Current issue: 54(3)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'park'.

Category: Research article

article id 1618, category Research article
Miguel Genin, Mohamed Alifriqui, Abdessamad Fakhech, Mohamed Hafidi, Lahcen Ouahmane, Didier Genin. (2017). Back to forests in pre-Saharan Morocco? When prickly pear cultivation and traditional agropastoralism reduction promote argan tree regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1618
Highlights: There was a significant positive relationship between the age of implanted prickly pear orchards and natural argan tree regeneration; This relationship is mainly associated with interconnected changes in traditional land uses and the activation of facilitation factors such as an enhancement of the soil’s organic matter and nurse plant phenomena; This example constitutes a remarkable alternative model for thinking about agricultural development while combating desertification.

In the southwestern pre-Saharan arid zone of Morocco, the endemic argan forest (Argania spinosa) had been almost completely destroyed in the 1960s due to intensive coal mining and mixed cereal-livestock farming. These activities turned out to be unviable and a massive rural exodus occurred in the 1970s. Local populations started to develop maintenance-free prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivation at large scale in order to keep their land ownership rights, while reducing their traditional agropastoral activity. We conducted a survey in order to characterize the relationships between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree regeneration. We also explored facilitating factors, such as soil organic matter and mycorrhiza. Results showed a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree resprouts, but with differences depending on a continentality gradient. The soil organic matter content also showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) depending on the age of the prickly pear plantation, while spora density did not show such differences. The recent high economic value attributed to prickly pear fruits, and to both argan and prickly pear seed oil, has given farmers the opportunity to develop a lucrative agricultural activity, while promoting the recovery of native vegetation. This situation constitutes a remarkable example of speculative agricultural development in a very harsh environment, in phase with ecological priorities for combating desertification. It could represent an alternative to the externally-generated projects sustained by high levels of public funding, with ecological, economic and social impacts which are sometimes questionable.

  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: miguel.genin@gmail.com
  • Alifriqui, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: alifriqui@gmail.com
  • Fakhech, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: abdessamad.fakhech@edu.uca.ac.ma
  • Hafidi, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: hafidi.ucam@gmail.com
  • Ouahmane, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: l.ouahmane@gmail.com
  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: didier.genin@univ-amu.fr (email)

Category: Article

article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5329, category Article
Bo Lönnqvist. (1987). Kultivoitunut metsä - herraskartanon puisto. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15486
English title: Cultivated forests – the case of manor parks.

The earliest manor parks, which are a special form of cultivated forests, were created at the end of the 18th century. The surrounding of the main buildings was divided into two parts, an aesthetic park and yard serving household and economic purposes. Early in the 19th century, large parks were created which represented dominant aesthetic ideals but, on the other hand, formed a ”wild” counterpart to the structured inner world of the main building. A good example is Ratula Manor and its park, which represent the diversity of the cultivated forest of the 19th century manors.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lönnqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5328, category Article
Max Guignard. (1987). The tree in the Paris and Helsinki areas. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15485

The paper describes some examples from Paris and Helsinki areas, where trees are essential landscape elements. It is typical in France to plant trees around town squares, market places and along streets and roads. In Finland trees are almost always kept close to the house, together with other vegetation protecting the entrance and windows. These traditional uses of trees should be studied to serve landscape management.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Guignard, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Enivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5002, category Article
Antti Haapanen, Pertti Siitonen. (1978). Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14856
English title: Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve in Northern Finland.

The study is the first report of a larger project concerning fire ecology in the Finnish boreal forests. Modern forestry has never been practiced in the Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve (2,500 ha) in Northern Finland in the county of Kuhmo. Forest fires have been uncommon because of mosaic of mineral and peat soils. The forests are mostly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) often as the oldest trees of a stand. Forest fires were dated by counting annual rings from cambium to the fire scar in pines. 73 stands covering 1,207 ha were surveyed, over 80% of which was on mineral soil.

50% of the area had burned at least once during the life time of the present pine trees. 48 different forest fires were found, the first being from the year 1712 and the latest from 1969. The average time elapsed between the fires was about 82±43 years, and range 18–219 years. It was assumed that the stands where no fire scars were found, had, however, regenerated after fires but no fires have occurred since after that. In latter part of the 19th century 21 forest fires were dated, in the other half centuries only 4–9. This may have been caused by the increased human activity in the late 1800’s. The fire rotation of the area is 280 years, and spruce is almost the only tree species, which can regenerate in the present situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4639, category Article
Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea. (1953). Uusien luonnon- ja kansallispuistojen perustaminen valtion maille : luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 79 article id 4639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9101
English title: Establishment of new nature parks and national parks on the state-owned lands in Finland.

The article is report of the Nature Park and National Park Committee appointed by the Government of Finland in 1950. It contains a proposal for establishment of new nature parks and natural parks on state-owned lands in Finland. The article also includes a draft of act and decree for establishment of the new nature parks and national parks.

In order to replace the nature reserves lost through the 1944 Armistice with new areas and to create a comprehensive network of nature and national parks, including Southern Finland, the committee proposes new protected areas. The proposal includes the following nature parks: Jussaari, Vaskijärvi, Vesijako, Sinivuori, Häädetkeidas, Salamajärvi, Ulvinsalo, Paljakka, Runkaus, Maltio, Sompio, and Kevo. National parks include Liesjärvi, Linnansaari, Petkeljärvi, Pyhähäkki, Rokua, Oulanka-Juuma, and Lemmenjoki. The total area of the suggested new 23 nature reserves is 1,425 km2. The committee suggets that the administration of the new nature parks and national parks should remain in the responsibility of Forest Service and Forest Research Institute.

The article contains a summary in English

  • Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4639, category Article
Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea. (1953). Uusien luonnon- ja kansallispuistojen perustaminen valtion maille : luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 79 article id 4639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9101
English title: Establishment of new nature parks and national parks on the state-owned lands in Finland.

The article is report of the Nature Park and National Park Committee appointed by the Government of Finland in 1950. It contains a proposal for establishment of new nature parks and natural parks on state-owned lands in Finland. The article also includes a draft of act and decree for establishment of the new nature parks and national parks.

In order to replace the nature reserves lost through the 1944 Armistice with new areas and to create a comprehensive network of nature and national parks, including Southern Finland, the committee proposes new protected areas. The proposal includes the following nature parks: Jussaari, Vaskijärvi, Vesijako, Sinivuori, Häädetkeidas, Salamajärvi, Ulvinsalo, Paljakka, Runkaus, Maltio, Sompio, and Kevo. National parks include Liesjärvi, Linnansaari, Petkeljärvi, Pyhähäkki, Rokua, Oulanka-Juuma, and Lemmenjoki. The total area of the suggested new 23 nature reserves is 1,425 km2. The committee suggets that the administration of the new nature parks and national parks should remain in the responsibility of Forest Service and Forest Research Institute.

The article contains a summary in English

  • Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4473, category Article
Alfred Brandt. (1933). Hiisjärven luonnonpuiston kasvillisuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 32 article id 4473. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9045
English title: Vegetation in the Hiisjärvi protected area in Eastern Finland.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) decided to protect two areas around Hiisijärvi lake in Eastern Finland already in 1916. Later, a natural park was suggested to be established in the area. A survey of the vegetation in the area was composed in 1931-1932. The total land area of the protected area was 3.5 km3. A vegetation map was drawn based on a nature inventory. A detailed description of the forest site types, peatland types, aquatic flora and the vegetation of the area are included in the article. The calcareous soil promotes rich vegetation. Typical for the area are also rich fens. The area can be divided to a eutrophic and a oligotrophic part.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Brandt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4436, category Article
Ernst Häyrén. (1927). Pummanginniemi i Petsamo såsom naturskyddsområde. Silva Fennica no. 3 article id 4436. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8384
English title: Pummanginniemi in Petsamo as a nature reserve.

The article describes the geography and vegetation of Pummanginniemi area in Petsamo (now a Russian municipality of Pechenga; in 1926 the area was part of Finland in north-east Lapland), which has been suggested to become a natural park. Geologically it represented the only paleozoic area in Finland, constituting of layered rocks, mostly of slates and sandstones. The cape Pummanginniemi is situated on the cost of the Arctic Ocean, and it is known for its rich birdlife. Towards the inland, there is a plateau the vegetation of which is alpine. The area is situated above the mountain birch zone.

  • Häyrén, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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