Current issue: 56(1)

Under compilation: 56(2)

Scopus CiteScore 2019: 3.1
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 6th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'parameter recovery'.

Category: Research article

article id 10612, category Research article
Daesung Lee, Jouni Siipilehto, Jari Hynynen. (2021). Models for diameter distribution and tree height in hybrid aspen plantations in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10612.
Highlights: Parameter recovery method for the Weibull function fitted diameter distributions well by means of sum and mean forest stand characteristics for hybrid aspen plantations; Arithmetic and weighted mean diameters performed better for the recovery method than the corresponding median diameters; Two alternative Näslund’s height curve models with stand characteristics and tree dbh predictors provided unbiased tree height predictions.

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) is known with outstanding growth rate and some favourable wood characteristics, but models for stand management have not yet been prepared in northern Europe. This study introduces methods and models to predict tree dimensions, diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height for a hybrid aspen plantation using data from repeatedly measured permanent sample plots established in clonal plantations in southern Finland. Dbh distributions using parameter recovery method for the Weibull function was used with Näslund’s height curve to model tree heights. According to the goodness-of-fit statistics of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Error Index, the arithmetic mean diameter (D) and basal area-weighted mean diameter (DG) provided more stable parameter recovery for the Weibull distribution than the median diameter (DM) and basal area-weighted median diameter (DGM), while DG showed the best overall fit. Thus, Näslund’s height curve was modelled using DG with Lorey’s height (HG), age, basal area (BA), and tree dbh (Model 1). Also, Model 2 was tested using all predictors of Model 1 with the number of trees per ha (TPH). All predictors were shown to be significant in both Models, showing slightly different behaviour. Model 1 was sensitive to the mean characteristics, DG and HG, while Model 2 was sensitive to stand density, including both BA and TPH as predictors. Model 1 was considered more reasonable to apply based on our results. Consequently, the parameter recovery method using DG and Näslund’s models were applicable for predicting tree diameter and height.

  • Lee, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: E-mail: (email)
  • Siipilehto, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hynynen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Vipusenkuja 5, FI-57200 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID: E-mail:
article id 1568, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto, Harri Lindeman, Mikko Vastaranta, Xiaowei Yu, Jori Uusitalo. (2016). Reliability of the predicted stand structure for clear-cut stands using optional methods: airborne laser scanning-based methods, smartphone-based forest inventory application Trestima and pre-harvest measurement tool EMO. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1568.
Highlights: An airborne laser scanning grid-based approach for determining stand structure enabled bi- or multimodal predicted distributions that fitted well to the ground-truth harvester data; EMO and Trestima applications needed stand-specific inventory for sample measurements or sample photos, respectively, and at their best, provided superior accuracy for predicting certain stand characteristics.

Accurate timber assortment information is required before cuttings to optimize wood allocation and logging activities. Timber assortments can be derived from diameter-height distribution that is most often predicted from the stand characteristics provided by forest inventory. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the accuracy of three different pre-harvest inventory methods in predicting the structure of mainly Scots pine-dominated, clear-cut stands. The investigated methods were an area-based approach (ABA) based on airborne laser scanning data, the smartphone-based forest inventory Trestima app and the more conventional pre-harvest inventory method called EMO. The estimates of diameter-height distributions based on each method were compared to accurate tree taper data measured and registered by the harvester’s measurement systems during the final cut. According to our results, grid-level ABA and Trestima were generally the most accurate methods for predicting diameter-height distribution. ABA provides predictions for systematic 16 m × 16 m grids from which stand-wise characteristics are aggregated. In order to enable multimodal stand-wise distributions, distributions must be predicted for each grid cell and then aggregated for the stand level, instead of predicting a distribution from the aggregated stand-level characteristics. Trestima required a sufficient sample for reliable results. EMO provided accurate results for the dominating Scots pine but, it could not capture minor admixtures. ABA seemed rather trustworthy in predicting stand characteristics and diameter distribution of standing trees prior to harvesting. Therefore, if up-to-date ABA information is available, only limited benefits can be obtained from stand-specific inventory using Trestima or EMO in mature pine or spruce-dominated forests.

  • Siipilehto, Natural Research Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Lindeman,  Natural Research Institute Finland, Green Technology, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vastaranta, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 62 (Viikinkaari 11), FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yu, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI), Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, National Land Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 15 (Geodeetinrinne 2), FI-02431, Masala, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo,  Natural Research Institute Finland, Green Technology, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 1057, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto, Lauri Mehtätalo. (2013). Parameter recovery vs. parameter prediction for the Weibull distribution validated for Scots pine stands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1057.
Highlights: A parameter recovery method (PRM) was developed for forest stand inventories and compared with previously developed parameter prediction methods (PPM) in Finland; PRM for the 2-parameter Weibull function provided compatibility for the main stand characteristics: stem number, basal area and one of the four optional mean characteristics; PRM provided comparable and at its best, superior accuracy in volume characteristics compared with PPM.
The moment-based parameter recovery method (PRM) has not been applied in Finland since the 1930s, even after a continuation of forest stand structure modelling in the 1980s. This paper presents a general overview of PRM and some useful applications. Applied PRM provided compatibility for the included stand characteristics of stem number (N) and basal area (G) with either mean (D), basal area-weighted mean (DG), median (DM) or basal area-median (DGM) diameter at breast height (dbh). A two-parameter Weibull function was used to describe the dbh-frequency distribution of Scots pine stands in Finland. In the validation, PRM was compared with existing parameter prediction models (PPMs). In addition, existing models for stand characteristics were used for the prediction of unknown characteristics. Validation consisted of examining the performance of the predicted distributions with respect to variation in stand density and accuracy of the localised distributions, as well as accuracy in terms of bias and the RMSE in stand characteristics in the independent test data set. The validation data consisted of 467 randomly selected stands from the National Forest Inventory based plots. PRM demonstrated excellent accuracy if G and N were both known. At its best, PRM provided accuracy that was superior to any existing model in Finland – especially in young stands (mean height < 9 m), where the RMSE in total and pulp wood volumes, 3.6 and 5.7%, respectively, was reduced by one-half of the values obtained using the best performing existing PPM (8.7–11.3%). The unweighted Weibull distribution solved by PRM was found to be competitive with weighted existing PPMs for advanced stands. Therefore, using PRM, the need for a basal area weighted distribution proved unnecessary, contrary to common belief. Models for G and N were shown to be unreliable and need to be improved to obtain more reliable distributions using PRM.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Computing, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive