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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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1970-1979
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'organization'.

Category: Research article

article id 239, category Research article
Matti Stendahl, Anders Roos. (2008). Antecedents and barriers to product innovation – a comparison between innovating and non-innovating strategic business units in the wood industry. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 239. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.239
Increased competitive pressure from low-cost economies and substituting materials has raised the need for new strategies focusing on product differentiation in the Nordic wood industry. With the aim to identify factors that can facilitate increased product innovation activity, this study compared organizational characteristics and perceived barriers to product development among innovating and non-innovating strategic business units (SBUs) in the Swedish and Finnish wood industry. Multivariate analysis of data from a cross-sectional sample of 110 SBUs suggested that organizational size and educational level among white-collar workers are significant antecedents of product innovation activity. Furthermore, the difficulty of giving practical priority to development work in the everyday stress was identified as the most important perceived barrier to product development among managers in both innovating and non-innovating SBUs. A low competence level among the personnel and a low need to innovate was perceived to be the second most important barriers to product development among managers in, respectively, innovating and non-innovating SBUs. Practitioners who wish to increase product innovation activity in the wood industry are advised to promote an increased educational level in wood industry companies. They are further encouraged to seek ways to reduce the perceived barriers to product innovation identified in this study.
  • Stendahl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Products, P.O. Box 7008, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.stendahl@sprod.slu.se (email)
  • Roos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Products, P.O. Box 7008, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7461, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsäteollisuuden metsäosastojen henkilöorganisaation rakenteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 1 article id 7461. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7461
English title: Studied concerning the structure of personnel organization in the forestry department of the forest industry.

This paper aims at creating a picture of the tasks of forestry departments of those enterprises engaged in the wood working industry in Southern Finland, to analyse tasks performed by them and to discover the details from which the tasks have been built. In the first part of the work a general theory of organization study is dealt with from the point of view of structural research, and in the second part the results obtained are applied to the forestry departments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7106, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Über die Prinzipien bei der Anordnung botanischer Exkursionen in Finnland. (Gelesen in der Jahresversammlung der Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica am 13. Mai 1872.). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 7 article id 7106. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7106
English title: Principles of organization of botanical excursions in Finland (Given at the yearly meeting of the Societas pro Fauna et Flora on May 13th 1872).
Original keywords: Botanik; Exkursion; Anordnung;
English keywords: Botanical; excursion; organization

The article begins on the page 100/122 of the PDF file.

The article describes the development of collecting botanical knowledge of Finnish vegetation, and the problems that have occurred with the aspirations, to examine the Finnish vegetation and to collect the examples of the species. It also gives recommendations how the future studies on vegetation should be organized. 

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5284, category Article
Max Krott. (1986). The politics of forest bureaucracy as a subject of comparative studies. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5284. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27740

Comparative analysis could offer a number of advantages in the science of forest policy. Comparisons make use of the compiled material from different countries, point to new origins and solutions of issues of forestry and allow to question the common presuppositions in the national forest policy in a critical way.

The basic requirement of fruitful comparative research is a common scientific framework. In the light of empirical-analytical theory it is more promising to compare only one factor across regions than the whole system. The forest administration could be such a suitable object of comparison in particular because it is to be found all over the world, and it has a formal and partly public organization with a number of similarities. The product of forest administration is policy. The significance of the bureaucratic behaviour in agenda setting, policy formulation, legitimating, and implementation with regard to an issue of forest policy is to be analysed.

The two significant fields of analysis, namely forest administrations and the issues of forest policy characterize the strategies of research. By making use of a collection of papers dealing with forest bureaucracy we can select countries for comparison according to the following criteria: socioeconomic context, space and time. The next step is to analyse comparatively the behaviour of the forest bureaucracy in treating a special forest issue. The explanations can be tested empirically in different countries. Perhaps the dying of the forest could be a suitable issue as an object of comparative analysis which again could enlarge our knowledge about the forest administration as a political factor.

  • Krott, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4914, category Article
Antero Piha. (1975). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain syntyvaiheet. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4914. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14758
English title: The creation of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations passed in 1950.

The paper, which was written already at the turn of the year 1950–51, gives a quite detailed description of the early history of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations, which was passed on 17 November 1950 and is still in force, of the long-lasting and multifarious preparations involved with it, and of its consideration in the parliament. In most parties there were both supporters and opponents; only the social democrats voted harmoniously for the act and the people’s democrats against it.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4913, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1975). Metsäammattimiesten ja luottamushenkilöiden mielipiteet julkisesta metsähallinnosta ja sen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14757
English title: Forestry expert’s and appointed representatives’ opinions about official forest administration and its development in Finland.

The task of the study was to describe the opinions of the forestry experts engaged in the State forestry organization and the organization for promotion of private forestry, and of the appointed representatives in the organization for the promotion of private forestry concerning the official forestry administration and its development. The study material was based on two samples, one of 240 forestry experts and the other of 290 appointed representatives. The data was compiled by mail inquiry.

Forestry experts were found to rate the success of the official forestry administration in its tasks lower than did the appointed representatives. Both the forestry experts and appointed representatives were of the opinion that the official forestry administration has been most successful in accomplishing timber production and least successful in the tasks concerning multiple use of forests. The results also indicate that 44% of the forestry experts were of the opinion that the most suitable organization model would be a uniform state organization for both the State, and private owned forests. About a third of the forestry experts considered that the best model would be two different state organizations, one for the State forests and the other for the private forests. 62% of the appointed representatives were of the opinion that the best solution would be to retain the official forestry administration such as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4799, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran 60-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1969. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4799. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14586
English title: The 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland April 29, 1968.

This article describes the 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science). The reception addresses, donations and paying of homages to its members are listed. Also, some of the speeches are published.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4796, category Article
Eino Saari. (1969). Kansainvälinen yhteistoiminta metsäntutkimuksen alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4796. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14582
English title: International co-operation in forest research work.

This paper gives an overview on international organizations involved with forestry and forest research. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFFRO) was named in a congress in Stockholm in 1929, but the organization has its roots in a German association of forest experiment stations founded in 1872. IUFRO is a non-governmental organization with research institutes as members. As it has no permanent centre, and no own research institutes, its opportunities for carrying out actual research work are limited. A reorganization is being planned.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, has a division for forestry and forest industries. FAO is a governmental organization for international policy in agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and forestry, and not meant for research work. It has nevertheless been compelled to carry out a great deal of research work, particularly in projects that have proved impossible for other organs. The Timber Trend Studies are the best known in the field of forestry.

World Forestry Congresses are occasions where all kinds of forestry problems can be discussed, and they have also stimulated research work. The first International Forestry Congress was held in 1926 in Rome, but several other international forestry congresses have been arranged since 1873.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4679. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9125
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Blåfield, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Havukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sajama, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4461, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Die Organisation der forstwissenschaftlichen Forschungsarbeit in Finnland. Silva Fennica no. 20 article id 4461. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9002
English title: Organizations of the forest research in Finland.

The main idea when founding of the Forest Science Research Institute (later Finnish Forest Research Institute) was to have an independent research institute. The institute had from the beginning the right to pursue experiments in certain state owned forests.

The higher forest education and the research institute are separate from each other. Since 1908 is the higher forest education at the University of Helsinki, before that is was organized in the forest institute in Evo. The forest institute in Evo gave forest education of intermediate grade. The first doctoral defense in forest science took place at the University of Helsinki in 1913.  There is however a close relation between the research institute and university; many professors of the institute teach at the university, and many university professors are engaged in the research work of the institute.  

There was a need to ensure that the forest research will not be monopolized by the research institute and the university. For that purpose The Finnish Society of Forest Science was founded in 1909. Its objective was to enhance the cooperation among forest scientists and with other disciplines as well as with the practical forest professionals. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4461, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1931). Die Organisation der forstwissenschaftlichen Forschungsarbeit in Finnland. Silva Fennica no. 20 article id 4461. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9002
English title: Organizations of the forest research in Finland.

The main idea when founding of the Forest Science Research Institute (later Finnish Forest Research Institute) was to have an independent research institute. The institute had from the beginning the right to pursue experiments in certain state owned forests.

The higher forest education and the research institute are separate from each other. Since 1908 is the higher forest education at the University of Helsinki, before that is was organized in the forest institute in Evo. The forest institute in Evo gave forest education of intermediate grade. The first doctoral defense in forest science took place at the University of Helsinki in 1913.  There is however a close relation between the research institute and university; many professors of the institute teach at the university, and many university professors are engaged in the research work of the institute.  

There was a need to ensure that the forest research will not be monopolized by the research institute and the university. For that purpose The Finnish Society of Forest Science was founded in 1909. Its objective was to enhance the cooperation among forest scientists and with other disciplines as well as with the practical forest professionals. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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