposition and site capacity. SOC stocks were determined for the O-horizon and for total soil (O-horizon + mineral soil to a depth of 50 cm). Data from the Swedish National Forest Soil Inventory 1993–2001 were used (1477 field plots). The O-horizon was sampled with a core sampler and carbon (C) stocks were determined. For the mineral soil layers the SOC stock was calculated based on the SOC concentrations, bulk density and content of rock fragments. The results showed that the overall mean SOC stock was 2.8 and 8.2 kg C m–2 for O-horizon and total soil, respectively. Soil hydrological class strongly affected SOC stocks, which increased from on average 6.7 kg C m–2 at dry sites to 9.7 kg C m–2 at slightly moist sites. Corresponding values for the O-horizon were 2.0 to 4.4 kg C m–2. The correlation coefficients for the linear relationship between SOC stock and site characteristics were highest for N deposition, which explained up to 25% of variation, and latitude, which explained up to 20% of variation. Altitude had the lowest degree of explanation.
  • Olsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erlandsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundin, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torbjorn.nilsson@mark.slu.se (email)
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Stendahl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 214, category Research article
Michelle de Chantal, Hannu Rita, Urban Bergsten, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Harald Grip. (2009). Frost heaving of Picea abies seedlings as influenced by soil preparation, planting technique, and location along gap-shelterwood gradients. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 214. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.214
The effects of soil preparation, planting technique and location along gap-shelterwood gradients (position and orientation) on frost heaving damage to seedlings were studied in Vindeln Experimental Forests, northern Sweden. The forest was harvested in a grid pattern in winter 2004–2005, forming gaps and shelterwood areas of 30 x 40 m each. Gap-shelterwood gradients were delimited in four orientations and subdivided into five positions: 7 m and 15 m into the gap and shelterwood, and at the gap edge. At each position, three replicates of three soil preparations were made: exposed E and B horizons and HuMinMix (milled vegetation and humus layers mixed with surface mineral soil). In early October 2005, one-year-old containerized Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings were planted using four techniques: normal and deep planting, and mobile and fixed experimental containers. After one winter, frost heaving damage was highest for seedlings on B horizon combined with the mobile container (51 ± 6%) and normal planting (43±6%). Normal- or deep-planted seedlings in HuMinMix had the least damage (5–6.6 ± 2.5%). Compared to normal planting, deep planting reduced frost heaving damage only on B horizon. When considering the orientation, seedlings in the experimental containers had more or similar frost heaving damage than normal- or deep-planted seedlings. Along the eastern gradient, seedlings incurred more frost heaving damage in the center of the gap than under the canopy.
  • Chantal, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology & Dept of Forest Resource Management, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: michelle.dechantal@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Rita, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology & Dept of Forest Resource Management, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergsten, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Löfvenius, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grip, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 233, category Research article
Raija Laiho, Sakari Sarkkola, Seppo Kaunisto, Jukka Laine, Kari Minkkinen. (2008). Macroscale variation in peat element concentrations in drained boreal peatland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.233
Information on the variation in soil element concentrations at different spatial scales is needed for, e.g., designing efficient sampling strategies, upscaling the processes related to carbon cycling, and planning land use and management. In spite of intensive land use, such information concerning peat soils is still scarce. We analyzed the variation in peat mineral element concentrations in boreal peatland forests drained 50–60 years earlier. We wanted to quantify the proportions of variation deriving from differences between regions and peatland basins and from within-peatland heterogeneity, and to model the variation using relatively easily measurable site and soil characteristics. We utilized 878 peat samples representing the 0–20 cm layer and collected from 289 sites in 79 peatland basins. The sites represented three different drained peatland forest site types. The two strongest gradients in the element composition captured by principal component analysis were correlated with both the North-South gradient and the site type variation, and the East-West gradient. In general, most of the variation in the element concentrations was contributed by differences among peatland basins, and variation within the floristically determined sites. Most of the element concentrations were best modeled when either the bulk density or the ash content of the peat, or both, were used in addition to site type and geographical location. The explanatory power remained modest for most element concentrations. As for the P concentrations in soil, however, our models provide means for estimating a large part of the variation among drained pine mire sites.
  • Laiho, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Sarkkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 233, category Research article
Raija Laiho, Sakari Sarkkola, Seppo Kaunisto, Jukka Laine, Kari Minkkinen. (2008). Macroscale variation in peat element concentrations in drained boreal peatland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.233
Information on the variation in soil element concentrations at different spatial scales is needed for, e.g., designing efficient sampling strategies, upscaling the processes related to carbon cycling, and planning land use and management. In spite of intensive land use, such information concerning peat soils is still scarce. We analyzed the variation in peat mineral element concentrations in boreal peatland forests drained 50–60 years earlier. We wanted to quantify the proportions of variation deriving from differences between regions and peatland basins and from within-peatland heterogeneity, and to model the variation using relatively easily measurable site and soil characteristics. We utilized 878 peat samples representing the 0–20 cm layer and collected from 289 sites in 79 peatland basins. The sites represented three different drained peatland forest site types. The two strongest gradients in the element composition captured by principal component analysis were correlated with both the North-South gradient and the site type variation, and the East-West gradient. In general, most of the variation in the element concentrations was contributed by differences among peatland basins, and variation within the floristically determined sites. Most of the element concentrations were best modeled when either the bulk density or the ash content of the peat, or both, were used in addition to site type and geographical location. The explanatory power remained modest for most element concentrations. As for the P concentrations in soil, however, our models provide means for estimating a large part of the variation among drained pine mire sites.
  • Laiho, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Sarkkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 231, category Research article
Hilppa Gregow, Ulla Puranen, Ari Venäläinen, Heli Peltola, Seppo Kellomäki, David Schultz. (2008). Temporal and spatial occurrence of strong winds and large snow load amounts in Finland during 1961-2000. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 231. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.231
Information on the temporal and spatial occurrence of strong winds and snow loads on trees is important for the risk management of wind- and snow-induced damage. Meteorological measurements made at 19 locations across Finland during 1961–2000 are used to understand the temporal and spatial occurrence of strong winds and large snow loads. A Kriging interpolation method was used to produce a spatial analysis of wind-speed events above 11 m s–1, 14 m s–1, and greater or equal to 17 m s–1 and snowfall accumulation above 20 kg m–2 and 30 kg m–2. According to the analysis, wind speeds exceeded 14 m s–1 at least 155 times and reached 17 m s–1 only 5 times at inland locations during the 40 years. Large snowfall accumulations were more frequent in the higher-elevation inland areas than along the coast. The snow load on trees exceeded 20 kg m–2 about 65 times a year when averaged over all 40 years, but was as high as 150 times a year during the mild 1990s. The maximum number of heavy snow-load events occurred in 1994 in northern Finland, consistent with a forest inventory by the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1992–1994. The findings of this study imply that the risk of wind-induced damage is highest in the late autumn when trees do not have the additional support of frozen soil. In contrast, the risk of snow-induced damage is highest at higher-elevations inland, especially in northern Finland.

* Erratum (23 Oct 2012): The authors have requested inclusion of an additional author. Author information should thus be as follows: Hilppa Gregow, Ulla Puranen, Ari Venäläinen, Heli Peltola, Seppo Kellomäki & David Schultz
  • Gregow, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilppa.gregow@fmi.fi (email)
  • Puranen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Venäläinen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi
  • Schultz, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 296, category Research article
Samuel Roturier, Sofia Bäcklund, Maria Sundén, Urban Bergsten. (2007). Influence of ground substrate on establishment of reindeer lichen after artificial dispersal. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 296. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.296
Methods to improve the recovery of reindeer lichen after soil disturbance or overgrazing are being sought for areas where reindeer are herded. The effects of four substrates – mineral soil, moss, twigs and pine bark – on the establishment of lichen fragments after total removal of the vegetation were thus studied in a middle-aged pine stand and a clear-cut, both located in a lichen-rich pine-heath. Cladina mitis fragments of two sizes were manually dispersed in 1 m2 quadrats and their movements from their respective dispersal points were registered after one year. The natural re-establishment of lichens in the quadrats was monitored over three years by using digital pictures. In the forest stand, no significant differences were detected in either the fragment movement or the lichen establishment between the different substrates, but the fragment size had positive effects on both parameters. In the clear-cut, the moss substrate was the most suitable not only for the artificially dispersed lichens to fasten to, but also for the natural settlement of lichens from the surrounding lichen mat. More lichen thalli fastened to the bark and twigs substrates than to the mineral soil, but the settlement of lichens from the surrounding was greater on bare mineral soil substrate. The results indicate that artificial dispersal of lichen thalli on an appropriate substrate could be a successful strategy for promoting lichen recovery.
  • Roturier, SLU, Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberget Fältstation, SE-922 91 Vindeln, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: samuel.roturier@esf.slu.se (email)
  • Bäcklund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sundén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergsten, SLU, Dept of Forest Ecology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 306, category Research article
Niina Tanskanen, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2007). Spatial distribution of fine roots at ploughed Norway spruce forest sites. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 306. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.306
We examined the spatial distribution of fine roots at two forest sites that were ploughed 20 (site K1) and 33 years (site K2) before sampling and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Soil core samples were taken from the tilt and beneath the tilt, the furrow and the intermediate undisturbed soil to a depth of 0.4 m for fine root biomass, length and necromass determinations. Norway spruce fine roots were found throughout the ploughed forest sites. The fine roots were, however, unevenly distributed: the fine root biomass was highest in the tilt (624 and 452 g m–2 at sites K1 and K2, respectively) and lowest in the undisturbed soil at site K1 (79 g m–2) and in the furrow at site K2 (145 g m–2). The estimated average fine root biomass at the ploughed forest sites (268 and 248 g m–2 at sites K1 and K2, respectively) was, however, similar to those presented in other studies concerning sites that had not been ploughed. In the tilt, a substantial proportion of the fine roots was in the inverted mineral soil horizons and in the new organic horizon above the tilt. Consistent with the fine root biomass findings, the Norway spruce necromass was highest in the tilt but the vertical distribution of the dead roots was different: the necromass was highest in the buried OBT horizon. The results of this study suggest that at the ploughed forest sites, a substantial part of Norway spruce nutrient and water uptake occured in the tilt during the first 20 or 33 years after plantation.
  • Tanskanen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: niina.tanskanen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 330, category Research article
Benoit Lapointe, Robert Bradley, William Parsons, Suzanne Brais. (2006). Nutrient and light availability to white spruce seedlings in partial and clearcut harvested aspen stands. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 330. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.330
White spruce is a commercially important tree species in Canada’s boreal forest, and studies are underway to determine the best conditions for planting nursery grown seedlings in the field. Here, we studied effects of low thinning (1/3 harvested), shelterwood (2/3 harvested), and clear-cut harvesting on soil chemical properties, on the growth and nutrition of white spruce seedlings, and on diffuse non-intercepted (DIFN) light levels at 75 cm above the soil surface. The study was conducted on a nutrient-rich clayey soil in the Abitibi region of Québec. DIFN light was lowest in non-harvested control plots and increased curvilinearly with basal area removal. Thus, DIFN light in clear-cut plots was more than twice the amount in shelterwood plots. At three years post-planting, significant linear relationships were found between DIFN light and seedling growth parameters, which were significantly higher in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. Harvesting treatments had no significant effects on soil chemical properties or on four indices of mineral N availability. Needle mass increased with harvesting intensity. Mg and K concentrations in current-year needles were lower in clear-cut than in other treatment plots. In previous-year needles, Ca concentration was higher and Mg concentrations lower in clear-cut plots, whereas as K concentration was higher in non-harvested control plots. Nutrient concentrations were nearly all sufficient in all harvesting treatments according to diagnostic norms established for white spruce. Relative nutrient content (mg nutrient needle–1) of current-year late-summer needles increased, whereas relative nutrient concentration (mg nutrient mg–1 needle) varied slightly, with increasing harvesting intensity, indicating that all nutrients were sufficient in all treatments. There were significant linear relationships between seedling growth and needle Ca, Mg and K concentrations. We conclude that light availability, rather than nutrient limitations, is the main determinant of white spruce seedling growth on these fertile soils.
  • Lapointe, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bradley, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.bradley@usherbrooke.ca (email)
  • Parsons, Université de Sherbrooke, Département de biologie, 2500 boulevard de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Brais, UQAT, 445 boulevard Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E4 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 328, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Markku Lahti, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo, Aino Rummukainen, Hannu Mannerkoski, Leena Finér. (2006). Responses of silver birch saplings to low soil temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.328
Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula) saplings were grown for a third growing season in controlled-environment rooms (dasotrons) at three soil temperatures (5, 10, and 20 °C). All trees grew the first flush of leaves, but the growth of the second flush was almost completely inhibited at the two lower temperatures. The dry weight of the second-flush leaves was 50 times larger at 20 °C than at 5 and 10 °C, with about 100 times more nitrogen. Root growth was less affected than shoot growth. Chlorophyll content, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were lower at low soil temperatures. The value of the cytoplasm resistance estimated from the electric impedance spectra was lower at 5 °C than at 10 or 20 °C. Leaf water potential was highest at the lowest soil temperature, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was only slightly lower in saplings growing in cooler soil. We conclude that the effect of long-term exposure to cold soil on net assimilation and growth was not caused by stomatal closure alone. It is likely to be additionally mediated by the limited nitrogen acquisition at the low soil temperatures, and perhaps additionally by some other factor. As the growth depression of aboveground parts in response to low soil temperature was more significant in silver birch than what has earlier been found in conifers, the relative changes in air and soil temperature may eventually determine whether birch will become more dominant in boreal forests with climate change.
  • Aphalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.lehto@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rummukainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 340, category Research article
Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää, Raija Laiho, Kari Minkkinen, Harri Vasander, Leena Finér. (2006). Relationship between biomass and percentage cover in understorey vegetation of boreal coniferous forests. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.340
In the present study, the aboveground biomass of the understorey vegetation of boreal coniferous forests was modelled according to the percentage cover. A total of 224 observations from 22 stands in upland forests and 195 observations from 14 different studies in peatland forests were utilized for the present analyses. The relationships between biomass and percentage cover can be used in ecosystem and carbon-cycle modelling as a rapid nondestructive method for estimation of the aboveground biomass of lichens, bryophytes, herbs and grasses, and dwarf shrubs in upland forests and bottom and field layers in peatland forests.
  • Muukkonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.muukkonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laiho, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasander, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 349, category Research article
Temel Sariyildiz, J. M. Anderson. (2006). Intra-specific variation in cell wall constituents of needle age classes of Pinus sylvestris in relation to soil fertility status in Southwest England. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 349. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.349
First, second and third year needles were collected from the same branches of young Scots pine trees growing on soils of two different status (high and low fertility sites) that varied in mineral nutrient concentrations and N mineralisation potential. All needle age classes were analysed for total carbon, acid detergent fibre (ADF), lignin, cellulose, phenylpropanoid derivatives (PPD) of lignin, sugar constituents of non-crystalline, hydrated cellulose and hemicellulose, and nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn). Significant intra-specific variation in the litter quality variables in relation to soils of high and low fertility was found in the second and third year needles, whereas there were no differences in the other cell wall constituents and mineral elements of the first year needles. The second and third year needles from the low fertility soil contained higher concentrations of ADF, lignin, cellulose, sugar constituents of non-crystalline, hydrated cellulose and hemicellulose, and phenylpropanoid derivatives (PPD) of lignin, but lower concentrations of N, P and Mg than the same needles from the high fertility and fertilised soils. The results in the present study indicate that under different soil fertilities, needle age classes show significant variations in the cell wall constituents and mineral elements, and suggest that this can result in significant variation in litter quality and decomposition rates.
  • Sariyildiz, Kars Kafkas Üniversitesi, Artvin Orman Fakültesi, 08000 Artvin, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: t_sariyildiz@yahoo.com (email)
  • Anderson, Department of Biological Sciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 366, category Research article
Lars Eliasson. (2005). Effects of forwarder tyre pressure on rut formation and soil compaction. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.366
In Swedish forestry, final felling is usually done by a harvester and a forwarder. These machines are heavy and the risk for rutting and soil compaction can be considerable under unfavourable soil conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of forwarder tyre inflation pressure on rutting and soil compaction after final felling. Three levels of forwarder tyre pressure were studied, 300, 450 and 600 kPa, after 2 and 5 machine passages. The first passage was driven with a 19.7 Mg harvester, and the second to fifth passages with a fully loaded forwarder totalling 37.8 Mg. Rut depths were not significant affected by tyre pressures but increased significantly with the number of machine passages. Soil density was significantly increased by 0.075 Mg m–3 by the harvester passage. Soil density increased significantly with increasing number of forwarder passages, and tyre pressure did not significantly influence this increase but the interaction between number of forwarder passages and tyre pressure was almost significant. Data suggest that density increases occur earlier in the 600 kPa treatment than in the other treatments. Only parts of an area harvested are trafficked in a normal harvesting operation. Outside the research area approximately 12.5 per cent of the area harvested was covered with ruts. On primary strip roads, which are heavily trafficked, soil compaction cannot be avoided by reducing the tyre pressure. On secondary strip roads, not passed more than once by the forwarder, a low forwarder tyre pressure may reduce soil compaction.
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eliasson@norraskogsagarna.se (email)
article id 366, category Research article
Lars Eliasson. (2005). Effects of forwarder tyre pressure on rut formation and soil compaction. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.366
In Swedish forestry, final felling is usually done by a harvester and a forwarder. These machines are heavy and the risk for rutting and soil compaction can be considerable under unfavourable soil conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of forwarder tyre inflation pressure on rutting and soil compaction after final felling. Three levels of forwarder tyre pressure were studied, 300, 450 and 600 kPa, after 2 and 5 machine passages. The first passage was driven with a 19.7 Mg harvester, and the second to fifth passages with a fully loaded forwarder totalling 37.8 Mg. Rut depths were not significant affected by tyre pressures but increased significantly with the number of machine passages. Soil density was significantly increased by 0.075 Mg m–3 by the harvester passage. Soil density increased significantly with increasing number of forwarder passages, and tyre pressure did not significantly influence this increase but the interaction between number of forwarder passages and tyre pressure was almost significant. Data suggest that density increases occur earlier in the 600 kPa treatment than in the other treatments. Only parts of an area harvested are trafficked in a normal harvesting operation. Outside the research area approximately 12.5 per cent of the area harvested was covered with ruts. On primary strip roads, which are heavily trafficked, soil compaction cannot be avoided by reducing the tyre pressure. On secondary strip roads, not passed more than once by the forwarder, a low forwarder tyre pressure may reduce soil compaction.
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eliasson@norraskogsagarna.se (email)
article id 373, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Pekka Tamminen. (2005). Boron, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization in Norway spruce stands suffering from growth disturbances. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 373. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.373
Growth disturbance symptoms typical of B deficiency have been reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in many parts of eastern Finland. In order to test the B deficiency hypothesis and explore the possibilities of curing the disturbed trees with B fertilization, three experiments were established in October 1999 in young Norway spruce stands growing on fertile sites in eastern Finland. All the stands contained healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees with growth disturbances typical of B deficiency (B < 5 mg kg–1). 40 healthy, 40 slightly damaged, and 40 severely damaged trees were selected as sample trees in each stand. In May 2000, the trees were fertilized with 2.0 kg B ha–1 as borax (B), 2.0 kg B ha–1 and 40 kg P ha–1 as superphosphate (B+P) or 200 kg N ha–1 as urea (N). The control trees were not fertilized (0). The needle response to B fertilization was rapid, relatively high B concentrations being achieved already after one growing season. Boron fertilization cured the growth disorders and increased height growth within four years, but had no effect on diameter growth. The trees also recovered without B fertilization, but to a lesser extent compared to the B fertilized trees. Compared to the control, boron fertilization increased the height growth in all the disorder classes, i.e. 5, 17 and 19 cm yr–1 for healthy, slightly and severely damaged trees, respectively. As the healthy trees also seemed to benefit from B fertilization, this indicates that B deficiency in fact retards height growth before any disorder symptoms become apparent in individual trees. Compared with B alone, the application of P together with B gave no additional benefit. Nitrogen fertilization alone appeared to have a detrimental effect on height growth in the severely disturbed trees.
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Tamminen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 370, category Research article
Pekka Tamminen, John Derome. (2005). Temporal trends in chemical parameters of upland forest soils in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.370
Changes in chemical soil properties during periods of 12 to 28 years were studied in 54 stands in southern Finland. Relative slopes (%/year) were calculated for the changes in soil variables in order to utilise all the sampling occasions (2–6) covered by the study period. Only the results of new analyses made on the soil samples could be used owing to unpredictable differences between the results of the original and new analyses. During the study period the acidity (pH, exchangeable acidity) of the organic layer had decreased, and the mineral soil had become more acidic only in terms of increased exchangeable aluminium concentrations. An increasing trend in the amount of soil organic matter best explained the acidity variables: it lowered acidity in the organic layer, but increased it in the mineral soil. Acid ammonium acetate extractable nutrients showed decreasing trends over time, apart from an increasing trend for sulphur in the 0–30 cm mineral soil layer. Total concentrations of most elements in the organic layer, including nitrogen and sulphur, also showed a decreasing trend. Changes in the soil variables could not be firmly connected to deposition, wood production or the amount of nutrients accumulated in woody tissues. However, the decrease in sulphur concentrations in the organic layer was clearly linked with the decrease in sulphur deposition in recent years.
  • Tamminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.tamminen@metla.fi (email)
  • Derome, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 392, category Research article
Veikko Huhta, Mika Räty. (2005). Soil animal communities of planted birch stands in central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 392. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.392
The aim of this study was to compare soil animal communities in planted birch (Betula pendula) stands of different origin with each other and with natural forests. Six 30-year-old birch stands were investigated, three planted after clear-cutting of spruce stands, and three planted on cultivated soil. The faunal communities were markedly different in plantations established on spruce forest soil and on arable soil. “Birch after Spruce” communities were relatively similar to those of coniferous forests, though the population densities were generally lower. “Birch after Field” communities were sparse and could be characterised as “impoverished forest communities”, except in Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae that have affinities with deciduous forests and cultural landscapes. Soil conditions are not sufficient to explain the differences between the forests. Colonisation and transport by man may determine the presence of certain species, especially earthworms. These in turn affect soil properties, and compete with or otherwise have negative effects on other soil fauna. Thus the community differences between different forests are an outcome of several factors: soil characteristics, site history, colonisation ability and interspecific interactions.
  • Huhta, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä University, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: v.huhta@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Räty, Ojalanlenkki 4, FI-80140 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 423, category Research article
Olle Rosenberg, Staffan Jacobson. (2004). Effects of repeated slash removal in thinned stands on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 423. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.423
The increased interest in harvesting logging residues as a source of bio-energy has led to concerns about the potentially adverse long-term impact of the practice on site productivity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on soil chemistry (pH, C, N and AL-extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) in three different soil layers (FH, 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm mineral soil) and understorey vegetation after the second removal of logging residues in whole-tree thinned stands. The study was performed at four different sites, established in the period 1984–87, representing a range of different climatic and soil conditions: a very fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) site in south-western Sweden and three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sites located in south, south-central and central Sweden. The effects of whole-tree thinning on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation were generally minor and variable. Across all sites the concentrations of Ca and Mg were significantly lower when slash was removed.
  • Rosenberg, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: olle.rosenberg@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 433, category Research article
Raija Laiho, Timo Penttilä, Jukka Laine. (2004). Variation in soil nutrient concentrations and bulk density within peatland forest sites. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 433. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.433
The within-site variability of soil characteristics on sites with different soil types remains poorly quantified, although this information is crucial for the success of research on soil properties, and especially for monitoring soil properties over time. We used coefficients of variation and multilevel variance component models to examine the within-site variation of soil (0–30 cm) mineral nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, mg g–1; Mn, Zn, mg g–1) and bulk density (kg m–3) on boreal deep-peat sites. We then evaluated the reliability of the site-level estimates (sample means) obtained using different sampling intensities (numbers of samples per site). Our 11 sites represented a single original site type within the oligotrophic nutrient level. Two of the sites were undrained while the rest had been drained for forestry at different points in time. Overall, P concentrations showed the smallest and Mn concentrations the largest within-site variation. The sampling depth contributed more than 50% of the total variance in all other characteristics except the concentrations of P and Fe, and bulk density. The variance proportions of peatland basin, site (within basin), and sampling location (within site) varied by sampling depth for most soil characteristics. The estimates obtained when using a certain number of samples per site were always more reliable for the 0–30 cm layer’s composite samples than for any single 10-cm layer at any depth sampled. On average, it was found that between 4 (P) and some 200 (Mn) samples per site would be needed for the estimates to have a theoretical 10% maximum deviation.
  • Laiho, Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Peatland Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Penttilä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, Peatland Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.503
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
article id 502, category Research article
Janne Levula, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Relation between soil properties and tree species composition in a Scots pine–Norway spruce stand in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.502
It is commonly known in Finland that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a tree of dry soils and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) is a tree of fresh soils. However, the concepts of dry and fresh soils still lack a precise definition. Consequently, the discussion on which soil/site is a pine or spruce habitat has continued over several decades. Moreover, in forest regeneration, the practice of tree species selection between the pine and the spruce has varied. We investigated the relationship between soil properties and pine–spruce species composition in a mature, naturally regenerated stand in southern Finland. We applied spatial analysis to divide the stand area up into 3–7 classes based on selected soil properties and then investigated the variations in species composition among those classes. The pine–spruce basal area ratio (BA of pines / BA of spruces) increased along with increasing mean particle size and proportion of coarse sand and gravel particle size fraction (0.6–20 mm) of mineral soil, and was lowest in classes, with the highest proportions of fine texture fractions. The results suggest that in southern Finland on sorted soils, pine is more competitive in regeneration and growth than spruce when mean particle size is above 0.44 mm or percentage of coarse sand and gravel is higher than 50%.
  • Levula, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.levula@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 502, category Research article
Janne Levula, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Relation between soil properties and tree species composition in a Scots pine–Norway spruce stand in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.502
It is commonly known in Finland that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a tree of dry soils and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) is a tree of fresh soils. However, the concepts of dry and fresh soils still lack a precise definition. Consequently, the discussion on which soil/site is a pine or spruce habitat has continued over several decades. Moreover, in forest regeneration, the practice of tree species selection between the pine and the spruce has varied. We investigated the relationship between soil properties and pine–spruce species composition in a mature, naturally regenerated stand in southern Finland. We applied spatial analysis to divide the stand area up into 3–7 classes based on selected soil properties and then investigated the variations in species composition among those classes. The pine–spruce basal area ratio (BA of pines / BA of spruces) increased along with increasing mean particle size and proportion of coarse sand and gravel particle size fraction (0.6–20 mm) of mineral soil, and was lowest in classes, with the highest proportions of fine texture fractions. The results suggest that in southern Finland on sorted soils, pine is more competitive in regeneration and growth than spruce when mean particle size is above 0.44 mm or percentage of coarse sand and gravel is higher than 50%.
  • Levula, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.levula@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 509, category Research article
Michelle de Chantal, Laura Eskola, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Kari Leinonen, Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Early establishment of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies sown on soil freshly prepared and after stabilisation. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.509
The aim of this study is to investigate the early establishment of Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) seedlings on soil freshly prepared and soil left to stabilise for one year after preparation. Three site preparation treatments were studied: exposed C horizon, mound (broken O/E/B horizon piled upside down over undisturbed forest floor), and exposed E/B horizon. The years investigated were different in terms of weather, one being rainy and the other one dry. As such, emergence was very low in the dry year. Content of fine silt particles, bulk density, water retention, air-filled porosity, loss-on-ignition, and near saturated hydraulic conductivity did not differ statistically between fresh and stabilised soil. Nevertheless, early establishment of P. sylvestris seedlings was improved on exposed C and E/B horizon after one year of soil stabilisation. In contrast, early establishment of P. sylvestris on mounds, and that of P. abies on all types of site preparation treatments were not improved by soil stabilisation. In addition, mortality due to frost heaving did not differ significantly between freshly prepared and stabilised soil. Considering the fact that growing season climate had a great influence on the sowing outcome, and that early establishment is also affected by other factors that vary yearly, such as predation, seedbed receptivity, and competition from vegetation, it may not be advantageous to wait for soil to stabilise before regenerating from seeds.
  • Chantal, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: michelle.dechantal@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Eskola, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leinonen, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 685, category Research article
S. P. Sah, I. C. Dutta, M. S. Haque. (1998). Nursery and field response of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo) to Rhizobium inoculation. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 685. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.685
The present research work aims to demonstrate the rehabilitation of a degraded forest land by afforestation of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria sp. In this study, effects of the three different Rhizobium isolates from three localities such as i. Kotre-isolate, ii. Pokhara-isolate and iii. Syangaza-isolate were assessed both in nursery and in the field. It was noted that the growth and biomass increment of seedlings in nursery as well as in the field after rhizobial inoculation were significantly high compared to control one. Among these 3-isolates, Kotre-isolate was found to be superior to others. Soil improvement around the root of inoculated seedlings was remarkable high. Nitrogen content of the soil increased in the range of 20–40% compared to control (only 10–20%). Kotre-isolate, in general, caused more soil improvement than the other isolates. The nutrient content in the green foliage, particularly nitrogen, increased in the range of 30–50%, compared to control one. The considerable increase in nutrients content of soil as well as in the foliage indicates the improvement in the quality of site.
  • Sah, Department of Biology, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail: ssah@wlink.com.np (email)
  • Dutta, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haque, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1661, category Research note
Āris Jansons, Linda Robalte, Roberts Čakšs, Roberts Matisons. (2016). Long-term effect of whole tree biomass harvesting on ground cover vegetation in a dry Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1661
Highlights: After 47 years, whole tree harvesting (WTH) increased richness of ground cover species compared to conventionally managed stands; Higher occurrence of the oligotrophic species after WTH suggested reduction of soil nutrient content, hence formation of different plant community; WTH, apparently, facilitated recovery of species typical for later successional stages.

Long-term (47 years) effect of experimental whole tree harvesting (WTH) with a heavy soil scarification on ground cover vegetation was assessed in a dry nutrient-poor Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Latvia. Neighbouring conventionally managed young (10 years) and mature (119 years) stands of the same type were used for comparison. Higher species richness was observed in the WTH stand compared to conventionally managed young and mature stands (24, 18 and 16 species, respectively), likely due to the profound disturbance. The Shannon diversity index was higher in the young than in the WTH and mature stands (2.36, 1.77 and 1.63, respectively); still, the composition and structure of ground cover vegetation in WTH was more similar to the mature stand. Nevertheless, the occurrence of oligotrophic species in the WTH stand suggested decreased soil nutrient content and potential development of different plant community. Hence, such method might be considered for restoration of oligotrophic stands. Nevertheless, the period of 47 years appeared sufficient for the ground cover vegetation to recover after the WTH.

  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Robalte, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: robalte.l@gmail.com (email)
  • Čakšs, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: chakijs95@gmail.com
  • Matisons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: roberts.matisons@silava.lv
article id 1661, category Research note
Āris Jansons, Linda Robalte, Roberts Čakšs, Roberts Matisons. (2016). Long-term effect of whole tree biomass harvesting on ground cover vegetation in a dry Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1661
Highlights: After 47 years, whole tree harvesting (WTH) increased richness of ground cover species compared to conventionally managed stands; Higher occurrence of the oligotrophic species after WTH suggested reduction of soil nutrient content, hence formation of different plant community; WTH, apparently, facilitated recovery of species typical for later successional stages.

Long-term (47 years) effect of experimental whole tree harvesting (WTH) with a heavy soil scarification on ground cover vegetation was assessed in a dry nutrient-poor Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Latvia. Neighbouring conventionally managed young (10 years) and mature (119 years) stands of the same type were used for comparison. Higher species richness was observed in the WTH stand compared to conventionally managed young and mature stands (24, 18 and 16 species, respectively), likely due to the profound disturbance. The Shannon diversity index was higher in the young than in the WTH and mature stands (2.36, 1.77 and 1.63, respectively); still, the composition and structure of ground cover vegetation in WTH was more similar to the mature stand. Nevertheless, the occurrence of oligotrophic species in the WTH stand suggested decreased soil nutrient content and potential development of different plant community. Hence, such method might be considered for restoration of oligotrophic stands. Nevertheless, the period of 47 years appeared sufficient for the ground cover vegetation to recover after the WTH.

  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Robalte, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: robalte.l@gmail.com (email)
  • Čakšs, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: chakijs95@gmail.com
  • Matisons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: roberts.matisons@silava.lv
article id 71, category Research note
Jaana Luoranen, Heli Viiri. (2012). Soil preparation reduces pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage on both peatland and mineral soil sites one year after planting. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 71. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.71
We studied pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) feeding damage to Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings planted in regeneration areas located on peatlands or on mineral soil sites in Southern and Central Finland. The survey included two planting years and a total of 60 regeneration areas (40 areas on peatlands and 20 on mineral soil sites). Some sites classified as peatland were as transformed or transforming drained peatlands that also contained mineral soil on a prepared surface. The soil preparation method, type of surface material around a seedling, pine weevil, vole-induced or other damage and the health of each seedling were observed in systematically selected circular sample plots. There was slightly more pine weevil damage on peatland than on mineral soil sites. More seedlings were damaged on unprepared peat and humus than on a prepared surface. Seedlings surrounded by a prepared surface had a slightly greater risk of being gnawed by pine weevil when planted on prepared peat compared to planting on prepared mineral soil. Vole damage was observed only in one region during one year. Mounded areas had slightly less vole damage than patched areas. In order to reduce damage caused by pine weevils and voles, it is important to scarify the regeneration area properly before insecticide-treated seedlings are planted. Mounding and patching are recommended so that seedlings can be planted in mineral soil whenever possible, even in the case of peatlands.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Viiri, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 71, category Research note
Jaana Luoranen, Heli Viiri. (2012). Soil preparation reduces pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage on both peatland and mineral soil sites one year after planting. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 71. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.71
We studied pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) feeding damage to Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings planted in regeneration areas located on peatlands or on mineral soil sites in Southern and Central Finland. The survey included two planting years and a total of 60 regeneration areas (40 areas on peatlands and 20 on mineral soil sites). Some sites classified as peatland were as transformed or transforming drained peatlands that also contained mineral soil on a prepared surface. The soil preparation method, type of surface material around a seedling, pine weevil, vole-induced or other damage and the health of each seedling were observed in systematically selected circular sample plots. There was slightly more pine weevil damage on peatland than on mineral soil sites. More seedlings were damaged on unprepared peat and humus than on a prepared surface. Seedlings surrounded by a prepared surface had a slightly greater risk of being gnawed by pine weevil when planted on prepared peat compared to planting on prepared mineral soil. Vole damage was observed only in one region during one year. Mounded areas had slightly less vole damage than patched areas. In order to reduce damage caused by pine weevils and voles, it is important to scarify the regeneration area properly before insecticide-treated seedlings are planted. Mounding and patching are recommended so that seedlings can be planted in mineral soil whenever possible, even in the case of peatlands.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Viiri, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 223, category Research note
Bum-Jin Park, Takeshi Morikawa, Tomohiro Ogata, Kenji Washida, Mario Iwamoto, Hirohiko Nakamura, Yoshifumi Miyazaki. (2009). Physiological effects of ingesting eucalyptus essential oil with milk casein peptide. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.223
This study was conducted to clarify the effect of eucalyptus essential oil mixed with milk casein peptide food for human physiological relaxation. Fifteen male university students (21.2 ± 0.9 yr) participated in study as subjects. The subjects were given one of two types of experimental drink (peptide + eucalyptus flavor (Pep + EF), and peptide + grapefruit·orange flavor (Pep + G·O), each flavor contains natural essential oil). We measured the change in salivary cortisol concentration and POMS scores before and two hours after taking experimental drink. The results of a Type A behavior pattern test were used to classify subjects. The concentration of salivary cortisol decreased significantly two hours after taking Pep + EF. And Type B showed bigger change than Type A. In conclusion, the results show that eucalyptus essential oil has the effect of relaxation, and that the effects on Type A and Type B are different.
  • Park, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: bjpark@faculty.chiba-u.jp (email)
  • Morikawa, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ogata, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Washida, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Iwamoto, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nakamura, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Miyazaki, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 679, category Research note
Hans-Örjan Nohrstedt, Gunnar Börjesson. (1998). Respiration in a forest soil 27 years after fertilization with different doses of urea. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.679
A number of previous studies have shown that N fertilization often reduces respiration in forest soils. However, the durability of this effect has not been fully explored. In this study, the response of soil respiration to a single fertilization with urea, applied 27 years earlier, was examined in a field experiment located in a stand of Pinus sylvestris in central Sweden. The doses that had been added were 120, 240 and 600 kg N ha–1. Samples were taken from the humus layer and the upper 7.5 cm of the mineral soil. Sieved samples were incubated in the laboratory. No effect of the previous fertilization on soil respiration was found, thus indicating that the reduction shown in earlier studies is not persistent. There was a tendency that the highest N dose had caused a higher N concentration and a lower C/N-ratio in the humus layer and a higher C concentration in the mineral soil.
  • Nohrstedt, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, S-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hans-orjan.nohrstedt@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Börjesson, Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7172, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1966). Studies on the microfungi in the forest floor of subarctic pine forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 7 article id 7172. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7172

Dilution plate method was used in studying the density and composition of the microfungal populations of the organic layer of Scots pine forests, and the soil-plate method in studying the part of these populations decomposing cellulose. The media used were rose bengal agar (Martin’s medium for fungi) and cellulose medium.

The microfungal density depended to a considerable extent on the moisture content and temperature of the organic layer. Only the combination of relatively high moisture content and temperature, but neither of these factors alone, influenced considerably the microfungal population density. The correlation of the populations to the changes in this combined factor was stronger than the correlation to the seasonal variations of spring, summer and autumn.

The microfungal population consisted of only a few species. Mucor, Mortierella and Penicillium were the most common genera isolated from the rose bengal agar. The first and the last of these comprised almost 90% of the total population. For the Mucor fungi, increases in the moisture content up to the maximum values found (75%) were favourable; the Penicillium fungi, on the contrary, were intolerant of high moisture content.

Among the cellulose decomposing microfungi grown on cellulose medium, Trichoderma sp. was the most common; also, it formed the most colonies, tolerated the lowest temperatures, and was most efficient. The others were of the genera Pullularia, Verticillium, Scopulariopsis and Penicillium. In addition, there were some unidentified Phycomycetes fungi. Only the two first-mentioned caused observable changes in cellulose.

  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7154, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1964). Some factors affecting the quantitative determination of aerobic bacteria in forest humus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 1 article id 7154. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7154

Quantitative investigation of bacteria in the humus is needed when the intensity of their function in decomposition in the soil is studied. In this study bacterial density of humus was measured using dilution plate method, which was subjected to thorough investigation. The method was chosen, despite its complexity, because it is quite consistent, each stage can be studied separately and the reliability can be tested. The aim of the study was to determine the best way to take samples so that the sample will represent the bacterial population as closely as possible, and to optimize homogenization and dilution of the sample and the assays.

On the basis of the results of the investigation, a procedure was developed for quantitative determination of aerobic bacteria in the humus by the dilution plate method. The paper recommends that subsamples are collected systematically from at least 25 different points. The moisture and temperature of the samples should remain similar to the natural environment until preparation of the dilution. The sample was homogenized with the Bühler homogenizer, which is constructed so that a certain degree of asepsis can be maintained and the speed of the apparatus can be regulated. The content of the mineral nutrients of the sample must be determined when choosing the way of homogenization to obtain the highest number of colonies per plate. The sample was diluted with either 0.1–0.01% peptone solution or 0.5% soil extract. The most advantageous degree of dilution was obtained by testing with the aid of Fisher’s dispersion index the probability of the Poisson distribution in the results.

  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7479, category Article
Matti Franssila. (1958). Kulovaaran ja säätekijöiden välisestä riippuvuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 5 article id 7479. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7479
English title: The dependence of forest fire danger on meteorological factors.
Original keywords: metsäpalot; ilmasto; kuivuus; maan kuivuus

The investigation is divided into statistical and experimental sections, the latter of which were conducted in a Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand with the aim of elucidating the interdependence of soil humidity and meteorological factors. The moisture content of pine needles and moss and wooden cylinders placed on the soil or slightly over the ground was determined by weighing. The results showed that there is correlation between the moisture content of the wooden cylinders and the relative humidity of air during the days without rain. Correlation between moisture content of pine needles and moss with the air was slightly poorer.

In the statistical section, based on meteorological observations made in the geophysical observatory at Sodankylä in Northern Finland in 1920-1943, and forest fire statistics of the area, forest fire days and days without forest fires were divided into 40 temperature-humidity groups. Of the 391 forest fires observed in the area, the cause of the fire was known in 353 cases, and 69% of these were caused by lightning. A forest fire danger index was calculated using the data. A sharp increase in the burned area when the index exceeded the limit k=0.3 seem to be explained by thunderstorms, which are the most notable cause of forest fires in the Sodankylä area.

The forest fire index was calculated also at four meteorological stations in different parts of the country using weather observations in 1927-1936. It appears that the number of days in which the k>0.1 decreases when proceeding northwards, obviously because of the shortening of the summer. On the other hand, the number of days in which k>0.3 increases towards the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Franssila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7475, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1958). Liberation of nitrogen from alder leaf litter. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 1 article id 7475. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7475

Litters of different plant species vary greatly in regard to their nutrient content and other properties. The aim of the study was to compare different litters from the standpoint of their value as soil fertilizer. In an experiment Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown in pot cultures in which known amounts of different litters had been mixed with the soil. The tested litters were Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix sibirica (Ledeb.), Betula sp., Populus tremula (L.), Alnus incana (L.) Moench, A. glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.), Sorbus aucuparia (L.), Tilia cordata (Mill.), Acer platanoides (L.), Corylus avellana (L.), Eupteris aquilina (L.), and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.

A striking difference was found between alder (Alnus sp.) leaf litter and all the other litters tested. The difference can be seen from the second growth season on, becaus the young seedling uses mainly the nutrients included in the seed. The leaf litter has mainly unfavourable effect on the growth of the pine seedlings. Only both alder species improve the growth. This is mainly due to the nitrogen content of alder leaves. Tree leaves and other forest litter are often composted in the forest nurseries. It seems that adding nitrogen to the compost is necessary, otherwise compost added to the soil may have a harmful effect on the seedlings. Alder, on the other hand, has nitrogen binding Actinomyces growing in symbiosis in its root nodules, and is able to utilize atmospheric nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7452, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1955). Factors causing mortality of tree seeds and succulent seedlings. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 3 article id 7452. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7452

Germlings and small tree seedlings are exposed to extreme conditions in the forest floor. In this study the influence of climatic factors to seeds and seedlings were studied experimentally, and an attempt was made to estimate the importance of various factors in several sowing experiments in Finland.  

Seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subjected to temperature variations which simulated those of exposed forest sites. The seeds lost some of their germinative capacity during the five-day treatments. Succulent seedlings died when subjected to immersion for 15 minutes at temperatures from 51.5 to 55 ºC. After a hardening pretreatments the seedlings tolerated 2-3 ºC higher temperatures. In artificial humus soil exposed to strong insolation for 15 minutes, temperatures in the range of 54-65 ºC proved to be critical for the seedlings. In natural conditions, also little lower temperatures may prove fatal. Exposure of succulent seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to insolation showed that most damage occurred on humus, quartz sand, and humus-sand mixture, due to rapid evaporation. Seeds of Scots pine, Norway spruce, Betula pendula and Betula pubescens tolerated poorly drought if germination had progressed to a 5–10 mm long radicle. Succulent seedlings tolerated 53-77 days long drought better in humus than in fine silty sand. Seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Alnus incana and A. glutinosa tolerated cold variably. The developmental stage of the seedling affected cold resistance. Pine seeds sown in furrows germinated well after rain and the survival was high. Frost heaving, snail and insects caused some damages. Germination was lowest at the shallowest furrows. Sowing on natural surfaces gave poor results. Largest damages were caused by birds and ants. 

 The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.  

  • Vaartaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7451
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hanioja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vartiovaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7406, category Article
Jaakko O. Murto. (1951). Mäntypuumme pihka voiteluöljyn raaka-aineena : puunkäyttöopillinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 2 article id 7406. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7406
English title: Finnish Scots pine resin as raw material for lubricating oil.

After the Second World War shortage of lubrication oil forced Finland to develop a substitute product that was produced of indigenous materials. This report is an overview of the history of the already terminated lubricating oil industry and it gives a detailed description of lubricating oil production.

The annual lubricating oil consumption in Finland was 15,000 tons before the war, but during the war it decreased to 7-8,000 tons. In 1943 Oy Tervaöljy Ab (Tar Oil Limited) was established with the state of Finland as the main shareholder. It was commissioned to plan and build tar and tar oil plants, and it also transmitted tar from stump wood pyrolyzing plants to oil factories. Two raw materials were used to produce tar oil: tar wood collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stumps and tall oil, a by-product of sulphate pulp mills. A total of 9,000 tons of lubricating oil substitutes was produced in 1943-1947, 53% of this from sulphate pulp mill by-products and 47% from tar and shale oil.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Murto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7406, category Article
Jaakko O. Murto. (1951). Mäntypuumme pihka voiteluöljyn raaka-aineena : puunkäyttöopillinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 2 article id 7406. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7406
English title: Finnish Scots pine resin as raw material for lubricating oil.

After the Second World War shortage of lubrication oil forced Finland to develop a substitute product that was produced of indigenous materials. This report is an overview of the history of the already terminated lubricating oil industry and it gives a detailed description of lubricating oil production.

The annual lubricating oil consumption in Finland was 15,000 tons before the war, but during the war it decreased to 7-8,000 tons. In 1943 Oy Tervaöljy Ab (Tar Oil Limited) was established with the state of Finland as the main shareholder. It was commissioned to plan and build tar and tar oil plants, and it also transmitted tar from stump wood pyrolyzing plants to oil factories. Two raw materials were used to produce tar oil: tar wood collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stumps and tall oil, a by-product of sulphate pulp mills. A total of 9,000 tons of lubricating oil substitutes was produced in 1943-1947, 53% of this from sulphate pulp mill by-products and 47% from tar and shale oil.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Murto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7375, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1942). Beobachtungen über den Bodenfrost des Winters 1941 - 1942. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 22 article id 7375. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7375
English title: Observations on the soil frost of the winter 1941-1942.
Original keywords: Bodenfrost; Formation
English keywords: soil frost; formation

Soil frost from the winter 1941-1942 was of a special form. To create such a strong soil frost there need to be capillary soil form and long period of permanent and intense cold, meaning minus temperatures.  The frost layer was thicker than normally.

Such a frost causes many problems on the fields and roads when the soil rises because of the frost and then falls unevenly back when the frost melts.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7329, category Article
V. E. Svinhufvud. (1937). Untersuchungen über die bodenmikrobiologischen Unterschiede der Cajander'schen Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 7329. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7329
English title: Studies on the microbiological differences in soil between the forest types.

Earlier studies show that different kind of biological processes occur in the soil of different forest types. These differences may be due differences in microbiology of those soils. This article studies these differences.

Soil samples from five different forest types were collected from the Ruotsinkylä research forest in three different seasons: in January, March and September.

The amount of bacteria in the samples is at the lowest in March and highest in September.   During the winter more anaerobic bacteria were found. The amount of denitrifying bacteria is higher in the soil than amount of nitrifying bacteria.

The results indicate that the species composition of soil varies between the forest types in the same manner than the vegetation composition above the soil. However, this study is only a preliminary and more knowledge is needed about the discipline before practical implications can be drawn.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Svinhufvud, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Special section

article id 290, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Esther Thürig, Stephen Ogle, Taru Palosuo, Marion Schrumpf, Thomas Wutzler, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Oleg Chertov, Alexander Komarov, Aleksey Mikhailov, Annemieke Gärdenäs, Charles Perry, Jari Liski, Pete Smith, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Models in country scale carbon accounting of forest soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 290. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.290
Countries need to assess changes in the carbon stocks of forest soils as a part of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Since measuring these changes is expensive, it is likely that many countries will use alternative methods to prepare these estimates. We reviewed seven well-known soil carbon models from the point of view of preparing country-scale soil C change estimates. We first introduced the models and explained how they incorporated the most important input variables. Second, we evaluated their applicability at regional scale considering commonly available data sources. Third, we compiled references to data that exist for evaluation of model performance in forest soils. A range of process-based soil carbon models differing in input data requirements exist, allowing some flexibility to forest soil C accounting. Simple models may be the only reasonable option to estimate soil C changes if available resources are limited. More complex models may be used as integral parts of sophisticated inventories assimilating several data sources. Currently, measurement data for model evaluation are common for agricultural soils, but less data have been collected in forest soils. Definitions of model and measured soil pools often differ, ancillary model inputs require scaling of data, and soil C measurements are uncertain. These issues complicate the preparation of model estimates and their evaluation with empirical data, at large scale. Assessment of uncertainties that accounts for the effect of model choice is important part of inventories estimating large-scale soil C changes. Joint development of models and large-scale soil measurement campaigns could reduce the inconsistencies between models and empirical data, and eventually also the uncertainties of model predictions.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Thürig, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland; European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ogle, Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palosuo, European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Schrumpf, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wutzler, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Butterbach-Bahl, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chertov, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg-Peterhof, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Komarov, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikhailov, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gärdenäs, Dept. of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Perry, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liski, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smith, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi
article id 290, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Esther Thürig, Stephen Ogle, Taru Palosuo, Marion Schrumpf, Thomas Wutzler, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Oleg Chertov, Alexander Komarov, Aleksey Mikhailov, Annemieke Gärdenäs, Charles Perry, Jari Liski, Pete Smith, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Models in country scale carbon accounting of forest soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 290. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.290
Countries need to assess changes in the carbon stocks of forest soils as a part of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Since measuring these changes is expensive, it is likely that many countries will use alternative methods to prepare these estimates. We reviewed seven well-known soil carbon models from the point of view of preparing country-scale soil C change estimates. We first introduced the models and explained how they incorporated the most important input variables. Second, we evaluated their applicability at regional scale considering commonly available data sources. Third, we compiled references to data that exist for evaluation of model performance in forest soils. A range of process-based soil carbon models differing in input data requirements exist, allowing some flexibility to forest soil C accounting. Simple models may be the only reasonable option to estimate soil C changes if available resources are limited. More complex models may be used as integral parts of sophisticated inventories assimilating several data sources. Currently, measurement data for model evaluation are common for agricultural soils, but less data have been collected in forest soils. Definitions of model and measured soil pools often differ, ancillary model inputs require scaling of data, and soil C measurements are uncertain. These issues complicate the preparation of model estimates and their evaluation with empirical data, at large scale. Assessment of uncertainties that accounts for the effect of model choice is important part of inventories estimating large-scale soil C changes. Joint development of models and large-scale soil measurement campaigns could reduce the inconsistencies between models and empirical data, and eventually also the uncertainties of model predictions.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Thürig, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland; European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ogle, Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palosuo, European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Schrumpf, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wutzler, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Butterbach-Bahl, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chertov, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg-Peterhof, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Komarov, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikhailov, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gärdenäs, Dept. of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Perry, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liski, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smith, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi
article id 289, category Special section
Thomas Wutzler, Martina Mund. (2007). Modelling mean above and below ground litter production based on yield tables. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 289. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.289
Estimates of litter production are a prerequisite for modeling soil carbon stocks and its changes at regional to national scale. However, the required data on biomass removal is often available only for the recent past. In this study we used yield tables as a source of probable past forest management to drive a single tree based stand growth model. Next, simulated growth and timber volume was converted to tree compartment carbon stocks and biomass turnover. The study explicitly accounted for differences in site quality between stands. In addition we performed a Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We exemplify the approach by calculating long-term means of past litter production for 10 species by using yield tables that have been applied in Central Germany during the last century. We found that litter production resulting from harvest residues was almost as large as the one from biomass turnover. Differences in site quality caused large differences in litter production. At a given site quality, the uncertainty in soil carbon inputs were 14%, 17%, and 25% for beech, spruce, and pine stands, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential parameters were associated with foliage biomass and turnover. We conclude that rates of mean past litter production and their uncertainties can reliably be modeled on the basis of yield tables if the model accounts for 1) full rotation length including thinning and final harvest, 2) differences in site quality, and 3) environmental dependency of foliage biomass and foliage turnover.
  • Wutzler, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mund, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 287, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Juha Heikkinen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Stratification of regional sampling by model-predicted changes of carbon stocks in forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 287. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.287
Monitoring changes in soil C has recently received interest due to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. Model-based approaches to estimate changes in soil C stocks exist, but they cannot fully replace repeated measurements. Measuring changes in soil C is laborious due to small expected changes and large spatial variation. Stratification of soil sampling allows the reduction of sample size without reducing precision. If there are no previous measurements, the stratification can be made with model-predictions of target variable. Our aim was to present a simulation-based stratification method, and to estimate how much stratification of inventory plots could improve the efficiency of the sampling. The effect of large uncertainties related to soil C change measurements and simulated predictions was targeted since they may considerably decrease the efficiency of stratification. According to our simulations, stratification can be useful with a feasible soil sample number if other uncertainties (simulated predictions and forecasted forest management) can be controlled. For example, the optimal (Neyman) allocation of plots to 4 strata with 10 soil samples from each plot (unpaired repeated sampling) reduced the standard error (SE) of the stratified mean by 9–34% from that of simple random sampling, depending on the assumptions of uncertainties. When the uncertainties of measurements and simulations were not accounted for in the division to strata, the decreases of SEs were 2–9 units less. Stratified sampling scheme that accounts for the uncertainties in measured material and in the correlates (simulated predictions) is recommended for the sampling design of soil C stock changes.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi
article id 287, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Juha Heikkinen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Stratification of regional sampling by model-predicted changes of carbon stocks in forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 287. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.287
Monitoring changes in soil C has recently received interest due to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. Model-based approaches to estimate changes in soil C stocks exist, but they cannot fully replace repeated measurements. Measuring changes in soil C is laborious due to small expected changes and large spatial variation. Stratification of soil sampling allows the reduction of sample size without reducing precision. If there are no previous measurements, the stratification can be made with model-predictions of target variable. Our aim was to present a simulation-based stratification method, and to estimate how much stratification of inventory plots could improve the efficiency of the sampling. The effect of large uncertainties related to soil C change measurements and simulated predictions was targeted since they may considerably decrease the efficiency of stratification. According to our simulations, stratification can be useful with a feasible soil sample number if other uncertainties (simulated predictions and forecasted forest management) can be controlled. For example, the optimal (Neyman) allocation of plots to 4 strata with 10 soil samples from each plot (unpaired repeated sampling) reduced the standard error (SE) of the stratified mean by 9–34% from that of simple random sampling, depending on the assumptions of uncertainties. When the uncertainties of measurements and simulations were not accounted for in the division to strata, the decreases of SEs were 2–9 units less. Stratified sampling scheme that accounts for the uncertainties in measured material and in the correlates (simulated predictions) is recommended for the sampling design of soil C stock changes.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi
article id 287, category Special section
Mikko Peltoniemi, Juha Heikkinen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2007). Stratification of regional sampling by model-predicted changes of carbon stocks in forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 287. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.287
Monitoring changes in soil C has recently received interest due to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. Model-based approaches to estimate changes in soil C stocks exist, but they cannot fully replace repeated measurements. Measuring changes in soil C is laborious due to small expected changes and large spatial variation. Stratification of soil sampling allows the reduction of sample size without reducing precision. If there are no previous measurements, the stratification can be made with model-predictions of target variable. Our aim was to present a simulation-based stratification method, and to estimate how much stratification of inventory plots could improve the efficiency of the sampling. The effect of large uncertainties related to soil C change measurements and simulated predictions was targeted since they may considerably decrease the efficiency of stratification. According to our simulations, stratification can be useful with a feasible soil sample number if other uncertainties (simulated predictions and forecasted forest management) can be controlled. For example, the optimal (Neyman) allocation of plots to 4 strata with 10 soil samples from each plot (unpaired repeated sampling) reduced the standard error (SE) of the stratified mean by 9–34% from that of simple random sampling, depending on the assumptions of uncertainties. When the uncertainties of measurements and simulations were not accounted for in the division to strata, the decreases of SEs were 2–9 units less. Stratified sampling scheme that accounts for the uncertainties in measured material and in the correlates (simulated predictions) is recommended for the sampling design of soil C stock changes.
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.peltoniemi@metla.fi (email)
  • Heikkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi

Category: Article

article id 7282, category Article
Vilho A. Pesola. (1934). Die Waldvegetation feuchten Geländes in N-Kuusamo und SE-Kuolajärvi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 5 article id 7282. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7282
English title: Forest vegetation on the moisture areas of North-Kuusamo-commune and south-east Kuolajärvi-commune.

The article presents the studies about the vegetation communes on moisture soils in northern Finland. The studies are part of another study about calcium carbonate content of the soil as a factor influencing the vegetation.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Pesola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
English title: Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
English title: Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7241, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1929). Über die Möglichkeit einer Bonitierung der Waldstandorte mit Hilfe von Bodenuntersuchungen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 28 article id 7241. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7241
English title: On the possibility to classify forest sites by means of soil studies.

After critically reviewing earlier studies on soil properties and their influence on forest growth and yield, it seems that defining the forest yield could be possible by means of soil properties. To be able to do so, the site needs to be defined and delineated in some other way. It is also necessary to decide the right soil properties to study for the purpose.

For the classification of forest sites the results of soil analyses need to be compared with growth and yield data from the site. To further the practice of classification of forest sites by means of soil studies, four aspects need to be taken into account:

1)  the site needs to be delineated beforehand according its vegetation, preferable with Cajander’s forest type classification

2) the experiments about soil needs to be done for as many properties as possible

3) the studied sites need to be as representative as possible in their class

4) there are as many samples for one site as possible studied

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Die Biologie des Waldbodens und ihre physiologische Bedeutung im Leben des Waldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
English title: Biology of forest soil and its physiological meaning in the life of forest.

The article presents three studies about different aspects of the bio-chemical functions of forest soil. The three studies are i) research on microflora and microfauna of forest soils; ii) study on carbon nutrition of forests in relation to microbial functions of soil and effecting site factors and iii) study on nitrogen metabolism of forest soil. The results of the studies are summarized by every study.

The article discusses the meaning of the results for forest management in practice. The good biological and physiological condition of forest soil is important for the forest growth and it needs to be taken care in regeneration and other forest management. The natural regeneration seems to be better for soil functions. Favoring broadleaved trees as undergrowth enhances the biological processes of forest soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Fehér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Die Biologie des Waldbodens und ihre physiologische Bedeutung im Leben des Waldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
English title: Biology of forest soil and its physiological meaning in the life of forest.

The article presents three studies about different aspects of the bio-chemical functions of forest soil. The three studies are i) research on microflora and microfauna of forest soils; ii) study on carbon nutrition of forests in relation to microbial functions of soil and effecting site factors and iii) study on nitrogen metabolism of forest soil. The results of the studies are summarized by every study.

The article discusses the meaning of the results for forest management in practice. The good biological and physiological condition of forest soil is important for the forest growth and it needs to be taken care in regeneration and other forest management. The natural regeneration seems to be better for soil functions. Favoring broadleaved trees as undergrowth enhances the biological processes of forest soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Fehér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5568, category Article
Tord Johansson. (1996). Site index curves for European aspen (Populus tremula L.) growing on forest land of different soils in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5568. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8503

Growth data were collected from 40 European aspen (Populus tremula L.) stands growing on eight localities in Sweden. The stands ranged in latitude from 56 to 66°N. The mean age of the stands was 32 years (range, 12–63), the mean stand density 1978 stems ha-1 (range, 300–6,000), and the mean diameter at breast height (on bark) 17 cm (range, 8–34).

Site index curves were constructed for total age. Curves for H40 (dominant height at 40 years total age) were made for total Sweden. Curves fitted for H40 total age have another shape than curves presented by other Nordic studies. The curves from the present study have slower growth for young aspens than curves from Norwegian and Finnish conditions. For 50–70-year-old aspen stands, curves from the present study indicate taller heights than from Nordic studies.

Classified soil types from the stands were grouped into three groups: sandy till (17), light clay (15) and medium clay till (4). As there was only one stand growing in the fine sand group and one stand in the heavy clay till group and two stands in the silty till group, these stands were not presented with growth curves. There were no statistically significant differences in site index between the three soil type groups. Some recommendations for management of aspen stand are given. Damages caused by moose, fungi and other injuries are discussed as a problem for height yield production and a good timber quality.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7198, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1926). Beobachtungen über die Struktur des Bodenfrostes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 30 no. 3 article id 7198. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7198
English title: Observations on the structure of soil frost.

The article presents some basic elements of soil frost and its occurrence.  The data contains observations from different regions and soil types in Finland. Different forms of soil frost and factors affecting its formulation are discussed. 

The article concludes with the factors effecting soil frost.  There are three issues. By the single grain soils the water content determines whether the frost becomes massive or layered. The structure of soil determines the occurrence of hollow formed frost. Within the soils with crumb structure both layered and hollow formed frost may occur. Layered frost may occur in soils with homogeneous crumb structure in which two kinds of ice layers occur: irregular and solid. The hollow-formed frost may occur in locker soils.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7198, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1926). Beobachtungen über die Struktur des Bodenfrostes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 30 no. 3 article id 7198. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7198
English title: Observations on the structure of soil frost.

The article presents some basic elements of soil frost and its occurrence.  The data contains observations from different regions and soil types in Finland. Different forms of soil frost and factors affecting its formulation are discussed. 

The article concludes with the factors effecting soil frost.  There are three issues. By the single grain soils the water content determines whether the frost becomes massive or layered. The structure of soil determines the occurrence of hollow formed frost. Within the soils with crumb structure both layered and hollow formed frost may occur. Layered frost may occur in soils with homogeneous crumb structure in which two kinds of ice layers occur: irregular and solid. The hollow-formed frost may occur in locker soils.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5574, category Article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1996). Effect of species composition on economic return in a mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9219

The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.

  • Vettenranta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5572, category Article
Markku Lehtelä, Juha-Pekka Hotanen, Pentti Sepponen. (1996). Understorey vegetation in fresh and herb-rich upland forests in southwest Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9217

Fresh and herb-rich upland forest sites in the north-western part of the central boreal vegetation zone in Finland were studied with respect to vegetation structure and vegetation-environment relationships (soil, stand characteristics). Two fresh heath vegetation data sets, one from the northern boreal zone and the other from the central boreal zone, were compared with the data of this study using multivariate methods.

The variation in heath forest vegetation within the climatically uniform area was mainly determined by the fertility of the soil (primarily Ca and Mg) and the stage of stand development. N, P and K content of the humus layer varied little between the vegetation classes. Fertile site types occurred, in general, on coarse-textured soils than infertile site types, may be due to the fact that the sample plots were located in various bedrock and glacial till areas, i.e. to sampling effects.

The place of the vegetational units of the study area in the Finnish forest site type system is discussed. The vegetation of the area has features in common with the northern boreal zone as well as the southern part of the central boreal vegetation zone. The results lend some support to the occurrence of a northern Myrtillus type or at least that intermediate form of fresh and herb-rich mineral soil sites commonly occur in the studied area. It is argued that the older name Dryopteris-Myrtillus type is more suitable than Geranium-Oxalis-Myrtillus type for herb-rich heath sites in the study area.

  • Lehtelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hotanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9212

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9212

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9212

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9212

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5560, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1995). A simple device for sampling of volumetric forest soil cores. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9211

A simple, manually-operated and easily portable device for sampling volumetric soil cores to a depth of 100 cm with a minimum soil disturbance is described. The device consists of a sample tube, a sampler and an extension tube. A dead blow nylon mallet is used to force the sampler into the soil and a small winch attached to an aluminium tube pulls the sampler from the soil. The total weight of the equipment (sampler, mallet and winch) is 18.5 kg and may be carried in the trunk of a small car. Sampling is easily done by one person in good physical condition but four-handed operation is recommended as more efficient. The sampling device has been in heavy use during the summers of 1993–95 when several hundred soil cores have been extracted on various sites all over Finland.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5560, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1995). A simple device for sampling of volumetric forest soil cores. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9211

A simple, manually-operated and easily portable device for sampling volumetric soil cores to a depth of 100 cm with a minimum soil disturbance is described. The device consists of a sample tube, a sampler and an extension tube. A dead blow nylon mallet is used to force the sampler into the soil and a small winch attached to an aluminium tube pulls the sampler from the soil. The total weight of the equipment (sampler, mallet and winch) is 18.5 kg and may be carried in the trunk of a small car. Sampling is easily done by one person in good physical condition but four-handed operation is recommended as more efficient. The sampling device has been in heavy use during the summers of 1993–95 when several hundred soil cores have been extracted on various sites all over Finland.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5560, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1995). A simple device for sampling of volumetric forest soil cores. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9211

A simple, manually-operated and easily portable device for sampling volumetric soil cores to a depth of 100 cm with a minimum soil disturbance is described. The device consists of a sample tube, a sampler and an extension tube. A dead blow nylon mallet is used to force the sampler into the soil and a small winch attached to an aluminium tube pulls the sampler from the soil. The total weight of the equipment (sampler, mallet and winch) is 18.5 kg and may be carried in the trunk of a small car. Sampling is easily done by one person in good physical condition but four-handed operation is recommended as more efficient. The sampling device has been in heavy use during the summers of 1993–95 when several hundred soil cores have been extracted on various sites all over Finland.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5557, category Article
Klaus Silfverberg. (1995). Forest regeneration on nutrient-poor peatlands: Effects of fertilization, mounding and sowing. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5557. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9208

The effects of wood ash and PK fertilization on natural regeneration and sowing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in field experiments on nitrogen-poor (Ntot 0.87–1.26%) peat substrates. The study material was derived from three drained, nutrient-poor pine mires (64°52’ N, 25°08’ E) at Muhos, near Oulu, Finland. The experimental fields were laid out in 1985 as a split-split-plot design including the following treatments; mounding, natural regeneration and sowing and fertilization; PK (400 kg ha-1) and wood ash (5,000 kg ha-1). The seedlings were inventoried in circles in July–August 1991.

Changes in the vegetation were small and there were no statistical differences due to the fertilization treatments in the ground vegetation. PK or ash fertilization did not cause vegetation changes harmful to Scots pine regeneration on nitrogen-poor peatlands. Both sowing and fertilization significantly increased the number of pine seedlings, but not their height. Wood ash increased seedling number more than PK fertilizer. The number of seedlings varied from 7,963 (control) to 42,781 ha-1 (mounding + sowing + ash). The seedling number was adequate for successful regeneration even on non-mounded, non-fertilized naturally regenerated plots.

The number of birch seedlings varied more than that of pine (370–25,927 ha-1). Mounding especially increased the number of birches. The difference between PK fertiliser and ash was less pronounced than that for pine. In addition, to the field studies the effects of ash and PK fertilizer on the germination of Scots pine seeds was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Soaking in ash solutions strongly reduced seed germination, while the PK solution was less harmful.

  • Silfverberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5556, category Article
Timo J. Hokkanen, Erkki Järvinen, Timo Kuuluvainen. (1995). Properties of top soil and the relationship between soil and trees in a boreal Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9207

One-hectare plot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest was systemically sampled for surface soil characteristics: humus layer thickness, soil carbon and nitrogen content, pH, electrical conductivity and respiration were determined from 106 samples. The effects of large trees on the plot were mapped and their joint influences at the locations of soil sampling were described as the influence potential, derived from the ecological field theory, and were calculated based on the locations and dimensions of trees.

The range of variation of soil characteristics was from three to sevenfold; no spatial autocorrelation was detected. The calculated influence potential of trees, as determined by their size and spatial distribution, was related to the spatial variation of top soil properties. Top soil properties were also related to thickness of the humus layer but they were poorly correlated with underlying mineral soil characteristics. Humus layer thickness, with the calculated influence potential of trees, may provide a means to predict top soil characteristics in specific microenvironments in the forest floor.

  • Hokkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järvinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5399, category Article
Raisa Mäkipää. (1994). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the humus layer and ground vegetation under closed canopy in boreal coniferous stands. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5399. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9164

Forest ecosystems may accumulate large amounts of nitrogen in the biomass and in the soil organic matter. However, there is increasing concern that deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere will lead to nitrogen saturation; excess nitrogen input does not increase production. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term changes caused by nitrogen input on accumulation of nitrogen in forest soils and in ground vegetation.

The fertilization experiments used in this study were established during 1958–1962. They were situated on 36- to 63-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of different levels of fertility. The experiments received nitrogen fertilization 5–7 times over a 30-year period, and the total input of nitrogen was 596–926 kg/ha.

Nitrogen input increased the amount of organic matter in the humus layer and the nitrogen concentration in the organic matter. Furthermore, the total amount of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) bound by the humus layer increased due to the increase in the amount of organic matter. However, nitrogen input decreased the biomass of ground vegetation. The nitrogen concentration of the plant material on the nitrogen-fertilized plots was higher than on the control plots, but the amount of nutrients bound by ground vegetation decreased owing to the drastic decrease in the biomass of mosses. Ground vegetation does not have the potential to accumulate nitrogen, because vegetation is dominated by slow-growing mosses and dwarf shrubs which do not benefit from nitrogen input.

  • Mäkipää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5528, category Article
Pekka Tamminen, Michael Starr. (1994). Bulk density of forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5528. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9162

Relationships between bulk density and organic matter (OM) content, textural properties and depth are described for forested mineral soils from Central and Northern Finland. Core samples were taken of 0–5, 30–35 and 60–65 cm layers at 75 plots. Three measures of bulk density were calculated: the bulk density of the < 20 mm fraction (BD20), the bulk density of the < 2 mm fraction (BD2), and laboratory bulk density (BDl). BDl was determined from the mass of a fixed volume of < 2 mm soil taken in the laboratory. All three measures of bulk densities were strongly correlated with organic matter content (r ≥ -0.63). Depth and gravel (2–20 mm) content (in the case of BD2) were also important variables. BDl was sensitive to clay contents > 7% but did significantly improve the prediction of both BD2 and BD20 in coarse soils (clay contents ≤ 7%). Predictive models were derived for coarse soils.

  • Tamminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15655

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5471, category Article
Hannu Fritze. (1992). Effects of environmental pollution on forest soil microflora - a review. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15632

The article is a literature review focusing on the reaction of soil respiration, litter decomposition and microflora of forest soils to various pollutants like acidic deposition, heavy metals and unusual high amounts of basic cations. There is a great deal of evidence indicating that environmental pollution affects soil microbial activity and community structure. Much of the data originates from experimental designs where high levels of pollutants were applied to the soil under field or laboratory conditions. Furthermore, many were short-term experiments designed to look for large effects. These experiments have an indicative value, but it has to be kept in mind that environmental pollution is a combination of many pollutants, mostly at low concentrations, acting over long periods of time. There is therefore consequently a demand for research performed in natural forest environments polluted with anthropogenic compounds. 

  • Fritze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5471, category Article
Hannu Fritze. (1992). Effects of environmental pollution on forest soil microflora - a review. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15632

The article is a literature review focusing on the reaction of soil respiration, litter decomposition and microflora of forest soils to various pollutants like acidic deposition, heavy metals and unusual high amounts of basic cations. There is a great deal of evidence indicating that environmental pollution affects soil microbial activity and community structure. Much of the data originates from experimental designs where high levels of pollutants were applied to the soil under field or laboratory conditions. Furthermore, many were short-term experiments designed to look for large effects. These experiments have an indicative value, but it has to be kept in mind that environmental pollution is a combination of many pollutants, mostly at low concentrations, acting over long periods of time. There is therefore consequently a demand for research performed in natural forest environments polluted with anthropogenic compounds. 

  • Fritze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7085, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Korrelation zwischen den Eigenschaften des Bodens und dem Zuwachs des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 10 article id 7085. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7085
English title: Paper on the correlation between the characteristics of the soil and the growth of forest stand.

The study is based on the results of the soil studies by Valmari (1921) and the growth inventories of respective areas. The aim is to show the connection of soil fertility (nutrient content) and forest growth with means of correlation calculations. The examined nutrients were nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, also the electrolyte content was studied.

The results show that with increase of nitrogen content of the soil the growth of pine stand increases as well. The correlation is clearly identified. The number of birch and spruce stands is too small for systematic review. For calcium there is a similar kind of relation. With phosphorus content or amount of electrolytes the correlation with doesn’t exist. Also the loss on ignition test was conducted. The relation found is somewhat weak.
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7083, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Versuche zur Klärung der Schutzwirkungen von wässerigen Humusauszügen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 8 article id 7083. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7083
English title: Experiments on clarification of protective action of watery humus extracts.
Original keywords: Humus; Schutztwirkung; Boden; Ortstein; Versuche

The article deals with laboratory experiments of humus containing soil samples that were tested for leaching of iron and lime. The humus and soil samples were collected in five different areas in Silesian state forests, Germany.

The chemical content of the extracts was measured in the beginning of the test. The flocculation experiments and experiments in glass tubes took place. The stronger or weaker the podsolization, the greater or smaller was the protective action of hums at the respective place. However, more research is needed. The results of the glass tube experiments seem to indicate that with humus there were smaller amounts of Ca and Fe leaching than with merely water. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7082, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Zur Kenntnis der Ausfällung des Eisens im Boden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 7 article id 7082. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7082
English title: Knowledge on precipitation of iron in soil.

This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.

The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7081, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Über die räumliche Ordnung der Pflanzen auf dem Felde und im Walde. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 6 article id 7081. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7081
English title: On the spatial order of plants on fields and in forests.
Original keywords: Wurzeln; Feldversuche; Mais; Waldtypen; Boden

The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.  

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7078
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5446, category Article
Hannu Ilvesniemi. (1991). Spatial and temporal variation of soil chemical characteristics in pine sites in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15600

In producing time series of soil properties, there are many technical and statistical problems which need to be taken into account when sampling and analysing the measurement data. In field the reliable localization of sample plots and the precise distinction of different soil layers are important to reduce the variance caused by the sampling procedure. In laboratory the use of same extraction salt, sample pretreatment procedure and filter paper throughout a measurement series is important. The remarkable small-scale variation within a sampling plot leads to a need of a large number of samples to be collected.

In this study, no trends attributable to soil acidification in the contents of exchangeable base cations could be found among the years 1982, 1985 and 1988. However, in eluvial and illuvial layers the pH decreased and the content of extractable H+ increased during this period. In illuvial layer also the content of extractable aluminium increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ilvesniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5446, category Article
Hannu Ilvesniemi. (1991). Spatial and temporal variation of soil chemical characteristics in pine sites in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15600

In producing time series of soil properties, there are many technical and statistical problems which need to be taken into account when sampling and analysing the measurement data. In field the reliable localization of sample plots and the precise distinction of different soil layers are important to reduce the variance caused by the sampling procedure. In laboratory the use of same extraction salt, sample pretreatment procedure and filter paper throughout a measurement series is important. The remarkable small-scale variation within a sampling plot leads to a need of a large number of samples to be collected.

In this study, no trends attributable to soil acidification in the contents of exchangeable base cations could be found among the years 1982, 1985 and 1988. However, in eluvial and illuvial layers the pH decreased and the content of extractable H+ increased during this period. In illuvial layer also the content of extractable aluminium increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ilvesniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5446, category Article
Hannu Ilvesniemi. (1991). Spatial and temporal variation of soil chemical characteristics in pine sites in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15600

In producing time series of soil properties, there are many technical and statistical problems which need to be taken into account when sampling and analysing the measurement data. In field the reliable localization of sample plots and the precise distinction of different soil layers are important to reduce the variance caused by the sampling procedure. In laboratory the use of same extraction salt, sample pretreatment procedure and filter paper throughout a measurement series is important. The remarkable small-scale variation within a sampling plot leads to a need of a large number of samples to be collected.

In this study, no trends attributable to soil acidification in the contents of exchangeable base cations could be found among the years 1982, 1985 and 1988. However, in eluvial and illuvial layers the pH decreased and the content of extractable H+ increased during this period. In illuvial layer also the content of extractable aluminium increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ilvesniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5407, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1990). Lumi-, routa- ja lämpöolot eri tavoin muokatussa metsämaassa Kuusamossa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5407. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15559
English title: The effect of site preparation on snow, soil frost and temperature conditions at a site near Kuusamo.

The winter 1986–87 was unusually cold; the snow cover remained thin and consequently the soil froze to a considerable depth. In spite of the severe frost, the lowest temperatures measured at the ground surface was -10.3°C and in the soil at the depth of 10 cm -5.8°C. The temperature sum of the following summer was unusually small and the soil frost melted more slowly than usual. The winter frosts did not have a decisive influence on the survival of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5407, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1990). Lumi-, routa- ja lämpöolot eri tavoin muokatussa metsämaassa Kuusamossa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5407. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15559
English title: The effect of site preparation on snow, soil frost and temperature conditions at a site near Kuusamo.

The winter 1986–87 was unusually cold; the snow cover remained thin and consequently the soil froze to a considerable depth. In spite of the severe frost, the lowest temperatures measured at the ground surface was -10.3°C and in the soil at the depth of 10 cm -5.8°C. The temperature sum of the following summer was unusually small and the soil frost melted more slowly than usual. The winter frosts did not have a decisive influence on the survival of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15517
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7065, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Frage der gegenseitigen Beziehungen zwischen Klima, Boden und Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 7065. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7065
English title: The mutual relationship between the climate, the soil and the vegetation.

The article is based on the work “Metsänhoidon perusteet I” [The fundamentals of Forest management I] by the author (1919 in Finnish). The different processes of the soil and the vegetation are dependent on the climatic conditions, but also affect each other. The article presents the climatic zones of the earth and their most important characteristics in regard of cultivation of (to respective zone) exotic trees species and agriculture. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7064, category Article
J. Valmari. (1921). Beiträge zur chemischen Bodenanalyse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 7064. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7064
English title: Paper on chemical soil analyses.

The article tries to develop the method for defining the requirements of fertilizers for soil. The chemical soil analysis is also seen as the requirement for exact site classification based on height over age. The study is based on 1500 soil samples, one half of them from forest soils, the other half from arable land soils.    

The productivity of different forest types and the results of soil analyses are in line with each other. The most important growth factors are discerned.  Some shortcomings of the method are discussed.  Combining the soil analysis and the plant analyses of the sample plots seems to give the most accurate about the amount of nutrients that are available for the plants.

  • Valmari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7064, category Article
J. Valmari. (1921). Beiträge zur chemischen Bodenanalyse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 7064. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7064
English title: Paper on chemical soil analyses.

The article tries to develop the method for defining the requirements of fertilizers for soil. The chemical soil analysis is also seen as the requirement for exact site classification based on height over age. The study is based on 1500 soil samples, one half of them from forest soils, the other half from arable land soils.    

The productivity of different forest types and the results of soil analyses are in line with each other. The most important growth factors are discerned.  Some shortcomings of the method are discussed.  Combining the soil analysis and the plant analyses of the sample plots seems to give the most accurate about the amount of nutrients that are available for the plants.

  • Valmari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15447
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5232, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Jukka Laine, Michael Starr. (1985). A comparison of gravimetric and volumetric soil properties in peatland and upland sites. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15411

Transects from upland to peatland sites were laid out so as to encounter a wide range of nutritional and hydrological conditions and volumetric soil samples were taken at 20 m intervals. For organic material, in particular peats, the correlation of ignition loss with CEC and total N were clearly higher when the variables were expressed volumetrically. The volumetric expression of variables made comparison of soils with varying organic matter contents possible. In preliminary analyses of the relationships between soil variables and dominant height of the tree stand on mineral soil sites volumetric exchangeable bases, pH and C/N -ratio in the raw humus layer showed a significant correlation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5232, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Jukka Laine, Michael Starr. (1985). A comparison of gravimetric and volumetric soil properties in peatland and upland sites. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15411

Transects from upland to peatland sites were laid out so as to encounter a wide range of nutritional and hydrological conditions and volumetric soil samples were taken at 20 m intervals. For organic material, in particular peats, the correlation of ignition loss with CEC and total N were clearly higher when the variables were expressed volumetrically. The volumetric expression of variables made comparison of soils with varying organic matter contents possible. In preliminary analyses of the relationships between soil variables and dominant height of the tree stand on mineral soil sites volumetric exchangeable bases, pH and C/N -ratio in the raw humus layer showed a significant correlation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5232, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Jukka Laine, Michael Starr. (1985). A comparison of gravimetric and volumetric soil properties in peatland and upland sites. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15411

Transects from upland to peatland sites were laid out so as to encounter a wide range of nutritional and hydrological conditions and volumetric soil samples were taken at 20 m intervals. For organic material, in particular peats, the correlation of ignition loss with CEC and total N were clearly higher when the variables were expressed volumetrically. The volumetric expression of variables made comparison of soils with varying organic matter contents possible. In preliminary analyses of the relationships between soil variables and dominant height of the tree stand on mineral soil sites volumetric exchangeable bases, pH and C/N -ratio in the raw humus layer showed a significant correlation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5211, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Esko Jalkanen, Jyrki Jalkanen, Marja Jalkanen. (1984). Maanpinnan rikkomisen 10-vuotisvaikutus korvasienisatoon. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5211. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15390
English title: Ten-year effects of breaking the soil surface on the yield of Gyromitra esculenta.

The yield of Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. was surveyed during 1973–82 in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stand in Central Finland. The soil surface was treated with different light methods, mainly removing the vegetation and humus layer.

It was shown that is possible to improve the natural yield of G. esculenta by breaking the soil surface. In the 286 m2 of treated the yield could be improved over 50 fold compared to the control area. In the untreated control area, the yield per hectare was 0.98 kg/yr. In treated plots the yield was 52.4 kg/yr (in the best year 191 kg/ha/yr). Fruit bodies of G. esculenta were found in treated plots every year after the soil treatment. The yield was at its best in the two first years declining later to the level of 10–20% of the first year’s yield.

The best natural yield was reached in the last year. The previous year’s precipitation was an important factor influencing the yield of the mushroom.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5209, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1984). Diversity pattern of the forest vegetation in relation to some site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5209. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15388

A field data set representing boreal forest-floor vegetation in Southern Finland was analysed using a simultaneous equation model. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and some structural characteristics of the tree stand were treated as predictors in such a way that the tree stand factor was specified to be dependent on the soil variables. Alpha diversity, measured as the total number of species per plot, was treated as a criterion variable.

The model explains 60% of variance in the alpha diversity indicating markedly strong relationships with the site characteristics. Alpha diversity appears to increase with increases in site fertility characteristics. On the other hand, measured characteristics of the tree stand indicate no significant independent effects on the alpha diversity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5175, category Article
Erkki Lipas. (1983). Effect of fine material fractions on the results for soil textural parameters. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5175. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15090

The role played by the medium and fine silt and clay contents in determining the quartiles and the degree of stratification from a cumulative particle-size curve was studied in order to determine what time savings could be made in the sedimentation phase of soil mechanical analysis. The clay content of the samples was, in general, found to be so small that it did not affect the parameters studied. In contrast to this, the medium and fine silt content affected the lower quartile of the distribution for many soils classified as finer than medium sand. Consequently, only the omission of the determination of the clay fraction can be recommended as a time-saving measure in mechanical analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lipas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5175, category Article
Erkki Lipas. (1983). Effect of fine material fractions on the results for soil textural parameters. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5175. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15090

The role played by the medium and fine silt and clay contents in determining the quartiles and the degree of stratification from a cumulative particle-size curve was studied in order to determine what time savings could be made in the sedimentation phase of soil mechanical analysis. The clay content of the samples was, in general, found to be so small that it did not affect the parameters studied. In contrast to this, the medium and fine silt content affected the lower quartile of the distribution for many soils classified as finer than medium sand. Consequently, only the omission of the determination of the clay fraction can be recommended as a time-saving measure in mechanical analysis.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lipas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5147, category Article
J. Eriksson, J. Bergholm, K. Kvist. (1981). Injury to vegetation caused by industrial emissions of boron compounds. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5147. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15374

At immediate surroundings of a fiberglass plant in Central Sweden, vegetation shows toxicity symptoms. Soils and birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves were sampled. The soil was analysed for water soluble and organic bound boron, carbon, nitrogen, and pH. Vegetation was analysed for total boron. Both fractions of boron in the soils increased towards the factory. Organic bound boron increased irregularly because of its strong correlation to carbon content which varied in the area. The C/N ratio increased nearer the industry due to the harmful effect of boron on the decomposition of organic matter. No relation between pH and the distance from the emission source was visible, but B/C ratio was found to increase with increasing pH of the soil. Boron levels in birch leaves were elevated very much close to the factory. The geographical distribution of high levels of boron in birch, corresponded well with high values in soils, and also with the main wind directions. The limit values for visible injury on birch were found to be around 5 ppm of water-soluble boron in soil and around 200 ppm in leaves.

  • Eriksson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5140, category Article
Lars Westman. (1981). Monitoring of coniferous forest ecosystems in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5140. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15367

A monitoring program is planned for the terrestrial environment around industries in Sweden, which emit acid compounds and heavy metals. Directions for the County Government Boards are being prepared. The paper deals with the present pollution situation in Sweden, based on recent scientific results, the justifications for local monitoring, and the organizing of the monitoring including the parameters suggested.

Four examples from a case study at an oil power station illustrate reporting of the data and the difficulties in interpreting the results. The examples are the distribution of a lichen indicator, heavy metal content and phosphatase activity in the moor layer, soil respiration and tree growth.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5127, category Article
Simo Kaila, Juhani Päivänen. (1981). Metsämaanmuokkauksen suoritemäärät ja konekalusto vuosina 1976-1979. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15068
English title: Forest soil cultivation areas and machinery in 1976–1979 in Finland.

The areas of soil cultivation in regeneration sites using different methods in 1976–1979 and the cultivation units in use in Finland in 1979 were studied by means of a questionnaire. Application of soil cultivation methods appears to have become strongly polarized: in Southern Finland disc plowing with wheel tractors are used, whilst in Northern Finland wing plowing with crawler tractors is the most popular method, each being practically the only alternative in the respective area.

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  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

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  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kostamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

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  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5110, category Article
Helena Lehtiö. (1981). Effect of air pollution on the volatile oil in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5110. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15051

The amount of volatile oil and monoterpene composition in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied in trees growing near two factories and in the city of Kuopio, Central Finland. Trees in these locations are exposed principally to sulphur dioxide and fluoride emissions.

The amount of volatile oil increased with increasing injury class in the trees growing near the fertilizer factory. The amounts of volatile oil in trees near the pulp mill differed in the various injury classes. More oil was found in younger needles. The greatest differences in monoterpene composition were in the amounts of camphene, α-pinene, myrcene and tricyclene.

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  • Lehtiö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

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  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

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  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7035, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1920). Wasserverbrauch der Bäume und Feuchtigkeitsverhältnisse des Bodens. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 7035. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7035
English title: Use of water of the trees and the moisture conditions in the soil.

The data has been collected in the dry heathy forests in Harjavalta commune in south-west Finland and in Sodankylä commune in Lapland in summer time 1918 and 1919. The aim to the study was to find out how does the water consumption of the trees affect the moisture conditions of the soil and how they are linked to the regeneration of the forest.

Trees in one age class have a certain spatial distribution: the greater the distance between trees the older the trees and the smaller the distance, the younger the trees. This seem to rather be due to the development of the root system and the nutrition intake of a tree than the competition for light. The moisture content of the upper soil layers is higher in the open areas than in the closed canopy stands. Hence there are more seedlings growing in open areas.   However, it is not clear whether the results apply for other forest site types as well, and more research is needed.     

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

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  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5027, category Article
Ossi Eskelinen. (1979). Pyynikin ulkoilualue. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5027. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14883
English title: The natural environmental welfare factors of forested outdoor recreation area Pyynikki.

The article examines the outdoor recreation area of Pyynikki in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland from the viewpoint of social sciences. It was demonstrated that sociological factors are connected with the physical environmental factors by the welfare factors.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

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  • Eskelinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5020, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1979). Valaistun hiihtoreitin käytön ajallinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5020. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14874
English title: Time patterns in the use of an urban skiing route.

Temporal variations in use of an illuminated skiing route located near a town was examined. Three time-patterns (monthly, daily, hourly) were determined on the basis of empirical data. Preliminary data about the participation rates on Sundays of population living near the route was given. More than four thousand people reside within 0.5 km of the route. It can be supposed that on the best Sunday about 18% of the population participated in skiing. 

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  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14870
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

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  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4990, category Article
Michael Starr, Carl Johan Westman. (1978). Easily extractable nutrients in the surface peat layer of virgin sedge-pine swamps. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4990. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14844

The paper deals with the nutrient status of surface peat layer from virgin sedge-pine swamps and its relationship to peatland types. When the nutrients are expressed in mg/100 g peat, only easily extractable Ca and Mg correspond to the productivity status of the peatland type. N, P, and K levels in the herb rich sedge-pine swamp are generally lower than in the small sedge-pine swamps, which are the least productive ones. The differences between the site types in all the five nutrients become much clearer when the results are expressed in kg/ha. P, K, and Ca are significantly different between the site types, and correspond to the productivity of the site type. For N and Mg the same tendency can be seen. The organically bound nutrients N, and to a lesser extent, P appear to comply with the hypothesis of an increase in nutrient availability in Southern Finland.

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  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4979, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Polut ulkoilun kanavoinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4979. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14833
English title: Trails in guiding recreational activity in Helsinki, Southern Finland.

The aim of the paper was to investigate the potentials offered by trails in guiding recreational activity. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires concerning recreationists using two recreation areas owned by the city of Helsinki in Southern Finland. According to the results, the recreationists visit terrain without trails every time they visit a recreation area. The main reason for this was obtaining varying recreational experiences. The recreationists used, however, the same route nearly every visit, which suggests that trails have a great potential in guiding reacreational activities. Special attention was paid to the role of trails in activities involving physical exercise. The correlation between the socio-economic background of recreationists and their preferences for trails was very low.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4979, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Polut ulkoilun kanavoinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4979. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14833
English title: Trails in guiding recreational activity in Helsinki, Southern Finland.

The aim of the paper was to investigate the potentials offered by trails in guiding recreational activity. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires concerning recreationists using two recreation areas owned by the city of Helsinki in Southern Finland. According to the results, the recreationists visit terrain without trails every time they visit a recreation area. The main reason for this was obtaining varying recreational experiences. The recreationists used, however, the same route nearly every visit, which suggests that trails have a great potential in guiding reacreational activities. Special attention was paid to the role of trails in activities involving physical exercise. The correlation between the socio-economic background of recreationists and their preferences for trails was very low.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

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  • Hoogesteger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

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  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7019
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7019
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7018, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1917). Metsänhävityksen ja polton vaikutuksesta metsämaahan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 7018. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7018
English title: Effects of forest devastation and shifting cultivation on forest soil.
Original keywords: kaskeaminen; metsittyminen; maaperä

Soil of open and forest covered lands have different properties. Forest devastation has negative effect on forest soil, for instance, through leaching of nutrients. There are different views on how forest fire influences chemical properties of the soil. Burning of forests can have both positive and negative consequences.

The article publishes partial results from a study that aimed to find out how shifting cultivation affects the soil, and how it may change natural regeneration and forest growth of the stands. Soil samples were collected from four burnt-over sites. Of the samples, size classes of the soil particles, volatile solids and nutrient contents were determined. According to the results, the burning increased soluble nutrients, but the effect was not long-lasting. However, more sample sites would be needed to give definitive results of the differences.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4881, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Harvennuksen vaikutus lumi- ja routasuhteisiin nuoressa turvemaan männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4881. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14717
English title: The effect of thinning on the snow cover and soil frost conditions in a young Scots pine stand on drained peatland.

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of thinning of different intensity and fertilization on the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover as well as on the depth of the soil frost in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on drained peatland in Central Finland. Thinnings and fertilization was carried out in 1968, and the snow cover was followed in the winters 1970/71 and 1971/72.

Only extremely heavy thinnings (60% of the volume) seemed to increase the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover. The indirect effect of fertilization on the snow cover was insignificant. In the clear-cut sample plot of the study, soil frost was either not found at all or the depths of the frozen soil layer was smaller than in the other plots. When deciding the silvicultural measures to be taken in the case of tree stands growing on drained peatlands, there seems to be reason to avoid radical thinnings. Otherwise, the favourable influence of the trees on a site on its water relationships will be diminished.

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  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4828, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Pellonvaraussopimusten alaisten peltojen metsitys. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4828. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14617
English title: Afforestation of agricultural land under soil bank contracts.

Under the soil bank act, which took effect in 1969, 85,000 hectares of agricultural land were withdrawn from agricultural production in order to cut down the heavy surpluses of grain and butter in Finland. The farmers have a possibility to afforest their soil bank land partly on public funds, and if they choose to do so they receive a compensation of 250 Fmk for 15 years, instead of the nine years which is the maximum duration of a soil bank contract.

The study involved interviewing of 136 farmers sampled from the total of 13,368. The farmers were planning to afforest a total of 18,600 ha by the end of 1972. The main species were birch (Betula sp.) 40%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both 30%. The main reasons (mentioned by 65% of the farmers) for afforestating the soil bank land were the unfavourable conditions for agriculture. On the other hand, 43% of those who had decided not to afforest felt that their land is too good to be planted with trees. One fifth of those not afforesting said that they themselves would not benefit from the afforestation and therefore were not interested in investing in forestry. The attitudes of the farmers seem to have also influenced their decision on afforestation. Those who had taken a positive decision on afforestation appeared to take more positive attitude in regard to forestry than other farmers.

The soil bank act does not seem to solve permanently Finland’s problem of the surpluses of agricultural products since the soil bank farmers planned to revert two thirds of the soil bank land under cultivation on the expiration of the soil bank act.

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  • Numminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4828, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Pellonvaraussopimusten alaisten peltojen metsitys. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4828. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14617
English title: Afforestation of agricultural land under soil bank contracts.

Under the soil bank act, which took effect in 1969, 85,000 hectares of agricultural land were withdrawn from agricultural production in order to cut down the heavy surpluses of grain and butter in Finland. The farmers have a possibility to afforest their soil bank land partly on public funds, and if they choose to do so they receive a compensation of 250 Fmk for 15 years, instead of the nine years which is the maximum duration of a soil bank contract.

The study involved interviewing of 136 farmers sampled from the total of 13,368. The farmers were planning to afforest a total of 18,600 ha by the end of 1972. The main species were birch (Betula sp.) 40%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both 30%. The main reasons (mentioned by 65% of the farmers) for afforestating the soil bank land were the unfavourable conditions for agriculture. On the other hand, 43% of those who had decided not to afforest felt that their land is too good to be planted with trees. One fifth of those not afforesting said that they themselves would not benefit from the afforestation and therefore were not interested in investing in forestry. The attitudes of the farmers seem to have also influenced their decision on afforestation. Those who had taken a positive decision on afforestation appeared to take more positive attitude in regard to forestry than other farmers.

The soil bank act does not seem to solve permanently Finland’s problem of the surpluses of agricultural products since the soil bank farmers planned to revert two thirds of the soil bank land under cultivation on the expiration of the soil bank act.

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  • Numminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4774, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Some economic aspects of growing forest stands. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4774. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14559

The aim of this paper was that of studying the optimum growing schedules of forest stands, with the classic Faustmann formula as starting point. The study is mainly theoretical in nature. The study shows that the net present-value of the future revenues from a forest stand can be calculated, not only by means of the harvesting revenues, but also by a more theoretical concept, here termed the current gross soil rent. The current gross soil rent represents the difference between the current value growth and the rent of the growing stock.

By use of the concepts described here, it is theoretically possible to find the growing schedule for the stand which maximizes the net present-value of the stand. To make the formulae simpler, a one-year period has been adopted for discussion of the concepts involved in determination of the optimum structure and density of the growing stock, and the financial maturity. However, these concepts can be extended to cover periods of any length.

The method for determination of the optimum growing schedule for a forest stand can be summarized as follows: Thin the stand as the internal rate of return on the marginal increase in ’timber capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest. Clear-cut and regenerate the stand as the internal rate of return on the sum of the ’timber and soil capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4751, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1967). On the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the bacteria and microfungi in humus layer. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4751. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14535

During the summer and fall of 1966 changes brought about by urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, nitrate of lime, and ammonium sulphate were observed. Application of the fertilizers corresponded to 100 kg/N per hectare.

The effect of urea was immediate. The pH rose and the bacterial density increased to 20–30 times more than determined in the spring, while the microfungal density decreased to one third of the spring density. In the ammonium sulphate plot opposite changes occurred almost as rapidly as in the previous case. A gradually increasing biological activity observed after application of calcium ammonium nitrate and of lime fertilizers seemed almost the same for bacteria and microfungi. Both microbe groups displayed consistent quantitative growth. pH 4.3 was the limit of acidity below which the bacteria showed a tendency to decline and the microfungi to increase, while the opposite was true above this limit.

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  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4745, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1967). Microfungi in the humus layer of pine, spruce and birch stands in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4745. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14455

This study elucidates the composition of the microfungal populations of the humus layer of tree forest types – Vaccinium type with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Myrtillus type with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Oxalis-Myrtillus type with birch (Betula sp.). The results indicate that the microfungi encountered in these sites bear close resemblances. The number of species increased but little towards the more fertile sites from VT to OMT. The main difference was limited to the quantitative relationships between the species.

The microfungal density in the humus layer was greatest in VT, and only slightly less in MT and OMT, in this order. In all the sampling areas, occurrence of the microfungi reached a maximum in the middle of summer, at a time when the maximum temperatures were registered in the humus. The quantitative abundance during the early autumn bears a relation to the yield of litter.

The microfungi most commonly encountered in all sampling areas were those of rapid growth, Mucor, Morierella and Penicillium species, along with Trichoderma, a little slower in growth, and actively decomposing cellulose. Mucor fungi, favouring moisture, were most abundant in the early summer and in the autumn. The Mortierella and Penicillium species, which survive dryness, were most abundant in the middle of the summer. The former is twice as common in MT and OMT than in VT, and the latter twice as common in VT as in OMT.

Scopulariopsis and Verticillium species were found regularly in MT and OMT. One Acremonium species was found almost exclusively in VT, and some Aspergillus and Mycogene in OMT alone. Sterilia mycelia was relatively abundant in MT and OMT in particular. Different kinds of yeast fungi were encountered generally in MT and OMT.

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  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4737, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1967). Production of energy material by forest stands as related to supply of soil water. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4737. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14447

This study estimates the supply of soil water required for the annual and total production of energy material by the biomass of 32-year-old plantation of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. in Wisconsin, the United States.

The supply of transpiration water was determined as the sum of summer precipitation, winter stored water, and condensed vapor, minus gravitational discharge and evaporation of intercepted rainfall. On the average, the 1,20 m root zone of coarse sandy soils of central Wisconsin receives 2,750 M.T. of water per hectare. During the 32nd year of plantation growth, the increment biomass, including 43% of merchantable timber, was 10,100 kg/ha, or 162 x 105 kcal/g. At this time of the culminating growth, the production of 1 kg of wood material consumed 272 kg of water. The corresponding transpiration coefficient 0,37% is near the maximum for the ecosystem of hard pines – sandy soils of glacial outwash with field capacity between 7 and 9%. On the weight basis, the annual leaf fall constituted 32% of the biomass and over 80% of merchantable timber.

The entire supply of water of 96,000 M.T./ha produces in 32 years 211,112 kg of total dry matter at a rate of 1 kg of wood per 455 kg of water, with corresponding transpiration coefficient of 0,22%. The evapogravitational losses during the early stages of the stand’s growth decreased the water utilization efficiency of trees about 40%.

The information obtained permitted to outline several hydrological relationships pertinent to forest culture, namely: maximum rate of forest growth as delineated by the supply of available transpiration water; content of available moisture in soils of high tension capacity; contribution to soil water rendered by natural subirrigation and condensation of athmospehric vapor; growth depressing effect of weeds.

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  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7506, category Article
Eero Kubin, Lauri Kemppainen. (1994). Effect of soil preparation of boreal spruce forest on air and soil temperature conditions in forest regeneration areas. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 244 article id 7506. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7506

The effect of scarification, ploughing and cross-directional ploughing on temperature conditions in the soil and adjacent air layer have been studied during 11 growth periods by using an unprepared clear-cut area as a control site. The development of seedling stand was followed to determine its shading effect on the soil surface.

Soil preparation decreased the daily temperature amplitude of the air at the height of 10 cm. The maximum temperatures on sunny days were lower in the tilts of the ploughed and in the humps of the cross-directional ploughed sites compared with the unprepared area. Correspondingly, the night temperatures were higher and so the soil preparation reduced the risk of night frost. In the soil at the depth of 5 cm, soil preparation increased daytime temperatures and reduced night temperatures compared with unprepared area. The maximum increase in monthly mean temperatures was almost 5°C, and the daily variation in the surface parts of the tilts and humps increased so that excessively high temperatures for the optimal growth of the root systems were measured from time to time. The temperature also rose at the depths of 50 and 100 cm.

Soil preparation also increased the cumulative temperature sum. The highest sums accumulated during the summer months were recorded at the depth of 5 cm in the humps of cross-directional ploughed area (1,127 dd.) and in the tilts of the ploughed area (1,106 dd.), while the corresponding figure in the unprepared soil was 718 dd. At the height of 10 cm the highest temperature sum was 1,020 dd. in the hump, and 925 dd. in the unprepared area.

The incidence of high temperature amplitudes and frequency of high temperatures at the depth of 5 cm decreased most rapidly in the humps of cross-sectional ploughed area and the ploughing tilts towards the end of the study period. The decrease was attributed principally to the compressing of tilts, the ground vegetation succession and the growth of seedlings. The difference between the prepared and unprepared area did not diminish. The increase in temperature due to soil preparation, thus, lasted at least over 10 years.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kemppainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7506, category Article
Eero Kubin, Lauri Kemppainen. (1994). Effect of soil preparation of boreal spruce forest on air and soil temperature conditions in forest regeneration areas. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 244 article id 7506. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7506

The effect of scarification, ploughing and cross-directional ploughing on temperature conditions in the soil and adjacent air layer have been studied during 11 growth periods by using an unprepared clear-cut area as a control site. The development of seedling stand was followed to determine its shading effect on the soil surface.

Soil preparation decreased the daily temperature amplitude of the air at the height of 10 cm. The maximum temperatures on sunny days were lower in the tilts of the ploughed and in the humps of the cross-directional ploughed sites compared with the unprepared area. Correspondingly, the night temperatures were higher and so the soil preparation reduced the risk of night frost. In the soil at the depth of 5 cm, soil preparation increased daytime temperatures and reduced night temperatures compared with unprepared area. The maximum increase in monthly mean temperatures was almost 5°C, and the daily variation in the surface parts of the tilts and humps increased so that excessively high temperatures for the optimal growth of the root systems were measured from time to time. The temperature also rose at the depths of 50 and 100 cm.

Soil preparation also increased the cumulative temperature sum. The highest sums accumulated during the summer months were recorded at the depth of 5 cm in the humps of cross-directional ploughed area (1,127 dd.) and in the tilts of the ploughed area (1,106 dd.), while the corresponding figure in the unprepared soil was 718 dd. At the height of 10 cm the highest temperature sum was 1,020 dd. in the hump, and 925 dd. in the unprepared area.

The incidence of high temperature amplitudes and frequency of high temperatures at the depth of 5 cm decreased most rapidly in the humps of cross-sectional ploughed area and the ploughing tilts towards the end of the study period. The decrease was attributed principally to the compressing of tilts, the ground vegetation succession and the growth of seedlings. The difference between the prepared and unprepared area did not diminish. The increase in temperature due to soil preparation, thus, lasted at least over 10 years.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kemppainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7671, category Article
Eero Kubin, Lauri Kemppainen. (1991). Effect of clearcutting of boreal spruce forest on air and soil temperature conditions. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 225 article id 7671. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7671

The present paper deals with the effects of clearcutting on soil and air temperature and the development of temperature conditions during the 12 growing seasons following clearcutting of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand on a Vaccinium-Myrtillus forest type in Kainuu, northeast Finland. The uncut control site had a growing stock of 140 m3/ha. The temperature measurements were carried out by means of thermographs, Grant measuring devices and minimum and maximum glass thermometers.

Clearcutting had no significant influence on temperatures measures at 2 m above the ground in a meteorological screen and no changes occurred in them during the period studied, while on the ground level and in the adjacent layer of air the daily maxima increased and the daily minima decreased as compared with uncut forest. The greatest difference was over 10°C between the maximum temperatures at 10 cm and almost 8°C between the minimum temperatures. Night frosts were considerably more common at 10 cm above the ground in the clearcut area than in uncut forests.

Temperature differences were smaller in the soil than close to ground level. Day temperatures were 2–3°C higher in the clearcut area than in uncut forests, and differences between night temperatures at this depth were even smaller. Correspondingly, temperatures were 3–5°C higher at depths of 50 cm and 100 cm in the clearcut area during the whole measuring period. The differences between the temperatures in the clearcut area and uncut forests did not diminish to any significant extent during the 12 years despite the stocking of the former area with seedlings.

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  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kemppainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7641, category Article
Veikko Huhta, Riitta Hyvönen, Antti Koskenniemi, Pekka Vilkamaa, Paula Kaasalainen, Minna Sulander. (1986). Response of soil fauna to fertilization and manipulation of pH in coniferous forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 195 article id 7641. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7641

The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the invertebrate fauna on coniferous forest soil were investigated during the years 1979-83 both in field and in laboratory experiments. Fertilizers tested were urea (both alone and with P and K), ammonium nitrate and ashes. Ash-treatment was also controlled by raising the pH at the same level with Ca(OH)2.

Both ashes and urea resulted in considerable changes in the soil fauna. Nematodes, especially bacterial feeders, increased temporarily. Some families of Coleoptera invaded the urea-treated plots. Enchytraceid worms and several microarthropod species decreased, as well as the total animal biomass. Ash-treatment influenced more slowly than did urea-fertilizing, but it caused more permanent changes. Ammonium nitrate with lime had little influence in the field. All fertilizers affected more strongly when mixed with soil in laboratory. pH alone proved to explain most of the changes observed, but nitrogen as a nutrient also plays role independently of acidity.

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  • Huhta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyvönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vilkamaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaasalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sulander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7638, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 192 article id 7638. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7638

The vegetation and number of physical and chemical soil properties were studied on a random sample of closed upland forest stands in Southern Finland. The material consists of a total of 410 sample plots. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) was carried out in order to produce a hierarchical clustering of samples on the basis of the vegetation data. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance were applied in order to find environmental correlations of the vegetation clustering.

The vegetation was found to indicate the nutrient regime of the humus layer well, but to a less extent the properties of the sub-soil. The understorey vegetation was found to be jointly dependent on the site fertility and on the properties of the tree stand, especially on the tree species composition. Although the forest vegetation appears to be distributed rather continuously along an axis of increasing site fertility, relatively unambiguous classification can be based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.

The results of the study were interpreted as indication that operational site classification done using the vegetation is rather good method for classification in closed forest stands. Different methods produce relatively consistent, natural and ecologically interpretable classifications. The results also imply that the vegetation cover and the humus layer develop concurrently during the development of the ecosystem, but the differentiation of the site type is regulated simultaneously by a number of interacting factors ranging from mineralogical properties of the parent material to the topographical exposition of the site. As the plant cover depicts all these primary factors simultaneously, only a relatively rough ecological site classification can be based on the vegetation.

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  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7638, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 192 article id 7638. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7638

The vegetation and number of physical and chemical soil properties were studied on a random sample of closed upland forest stands in Southern Finland. The material consists of a total of 410 sample plots. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) was carried out in order to produce a hierarchical clustering of samples on the basis of the vegetation data. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance were applied in order to find environmental correlations of the vegetation clustering.

The vegetation was found to indicate the nutrient regime of the humus layer well, but to a less extent the properties of the sub-soil. The understorey vegetation was found to be jointly dependent on the site fertility and on the properties of the tree stand, especially on the tree species composition. Although the forest vegetation appears to be distributed rather continuously along an axis of increasing site fertility, relatively unambiguous classification can be based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.

The results of the study were interpreted as indication that operational site classification done using the vegetation is rather good method for classification in closed forest stands. Different methods produce relatively consistent, natural and ecologically interpretable classifications. The results also imply that the vegetation cover and the humus layer develop concurrently during the development of the ecosystem, but the differentiation of the site type is regulated simultaneously by a number of interacting factors ranging from mineralogical properties of the parent material to the topographical exposition of the site. As the plant cover depicts all these primary factors simultaneously, only a relatively rough ecological site classification can be based on the vegetation.

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  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7637, category Article
Jouko Silvola, Jukka Välijoki, Heikki Aaltonen. (1985). Effect of draining and fertilization on soil respiration at three ameliorated peatland sites. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 191 article id 7637. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7637

Soil respiration readings are reported for three ameliorated peatland sites of different types, covering a period of four years, during which the sites were drained and treated with various fertilizers. Respiration is shown to increase exponentially with temperature, varying mostly in the range 100–500 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. The changes in soil respiration followed those in surface temperature with a time-lag of approximately 3–3.5 hours. At one site, where the groundwater table dropped by about 0.5 m after ditching, soil respiration increased 2.5-fold within a few weeks, whereas at the other two sites both the fall in the groundwater table and the resultant changes in soil respiration were small.

The fertilizers tested were slow-dissolving PK, fast-dissolving PK, wood ash, slow-dissolving PK + urea, slow-dissolving PK + Nitroform (urea formaldehyde) and slow-dissolving PK + urea + a micro-element mixture. Application of fast-dissolving PK + urea led to a rapid increase in soil respiration at the site poorest in nutrients, and slow-dissolving PK to a slow increase in respiration. The greatest, steady increase of all was achieved by treatment with ash. At the sites with a higher natural nutrient content the application of fertilizers usually led to a decline in soil respiration lasting 1–2 years, after which the initial level was normally regained. Treatment with micro-elements caused an initial fall in soil respiration values in all three biotopes, followed by a pronounced increase.

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  • Silvola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Välijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

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  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

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  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

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  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9132
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

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  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jukola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1963). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4721. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14276

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4671, category Article
O. Leskinen, O. Vuorelainen. (1957). Tutkimus keskuslämmityslaitosten eri polttoaineiden taloudellisen käytön alueellisesta jakautumisesta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4671. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9118
English title: A study on regional differences in economical use of different fuels in central heating boilers in Finland.

The purpose of the study was to find out the most economical fuel for central heating boilers in different parts of Finland. The most common central heating fuels and boilers used in Finland were compared in the study.

The present consumption of different fuels and the regional distribution of the boilers of a few main types was investigated. The costs were calculated according to the costs level of February 1957. To be able to compare the costs, both variable costs and fixed costs were calculated. The heat output produced annually in the different boilers was studied to divide the fixed costs into costs per heat unit.

Comparison of the total costs per heat unit showed that cost of wood or imported fuels (oil, coke, coal etc.) was about on the same level in the coastal areas close to import harbours, but wood was the cheapest fuel for central heating in inland.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Leskinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorelainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4671, category Article
O. Leskinen, O. Vuorelainen. (1957). Tutkimus keskuslämmityslaitosten eri polttoaineiden taloudellisen käytön alueellisesta jakautumisesta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4671. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9118
English title: A study on regional differences in economical use of different fuels in central heating boilers in Finland.

The purpose of the study was to find out the most economical fuel for central heating boilers in different parts of Finland. The most common central heating fuels and boilers used in Finland were compared in the study.

The present consumption of different fuels and the regional distribution of the boilers of a few main types was investigated. The costs were calculated according to the costs level of February 1957. To be able to compare the costs, both variable costs and fixed costs were calculated. The heat output produced annually in the different boilers was studied to divide the fixed costs into costs per heat unit.

Comparison of the total costs per heat unit showed that cost of wood or imported fuels (oil, coke, coal etc.) was about on the same level in the coastal areas close to import harbours, but wood was the cheapest fuel for central heating in inland.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Leskinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorelainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4636, category Article
Tauno Hautamäki. (1953). Metsämaan laikutuksen koneellistamiskokeiluista. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4636. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14052
English title: Mechanization of ground preparation.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Soil preparation improves formation of seedlings in natural regeneration sites. This presentation describes mechanization of the work using four different machines. According to the study, the effectiveness and quality of the work has improved compared to the earlier machines, and the method is becoming a competitive alternative to slash burning.

  • Hautamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4624, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1952). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1951 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 74 article id 4624. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9096
English title: The fuel question in Finland in 1951.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to make a suggestion of measures to be taken to arrange fuel supply during the heating season. The committee drafted also a plan to regulate and govern the fuel economy.

The committee estimated that the total consumption of coal, coke, firewood, waste wood and fuel peat, converted into pine firewood increased from 33.8 million eu.m in piled measure in heating period of 1952-53 to 42.9 million in 1955-56. According to the report, the demand of fuel is met increasingly through imported fuels, such as coal, coke and oil. The change is mainly due by their lower price and technically easy handling compared to domestic fuels.

The committee suggests that the production of domestic fuels, peat and firewood, should be increased and rationalized. In addition, financial support should be targeted to construct hydroelectric plants. Fuel peat industry should be developed further. The use of oil should be promoted, and boilers able to use different kinds of fuel should be constructed. To be prepared in changes in international situation, stocks of fuel are needed.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4529, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1938). Maa ja metsän uudistuminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13938
English title: Forest regeneration and soil.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the effect of properties of soil on forest regeneration. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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