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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'pathogen'.

Category: Research article

article id 9905, category Research article
Mercedes M. Fernandez, Diana Bezos, Julio J. Diez. (2018). Fungi associated with necrotic galls of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in northern Spain. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9905
Highlights: Presence of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Northern Spain; The mycobiota associated to necrotic galls was studied for the first time; 7 fungal species were identified; The entomopathogenic fungi found could be use as potential biological control agents; Gnomomiopsis smithogilvyi, Fusarium oxysporum and F. avenaceum known by their toxicity against the insect, were found.

The Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is one of the most important pests in Castanea species worldwide. In 2012, it was found for the first time in Catalonia (Spain) and a year later, in the north of Spain (Cantabria). Today, it is present in 14 Spanish provinces. In search of biological control against the ACGW, several authors have previously found the relationship between the presence of some Fusarium Link species in necrotic galls and wasp mortality due to the production of different types of wall-degrading enzymes and entomopathogenic mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to investigate the mycobiota associated with necrotic galls to find interesting perspectives for biological control of the ACGW. For this purpose, in 2014, 119 necrotic galls of Castanea sativa Miller were plated to isolate and identify the associated fungi. The fungal isolates were identified by the morphology of the fruiting bodies and DNA analyses. From necrotic galls, 7 species of fungi were identified. Of these, we highlight three species of Fusarium Link as well as the presence of Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi Shuttlew, Liew & Guest due to its toxic capacity. Further studies are required to verify the effectiveness of these fungal species as biocontrol agents against the ACGW.

  • Fernandez, Dpt. of Agroforestry Sciences, ETSIIAA, University of Valladolid, Av. Madrid 50, 34071 Palencia, Spain; Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa-INIA, ETSIIAA, 34071 Palencia, Spain ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1646-5027 E-mail: mffernan@agro.uva.es (email)
  • Bezos, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa-INIA, ETSIIAA, 34071 Palencia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: dianabezos@yahoo.es
  • Diez, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa-INIA, ETSIIAA, 34071 Palencia, Spain; Dpt. of Plant Production and Forest Resources, University of Valladolid, Av. Madrid 50, 34071 Palencia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jdcasero@pvs.uva.es
article id 1328, category Research article
Nelly N. Selochnik, Nataliya V. Pashenova, Evgeny Sidorov, Michael J. Wingfield, Riikka Linnakoski. (2015). Ophiostomatoid fungi and their roles in Quercus robur die-back in Tellermann forest, Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1328
Highlights: Dominant ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Q. robur in the post-outbreak region of oak die-back were investigated; Ophiostoma quercus was the most commonly encountered fungus; This is the first report of O. grandicarpum from Russia; The results of preliminary pathogenicity experiments demonstrate that fungi investigated in this study are unlikely to play causal role in oak die-back

Several eastern European countries have reported outbreaks of oak die-back during the 1980’s. Species of Ophiostoma Syd. were isolated from diseased trees and have been suggested to be the possible causal agents of the die-back, but this view have generally not been accepted. In order to monitor the post-outbreak region of oak die-back and to consider the possible role of Ophiostoma spp. in the syndrome, research has been conducted in the Tellerman forest, Voronezh region, Russia between 2005 and 2011. Our study resulted in the isolation of ophiostomatoid fungi from Quercus robur L. trees displaying external signs of desiccation. Fungi were identified based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence comparisons. Three species of Ophiostoma were identified including O. grandicarpum (Kowalski & Butin) Rulamort, a species closely related to O. abietinum Marm. & Butin, O. fusiforme Aghayeva & M.J. Wingf. and O. lunatum Aghayeva & M.J. Wingf. representing a poorly understood species complex, and most commonly O. quercus (Georgev.) Nannf. Pathogenicity of these fungi was tested using artificial inoculations on Q. robur trees. The fungi were shown to be non-pathogenic and unlikely to play any role in oak die-back. These fungi are most likely only components in a complex of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors that have contributed to a die-back of Quercus spp. in Russia.

  • Selochnik, Forest Science Institute of RAS, Uspenskoe 143030, Moscow Region, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: lenelse@yandex.ru
  • Pashenova, V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: pasnat@ksc.krasn.ru
  • Sidorov, Department of Forest Protection and Game Management, St. Petersburg State Forest Technical University, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: sidorov_evgeny@mail.ru
  • Wingfield, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: mike.wingfield@up.ac.za
  • Linnakoski, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3294-8088 E-mail: riikka.linnakoski@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7156, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1965). Tutkimuksia maannousemasienen leviämisbiologiasta ja torjuntamahdollisuuksista Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 3 article id 7156. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7156
English title: Studies on the biology of distribution and possibilities to control Fomes annosus in Southern Finland.

The aim of this investigation was to clarify aerial infection of Fomes annosus (now Heterbasision annosum) in the cross-sections of stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Southern Finland. In addition, an attempt was made to study possibilities to reduce an eventual aerial infection by means of spreading various protecting substances on the cross-section of the stumps immediately after cutting. The stumps were treated withs creosote, ceruse (lead white) and a product named ”Ventti”, which active constituent is copper. The effect of prescribed burning of the site on the aerial spreading of the fungus was studied.

Five sample plots were located in spruce stands and one in a pine stand. One of the spruce stands was prescribed burned. Samples were taken from the stumps 14–17 and 24–29 months after cutting. To identify the fungi, the samples were cultivated on a nutrient substrate in laboratory conditions. The results show that Heterobasidion annosum had spread by air to cross-sections of stumps of spruce. 11.5% of the samples taken from the spruce stumps 14–17 months and 17% of samples taken 24–29 months after cutting were infected. Burning of the site reduced strongly the aerial infection of stumps by the fungus. The stumps of Scots pine were not infected by Heterobasidion annosum in this study. The infection could be limited by treating the cross-sections with substances that are used to prevent growth of mould.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5226, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1985). Männynversosyövän leviämisestä tautipesäkettä ympäröiviin terveisiin mäntyihin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5226. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15405
English title: The spreading of Ascocalyx abietina to healthy Scots pines in the vicinity of diseased trees.

Ascocalyx abietina (now Gremmeniella abietina Lagerb.) infects Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by means of ascospores or conidia. Ascospores are dispersed by the wind, while the conidia are splash dispersed. The infection rate is positively correlated with the number of inocula. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which G. abietina spreads to the trees surrounding the diseased trees and to find the correct time to perform sanitation cutting.

The results were obtained from Ascocalyx-inventory carried out in a Scots pine progeny test at Loppi, Southern Finland. Three Siberian provenances were totally destroyed, while the Finnish progenies remained relatively healthy. The two rows adjacent to the destroyed plots were inventoried separately.

There were 29.7% more diseased or dead trees in the two adjacent rows than in the rest of the same plots. The difference was statistically significant. The trees had probably been infected by conidia, because the effect of the destroyed plot only extended to the adjacent two rows. Furthermore, pycnidia had mainly developed on the dead shoots.

On the basis of the life cycle of the fungus and the results, the correct time to carry out sanitation cutting is the first winter after the disease symptoms have appeared. If it is done later, the disease could be spread and bark beetles (Tomicus spp.) could propagate in dying trees. Susceptible provenances may spread the disease to surrounding resistant trees owing to the increasing number of spores.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Uotila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5226, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1985). Männynversosyövän leviämisestä tautipesäkettä ympäröiviin terveisiin mäntyihin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5226. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15405
English title: The spreading of Ascocalyx abietina to healthy Scots pines in the vicinity of diseased trees.

Ascocalyx abietina (now Gremmeniella abietina Lagerb.) infects Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by means of ascospores or conidia. Ascospores are dispersed by the wind, while the conidia are splash dispersed. The infection rate is positively correlated with the number of inocula. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which G. abietina spreads to the trees surrounding the diseased trees and to find the correct time to perform sanitation cutting.

The results were obtained from Ascocalyx-inventory carried out in a Scots pine progeny test at Loppi, Southern Finland. Three Siberian provenances were totally destroyed, while the Finnish progenies remained relatively healthy. The two rows adjacent to the destroyed plots were inventoried separately.

There were 29.7% more diseased or dead trees in the two adjacent rows than in the rest of the same plots. The difference was statistically significant. The trees had probably been infected by conidia, because the effect of the destroyed plot only extended to the adjacent two rows. Furthermore, pycnidia had mainly developed on the dead shoots.

On the basis of the life cycle of the fungus and the results, the correct time to carry out sanitation cutting is the first winter after the disease symptoms have appeared. If it is done later, the disease could be spread and bark beetles (Tomicus spp.) could propagate in dying trees. Susceptible provenances may spread the disease to surrounding resistant trees owing to the increasing number of spores.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Uotila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5131, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Satu Huttunen, Teija Väisänen. (1981). The wax structure of the developing needles of Pinus sylvestris progenies infected by Lophodermella sulcigena. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5131. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15188

The development of the stomatal area wax structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied in flushing needles with a scanning electron microscope. The needles were obtained from eleven Finnish plus tree progenies. The needles were taken from trees that were either nearly uninfected or heavily infected by Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) Höhn.

No difference in the early developmental stages of stomatal vax structure were observed between the southern Finnish, central Finnish and northern Finnish progenies. The general structure differed in the stomatal cavity chamber size. The stomatal openings were larger in heavily infected trees than in healthy trees. This might have an influence on the mechanical penetration of the fungal hyphae.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7663, category Article
Anne Sairanen. (1990). Site characteristics of Scots pine stands infected by Gremmeniella abietina in Central Finland. 1: Mineral soil sites. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 216 article id 7663. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7663

Mineral soil sites where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were suffering from Gremmeniella abietina die-back (Lagerb.) M. Morelet. were characterized and classified in Central Finland. The tree stand, ground vegetation, soil type and site topography were described in 163 sample plots in 16 stands. The sites were classified according to system developed by Cajander and numerically using TWINSPAN analysis based on the ground vegetation. The site topography of severely damaged stands was checked from colour infrared aerial photographs. The disease was most severe in depressions and frost pockets. Apart from topography no significant correlations were found between disease severity and site factors. No typical vegetational pattern of forest type of the severely affected stands could be detected. Most of the stands were growing on medium-coarse, unfertile soil with a rather thick humus layer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Sairanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7662, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1990). Infection of pruning wounds in Scots pine by Phacidium coniferarum and selection of pruning season. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 215 article id 7662. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7662

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pruning experiments were established in different geographical regions of Finland. The pines were pruned in 16 different times during the year. Half of the trees were inoculated with conidia of Phacidium coniferarum (Hahn). Annual cankers were produced in the inoculated trees pruned during October–December. The safe pruning season ended in autumn when the five-day mean temperature decreased below +7°C. The unsafe pruning season terminated when the temperature remained permanently over 0°C. Dry-pruned branches were infected only if the phloem had been wounded. The mycelia of the fungus were pathogenic in the phloem in the inoculations made from October to March. The fungus occurred commonly in slash and in pines wounded during the autumn. The fungus has a one-year life cycle.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Uotila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7583, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1976). Peniophora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and wounded spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst. Part 2Peniophora gigantea ja kuusen vauriot. Osa 2. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 149 article id 7583. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7583

The paper is a continuation of an earlier report by the author on the same subject (Acta Forestalia Fennica 133, 1973). Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wounds were inoculated with Peniophora gigantea (Phlebiopsis gigantea) and the discolorations starting from the wounds were investigated three years after the wounding. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) had infected 17 % of the total number of wounded trees. If no microbes were growing at the furthest point of the discoloration that had started from the wound, the discoloration advanced upward from wounds made at breast height at a rate of 61 cm/year in the dominant and 36 cm/year in the suppressed trees. In the dominant trees, a year after the wound was inflicted the discoloration had advanced at a rate of 50 cm/year and after three years the rate was 61 cm/year. This difference is not significant. Where microbes were present at the furthest point of discoloration, the discoloration had advanced 27 cm/year in one year and 42 cm/year in three years. Also, this difference is not significant.

A microbe was isolated from the furthest point of discoloration in only 13 out of 42 possible cases. The most common microbe was Stereum sanguinolentum. Bacteria showed the fastest rate of advance.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7545, category Article
Lalli Laine, Matti Nuorteva. (1970). Über die antagonistische Einwirkung der insektenpathogenen Pilze Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. und B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. auf den Wurzelschwamm (Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke). Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 111 article id 7545. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7545
English title: On the antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. on root rot disease spongy saprot (Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke).

The article presents the studies about antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. against root rot diseases. The experiments were conducted in laboratory where the fungi were grown in Petri dishes. The results show that these fungi are antagonistic with each other. The used stem of B. bassiana was proved as strongest antagonist against all studied F.annosus.

The PDF contains a summary in German. 

  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7545, category Article
Lalli Laine, Matti Nuorteva. (1970). Über die antagonistische Einwirkung der insektenpathogenen Pilze Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. und B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. auf den Wurzelschwamm (Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke). Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 111 article id 7545. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7545
English title: On the antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. on root rot disease spongy saprot (Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke).

The article presents the studies about antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. against root rot diseases. The experiments were conducted in laboratory where the fungi were grown in Petri dishes. The results show that these fungi are antagonistic with each other. The used stem of B. bassiana was proved as strongest antagonist against all studied F.annosus.

The PDF contains a summary in German. 

  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7612, category Article
Timo Kurkela. (1969). Antagonism of healthy and diseased Ericaceous plants to snow blight on Scots pine. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 101 article id 7612. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7612

Two experiments were conducted in Punkaharju and Leivonmäki in the Central Finland in 1966-67 where the spread of the snow blight caused by Phacidium infestans Karst. was investigated in rows of excised branches from a ten-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Ericaceous plants (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) infected with snow moulds were used to determine their influence on the spread of snow blight.

The results show that significant inhibition of snow blight in Scots pine can be achieved with foliage of ericaceous evergreens. The mechanism of this inhibition is an object of conjecture. In healthy ericaceous vegetation it might be caused by saprophytic fungi living on surface of plants or by some constituent of the foliage. In the case of dead ericaceous foliage, the cause of inhibition seems to be the antagonism of other snow moulds. The antagonism of certain saprophytic organism is well known.

The observed inhibition suggests that ericaceous vegetation may be helpful for reforestation by offering a natural control of snow blight, when seedlings of Scots pine do not stand above the surrounding vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4649, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1955). Männyn karisteen torjunta kemiallisilla aineilla Leksvallin taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4649. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9110
English title: The control of needle cast of Scots pine with chemicals at the Leksvall nursery.

In 1953 and 1954 needle cast (Peridermium pinastri (Shrad.) Chev., now Lophodermium) caused much damage at the Leksvall nursery at Tammisaari as well as at some other nurseries in Southern Finland.

Experiments were conducted at the Leksvall nursery with different fungicides. The results showed that with spraying done every second week during the whole growing season beginning on May 20th and ending on 27th September in 1954, the damage caused by needle cast was entirely controlled with 2% Bordeaux mixture and the zineb preparation (Dithane Z-78); nabam preparation (Dithane D-14) being somewhat less effective. Lime sulphur, Burgundy mixture, thiram preparation, captan preparation, and PCNB preparation were rather ineffective, in addition, of these the lime sulphur and the Burgundy mixture caused damage to the needles. Phenylmercury preparation proved useless.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4649, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1955). Männyn karisteen torjunta kemiallisilla aineilla Leksvallin taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4649. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9110
English title: The control of needle cast of Scots pine with chemicals at the Leksvall nursery.

In 1953 and 1954 needle cast (Peridermium pinastri (Shrad.) Chev., now Lophodermium) caused much damage at the Leksvall nursery at Tammisaari as well as at some other nurseries in Southern Finland.

Experiments were conducted at the Leksvall nursery with different fungicides. The results showed that with spraying done every second week during the whole growing season beginning on May 20th and ending on 27th September in 1954, the damage caused by needle cast was entirely controlled with 2% Bordeaux mixture and the zineb preparation (Dithane Z-78); nabam preparation (Dithane D-14) being somewhat less effective. Lime sulphur, Burgundy mixture, thiram preparation, captan preparation, and PCNB preparation were rather ineffective, in addition, of these the lime sulphur and the Burgundy mixture caused damage to the needles. Phenylmercury preparation proved useless.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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