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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'planning'.

Category: Research article

article id 7803, category Research article
Lingbo Dong, Pete Bettinger, Huiyan Qin, Zhaogang Liu. (2018). Reflections on the number of independent solutions for forest spatial harvest scheduling problems: a case of simulated annealing. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7803
Highlights: No one particular neighborhood search technique of simulated annealing was found to be universally acceptable; The optimal number of independent solutions necessary for addressing the area restriction harvest scheduling model was described with a negative logarithmic function that was related with the problem size. However, optimal number of independent solutions necessary was not sensitive to the problem size for non-spatial and unit restriction harvest scheduling model problems, which should be somewhat above 250 independent runs; The types of adjacency constraints have moderate effects on the number of independent solutions, but these effects are not significant.

To assess the quality of results obtained from heuristics through statistical procedures, a number of independently generated solutions to the same problem are required, however the knowledge of how many solutions are necessary for this purpose using a specific heuristic is still not clear. Therefore, the overall aims of this paper are to quantitatively evaluate the effects of the number of independent solutions generated on the forest planning objectives and on the performance of different neighborhood search techniques of simulated annealing (SA) in three increasing difficult forest spatial harvest scheduling problems, namely non-spatial model, area restriction model (ARM) and unit restriction model (URM). The tested neighborhood search techniques included the standard version of SA using the conventional 1-opt moves, SA using the combined strategy that oscillates between the conventional 1-opt moves and the exchange version of 2-opt moves, and SA using the change version of 2-opt moves. The obtained results indicated that the number of independent solutions generated had clear effects on the conclusions of the performances of different neighborhood search techniques of SA, which indicated that no one particular neighborhood search technique of SA was universally acceptable. The optimal number of independent solutions generated for all alternative neighborhood search techniques of SA for ARM problems could be estimated using a negative logarithmic function based on the problem size, however the relationships were not sensitive (i.e., 0.13 < p < 0.78) to the problem size for non-spatial and URM harvest scheduling problems, which should be somewhat above 250 independent runs. The types of adjacency constraints did moderately affect the number of independent solutions necessary, but not significantly. Therefore, determining an optimal number of independent solutions generated is a necessary process prior to employing heuristics in forest management planning practices.

  • Dong, College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: farrell0503@126.com
  • Bettinger, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, GA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu
  • Qin, College of Economic and Management, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: huiyanqin@hotmail.com
  • Liu, College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: lzg19700602@163.com (email)
article id 1778, category Research article
Adriano Mazziotta, Dmitry Podkopaev, María Triviño, Kaisa Miettinen, Tähti Pohjanmies, Mikko Mönkkönen. (2017). Quantifying and resolving conservation conflicts in forest landscapes via multiobjective optimization. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1778
Highlights: We introduce a compatibility index quantifying how targeting a management objective in the forest landscape affects another objective; To resolve conflicts we find compromise solutions minimizing the maximum deterioration among objectives; We apply our approach for a case study of forest management for biodiversity conservation and development; Multiple use management and careful planning can reduce biodiversity conflicts in forest ecosystems.

Environmental planning for of the maintenance of different conservation objectives should take into account multiple contrasting criteria based on alternative uses of the landscape. We develop new concepts and approaches to describe and measure conflicts among conservation objectives and for resolving them via multiobjective optimization. To measure conflicts we introduce a compatibility index that quantifies how much targeting a certain conservation objective affects the capacity of the landscape for providing another objective. To resolve such conflicts we find compromise solutions defined in terms of minimax regret, i.e. minimizing the maximum percentage of deterioration among conservation objectives. Finally, we apply our approach for a case study of management for biodiversity conservation and development in a forest landscape. We study conflicts between six different forest species, and we identify management solutions for simultaneously maintaining multiple species’ habitat while obtaining timber harvest revenues. We employ the method for resolving conflicts at a large landscape level across a long 50-years forest planning horizon. Our multiobjective approach can be an instrument for guiding hard choices in the conservation-development nexus with a perspective of developing decision support tools for land use planning. In our case study multiple use management and careful landscape level planning using our approach can reduce conflicts among biodiversity objectives and offer room for synergies in forest ecosystems.

  • Mazziotta, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Center for Macroecology Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kräftriket 2b, 11429 Stockholm, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2088-3798 E-mail: a_mazziotta@hotmail.com (email)
  • Podkopaev, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Newelska 6, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: dmitry.podkopaev@ibspan.waw.pl
  • Triviño, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.trivino@jyu.fi
  • Miettinen, University of Jyväskylä, Faculty of Information Technology, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kaisa.miettinen@jyu.fi
  • Pohjanmies, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tahti.t.pohjanmies@jyu.fi
  • Mönkkönen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.monkkonen@jyu.fi
article id 1778, category Research article
Adriano Mazziotta, Dmitry Podkopaev, María Triviño, Kaisa Miettinen, Tähti Pohjanmies, Mikko Mönkkönen. (2017). Quantifying and resolving conservation conflicts in forest landscapes via multiobjective optimization. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1778
Highlights: We introduce a compatibility index quantifying how targeting a management objective in the forest landscape affects another objective; To resolve conflicts we find compromise solutions minimizing the maximum deterioration among objectives; We apply our approach for a case study of forest management for biodiversity conservation and development; Multiple use management and careful planning can reduce biodiversity conflicts in forest ecosystems.

Environmental planning for of the maintenance of different conservation objectives should take into account multiple contrasting criteria based on alternative uses of the landscape. We develop new concepts and approaches to describe and measure conflicts among conservation objectives and for resolving them via multiobjective optimization. To measure conflicts we introduce a compatibility index that quantifies how much targeting a certain conservation objective affects the capacity of the landscape for providing another objective. To resolve such conflicts we find compromise solutions defined in terms of minimax regret, i.e. minimizing the maximum percentage of deterioration among conservation objectives. Finally, we apply our approach for a case study of management for biodiversity conservation and development in a forest landscape. We study conflicts between six different forest species, and we identify management solutions for simultaneously maintaining multiple species’ habitat while obtaining timber harvest revenues. We employ the method for resolving conflicts at a large landscape level across a long 50-years forest planning horizon. Our multiobjective approach can be an instrument for guiding hard choices in the conservation-development nexus with a perspective of developing decision support tools for land use planning. In our case study multiple use management and careful landscape level planning using our approach can reduce conflicts among biodiversity objectives and offer room for synergies in forest ecosystems.

  • Mazziotta, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Center for Macroecology Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kräftriket 2b, 11429 Stockholm, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2088-3798 E-mail: a_mazziotta@hotmail.com (email)
  • Podkopaev, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Newelska 6, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: dmitry.podkopaev@ibspan.waw.pl
  • Triviño, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.trivino@jyu.fi
  • Miettinen, University of Jyväskylä, Faculty of Information Technology, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kaisa.miettinen@jyu.fi
  • Pohjanmies, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tahti.t.pohjanmies@jyu.fi
  • Mönkkönen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.monkkonen@jyu.fi
article id 1414, category Research article
Rami Saad, Jörgen Wallerman, Johan Holmgren, Tomas Lämås. (2016). Local pivotal method sampling design combined with micro stands utilizing airborne laser scanning data in a long term forest management planning setting. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1414
Highlights: Most similar neighbor imputation was used to estimate forest variables using airborne laser scanning data as auxiliary data; For selecting field reference plots the local pivotal method (LPM) was compared to systematic sampling design; The LPM sampling design combined with a micro stand approach showed potential for improvement and has the potential to be a competitive method when considering cost efficiency.

A new sampling design, the local pivotal method (LPM), was combined with the micro stand approach and compared with the traditional systematic sampling design for estimation of forest stand variables. The LPM uses the distance between units in an auxiliary space – in this case airborne laser scanning (ALS) data – to obtain a well-spread sample. Two sets of reference plots were acquired by the two sampling designs and used for imputing data to evaluation plots. The first set of reference plots, acquired by LPM, made up four imputation alternatives (varying number of reference plots) and the second set of reference plots, acquired by systematic sampling design, made up two alternatives (varying plot radius). The forest variables in these alternatives were estimated using the nonparametric method of most similar neighbor imputation, with the ALS data used as auxiliary data. The relative root mean square error (RelRMSE), stem diameter distribution error index and suboptimal loss were calculated for each alternative, but the results showed that neither sampling design, i.e. LPM vs. systematic, offered clear advantages over the other. It is likely that the obtained results were a consequence of the small evaluation dataset used in the study (n = 30). Nevertheless, the LPM sampling design combined with the micro stand approach showed potential for improvement and might be a competitive method when considering the cost efficiency.

  • Saad, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: rami.saad@slu.se (email)
  • Wallerman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jorgen.wallerman@slu.se
  • Holmgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.holmgren@slu.se
  • Lämås, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.lamas@slu.se
article id 1347, category Research article
Paulo Borges, Even Bergseng, Tron Eid, Terje Gobakken. (2015). Impact of maximum opening area constraints on profitability and biomass availability in forestry – a large, real world case. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1347. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1347
Highlights: We solved a large and real world near city forestry problem; The inclusion of maximum open area constraints caused 7.0% loss in NPV; Solution value at maximum deviated 0.01% from the true optimum value; The annual energy supply of 20–30 GWh estimated from harvest residues could provide a small, but stable supply of energy to the municipality.

The nature areas surrounding the capital of Norway (Oslomarka), comprising 1 700 km2 of forest land, are the recreational home turf for a population of 1.2 mill. people. These areas are highly valuable, not only for recreational purposes and biodiversity, but also for commercial activities. To assess the impacts of the challenges that Oslo municipality forest face in their management, we developed four optimization problems with different levels of management constraints. The constraints consider control of harvest level, guarantee of minimum old-growth forest area and maximum open area after final harvest. For the latter, to date, no appropriate analyses quantifying the impact of such a constraint on economy and biomass production have been carried out in Norway. The problem solved is large due to both the number of stands and number of treatment schedules. However, the model applied demonstrated its relevance for solving large problems involving maximum opening areas. The inclusion of maximum open area constraints caused 7.0% loss in NPV compared to the business as usual case with controlled harvest volume and minimum old-growth area. The estimated supply of 20-30 GWh annual energy from harvest residues could provide a small, but stable supply of energy to the municipality.

  • Borges, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: paulo.borges@nmbu.no (email)
  • Bergseng, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: even.bergseng@nmbu.no
  • Eid, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tron.eid@nmbu.no
  • Gobakken, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
article id 1232, category Research article
Pete Bettinger, Mehmet Demirci, Kevin Boston. (2015). Search reversion within s-metaheuristics: impacts illustrated with a forest planning problem. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1232
Highlights: The interruption of the sequence of events used to explore a solution space and develop a forest plan, and the re-initiation of the search process from a high-quality, known starting point (reversion) seems necessary for some s-metaheuristics; When using a s-metaheuristic, higher quality forest plans may be developed when the reversion interval is around six iterations of the model.
The use of a reversion technique during the search process of s-metaheuristics has received little attention with respect to forest management and planning problems. Reversion involves the interruption of the sequence of events that are used to explore the solution space and the re-initiation of the search process from a high-quality, known starting point. We explored four reversion rates when applied to three different types of s-metaheuristics that have previously shown promise for the forest planning problem explored, threshold accepting, tabu search, and the raindrop method. For two of the s-metaheuristics, we also explored three types of decision choices, a change to the harvest timing of a single management unit (1-opt move), the swapping of two management unit’s harvest timing (2-opt moves), and the swapping of three management unit’s harvest timing (3-opt moves). One hundred independent forest plans were developed for each of the metaheuristic / reversion rate combinations, all beginning with randomly-generated feasible starting solutions. We found that (a) reversion does improve the quality of the solutions generated, and (b) the rate of reversion is an important factor that can affect solution quality.
  • Bettinger, School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 E. Green Street, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA 30602 ORCID ID:E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu (email)
  • Demirci, General Directorate of Forestry, Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs, Republic of Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: mehmetdemirci@yahoo.com
  • Boston, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: Kevin.Boston@oregonstate.edu
article id 1218, category Research article
Mikko Niemi, Mikko Vastaranta, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Markus Holopainen. (2015). Forest inventory attribute prediction using airborne laser scanning in low-productive forestry-drained boreal peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1218
Highlights: Following current forest inventory practises, stem volume was predicted in low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 13.7 m3 ha–1; When 30 reference plots measured from LPDPs were added to the prediction, RMSE was decreased to 10.0 m3 ha–1; Additional reference plots from LPDPs did not affect the forest inventory attribute predictions in productive forests.
Nearly 30% of Finland’s land area is covered by peatlands. In Northern parts of the country there is a significant amount of low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) where the average annual stem volume growth is less than 1 m3 ha–1. The re-use of LPDPs has been considered thoroughly since Finnish forest legislation was updated and the forest regeneration prerequisite was removed from LPDPs in January 2014. Currently, forestry is one of the re-use alternatives, thus detailed forest resource information is required for allocating activities. However, current forest inventory practices have not been evaluated for sparse growing stocks (e.g., LPDPs). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of airborne laser scanning (ALS) for mapping forest inventory attributes in LPDPs. We used ALS data with a density of 0.8 pulses per m2, 558 field-measured reference plots (500 from productive forests and 58 from LPDPs) and k nearest neighbour (k-NN) estimation. Our main aim was to study the sensitivity of predictions to the number of LPDP reference plots used in the k-NN estimation. When the reference data consisted of 500 plots from productive forest stands, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the prediction accuracy of Lorey’s height, basal area and stem volume were 1.4 m, 2.7 m2 ha–1 and 13.7 m3 ha–1 in LPDPs, respectively. When 30 additional reference plots were allocated to LPDPs, the respective RMSEs were 1.1 m, 1.7 m2 ha–1 and 10.0 m3 ha–1. Additional reference plot allocation did not affect the predictions in productive forest stands.
  • Niemi, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.t.niemi@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Vastaranta, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.vastaranta@helsinki.fi
  • Peuhkurinen, Arbonaut Oy Ltd., Latokartanontie 7 A, FI-00700, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.peuhkurinen@arbonaut.com
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
article id 937, category Research article
Rene Zamora-Cristales, Kevin Boston, John Sessions, Glen Murphy. (2013). Stochastic simulation and optimization of mobile chipping economics in processing and transport of forest biomass from residues. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 937. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.937
Highlights: A stochastic simulation model is proposed to analyze forest biomass operations; The cost of chipper and truck waiting times was estimated in forest biomass recovery operations; The economic effect of truck-machine interactions under uncertainty was analyzed; Road characteristics and processing location have an economic impact in truck and chipper waiting times
We analyzed the economics of mobile chipping and transport of biomass from forest residues for energy purposes under uncertainty. A discrete-event simulation model was developed and utilized to quantify the impacts of controllable and environmental variables on productivity in order to determine the most cost effective transportation options under steep terrain conditions. Truck-chipper interactions were analyzed to show their effect on truck and chipper standing time. A costing model was developed to account for operating and standing time cost (for the chipper and trucks). The model used information from time studies of each activity in the productive cycle and spatial-temporal information obtained from geographic information system (GIS) devices, and tracking analysis of machine and truck movements. The model was validated in field operations, and proved to be accurate in providing the expected productivity. A cost distribution was elaborated to support operational decisions of forest managers, landowners and risk-averse contractors. Different scenarios were developed to illustrate the economic effects due to changes in road characteristics such as in-highway transport distance, in-forest internal road distance and pile to trailer chipper traveling distances.
  • Zamora-Cristales, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: rene.zamora@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Boston, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: kevin.boston@oregonstate.edu
  • Sessions, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: john.sessions@oregonstate.edu
  • Murphy, Waiariki Institute of Technology, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@waiariki.ac.nz
article id 1046, category Research article
Eva-Maria Nordström, Hampus Holmström, Karin Öhman. (2013). Evaluating continuous cover forestry based on the forest owner’s objectives by combining scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1046
Highlights: Scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis were combined to evaluate alternative forest management strategies for Linköping municipality, Sweden; Continuous cover forestry (CCF) promoted ecological and social objectives better than even-aged forestry but was worse for economic objectives; Ecological and social objectives were important to the municipality and thus, in summary, CCF seemed to be a suitable strategy.
Forests are increasingly managed both to provide a sustainable yield of timber and for supplying a range of ecosystem services in line with the concept of sustainable forest management. Several incommensurable interests must then be considered, and it is necessary to strike a balance between different objectives. In evaluation of trade-offs to be made, both objective factors and subjective values need to be taken into account. In recent years, continuous cover forestry (CCF) has been put forward as an alternative to even-aged forestry. The aim of this study was to use scenario analysis in combination with multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to evaluate whether CCF is a suitable strategy based on the decision makers’ objectives and preferences for sustainable forest management in a specific landscape. This approach was applied to a planning case on the forest estate of the Linköping municipality in southwestern Sweden. The scenario analyses provided insights into relevant quantitative factors, while the MCDA evaluation helped in clarifying the objectives of the forest management and in assessing the relative importance of various objectives. The scenario analyses showed that in this case CCF is a good management strategy in ecological and social terms but yields worse economic outcomes than conventional even-aged forestry. In the Linköping case, there was a relatively strong emphasis on ecological and social aspects and thus, in summary, CCF seemed to be the most suitable option.
  • Nordström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva-maria.nordstrom@slu.se (email)
  • Holmström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hampus.holmstrom@slu.se
  • Öhman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.ohman@slu.se
article id 1006, category Research article
Jörn Rathke, Maria A. Huka, Manfred Gronalt. (2013). The box assignment problem in log yards. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1006
Highlights: Logistic approach for the optimization of log yard in terms of arrangement of storage boxes and ejection boxes reduced transportation time by 16 percent compared with the original solution.
This paper presents an optimization approach to minimizing log yard round wood transportation time for a medium sized hardwood sawmill. The log yard, which has to ensure a smooth raw material supply to the entire production process, is the first processing step in a sawmill. The log yard also serves as an internal round wood sorting and storing capacity. Thus, an optimal assignment of ejection boxes, storage boxes and feeding carriages is required to minimize transportation time at a log yard. The main contribution of this paper is to present an integrated approach which simultaneously takes into account log transportation time, storage capacity and yard crane deployment. The approach is based on two steps: a) defining storage spaces per batch and calculating distances and b) determining optimum box assignments in the log yard in order to minimize overall transportation distance. The solution in step b) is compared with the results obtained by random box assignment as well as a spreadsheet based planning method. We have been able to show that our approach is much more flexible and results are more than 16 percent better than the corresponding real life solution.
  • Rathke, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: joern.rathke@boku.ac.at
  • Huka, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.huka@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 922, category Research article
Malin Nilsson, Dianne Staal Westerlund, Olof Wahlberg, Ljusk Ola Eriksson. (2012). Forest planning in a Swedish company – a knowledge management analysis of forest information. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.922
Forest data and forest information are central to forest management planning. The knowledge a large forest-owning company possesses about its forests could potentially be a strategic capability. In this study, the forest-planning process of a large forest company is analyzed in terms of knowledge management (KM). The study was conducted as a case study of Sveaskog – the largest forest-owning company in Sweden. The study focuses on the long-term harvest strategy through medium-term planning until the stands are transferred to the tract bank and ready for operational planning. Interviews with key persons within the organization were conducted to assess how forest knowledge is used in this process. The results are presented for the four knowledge management processes: creation, storage-retrieving, transferring and applying. They show that the planning system relies to a great extent on codified knowledge realized by a push strategy.
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: malin.nilsson@slu.se (email)
  • Staal Westerlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dianne.wasterlund@slu.se
  • Wahlberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ljusk.ola.eriksson@slu.se
article id 922, category Research article
Malin Nilsson, Dianne Staal Westerlund, Olof Wahlberg, Ljusk Ola Eriksson. (2012). Forest planning in a Swedish company – a knowledge management analysis of forest information. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.922
Forest data and forest information are central to forest management planning. The knowledge a large forest-owning company possesses about its forests could potentially be a strategic capability. In this study, the forest-planning process of a large forest company is analyzed in terms of knowledge management (KM). The study was conducted as a case study of Sveaskog – the largest forest-owning company in Sweden. The study focuses on the long-term harvest strategy through medium-term planning until the stands are transferred to the tract bank and ready for operational planning. Interviews with key persons within the organization were conducted to assess how forest knowledge is used in this process. The results are presented for the four knowledge management processes: creation, storage-retrieving, transferring and applying. They show that the planning system relies to a great extent on codified knowledge realized by a push strategy.
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: malin.nilsson@slu.se (email)
  • Staal Westerlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dianne.wasterlund@slu.se
  • Wahlberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ljusk.ola.eriksson@slu.se
article id 922, category Research article
Malin Nilsson, Dianne Staal Westerlund, Olof Wahlberg, Ljusk Ola Eriksson. (2012). Forest planning in a Swedish company – a knowledge management analysis of forest information. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.922
Forest data and forest information are central to forest management planning. The knowledge a large forest-owning company possesses about its forests could potentially be a strategic capability. In this study, the forest-planning process of a large forest company is analyzed in terms of knowledge management (KM). The study was conducted as a case study of Sveaskog – the largest forest-owning company in Sweden. The study focuses on the long-term harvest strategy through medium-term planning until the stands are transferred to the tract bank and ready for operational planning. Interviews with key persons within the organization were conducted to assess how forest knowledge is used in this process. The results are presented for the four knowledge management processes: creation, storage-retrieving, transferring and applying. They show that the planning system relies to a great extent on codified knowledge realized by a push strategy.
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: malin.nilsson@slu.se (email)
  • Staal Westerlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dianne.wasterlund@slu.se
  • Wahlberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ljusk.ola.eriksson@slu.se
article id 909, category Research article
Veikko Hiltunen, Mikko Kurttila, Jouni Pykäläinen. (2012). Strengthening top-level guidance in geographically hierarchical large scale forest planning: experiences from the Finnish state forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.909
Different planning approaches conclude to different results. The top-down approach allocates resources efficiently from the top-level perspective, while the bottom-up approach provides optimal results for the lower levels. Integrated approach that combines the elements of these two basic approaches provides compromise solutions for decision makers. The aim of this study was to examine potential efficiency improvements in hierarchically structured large scale forest management through increased top-level guidance. The resulting effects on the acceptability of the plans on the lower level were also studied. Large scale planning typically considers forests owned by states, companies and municipalities. In the case study of the Finnish state forests, alternative country level solutions were generated by combining regional forest plans in different ways. The results showed that the currently applied bottom-up approach, which produces regionally optimal management strategies, did not result in the most efficient use of resources on the country level. However, the new country level solutions did not produce huge improvements in the country level objective values compared to the results of the current approach. Furthermore, if country level efficiency improvements were emphasized more, together with wide approval by regional stakeholders and local residents, new kind of interaction and participation between the planning levels and also between the regions would be needed.
  • Hiltunen, Metsähallitus, Viestitie 2, FI-87700 Kajaani, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: veikko.hiltunen@metsa.fi (email)
  • Kurttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.kurttila@metla.fi
  • Pykäläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.pykalainen@metla.fi
article id 909, category Research article
Veikko Hiltunen, Mikko Kurttila, Jouni Pykäläinen. (2012). Strengthening top-level guidance in geographically hierarchical large scale forest planning: experiences from the Finnish state forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.909
Different planning approaches conclude to different results. The top-down approach allocates resources efficiently from the top-level perspective, while the bottom-up approach provides optimal results for the lower levels. Integrated approach that combines the elements of these two basic approaches provides compromise solutions for decision makers. The aim of this study was to examine potential efficiency improvements in hierarchically structured large scale forest management through increased top-level guidance. The resulting effects on the acceptability of the plans on the lower level were also studied. Large scale planning typically considers forests owned by states, companies and municipalities. In the case study of the Finnish state forests, alternative country level solutions were generated by combining regional forest plans in different ways. The results showed that the currently applied bottom-up approach, which produces regionally optimal management strategies, did not result in the most efficient use of resources on the country level. However, the new country level solutions did not produce huge improvements in the country level objective values compared to the results of the current approach. Furthermore, if country level efficiency improvements were emphasized more, together with wide approval by regional stakeholders and local residents, new kind of interaction and participation between the planning levels and also between the regions would be needed.
  • Hiltunen, Metsähallitus, Viestitie 2, FI-87700 Kajaani, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: veikko.hiltunen@metsa.fi (email)
  • Kurttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.kurttila@metla.fi
  • Pykäläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.pykalainen@metla.fi
article id 101, category Research article
Risto Laamanen, Annika Kangas. (2011). Large-scale forest owner’s information needs in operational planning of timber harvesting - some practical views in Metsähallitus, Finnish state-owned enterprise. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 101. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.101
Metsähallitus in Finland is a state enterprise that manages about 3.5 million hectares of productive commercial state-owned forest land. Metsähallitus has a forest management planning system which uses information stored in a GIS-based forest resource information system. The information on forest resources is currently collected using a standwise inventory system with ocular estimation of stand characteristics. New promising inventory methods based on laser scanning have been introduced. Before taking a new system into use, the information needs of Metsähallitus must be analysed. In this study, information needs in operational harvest planning have been analysed with a qualitative approach. A total of eight team leaders in the forestry business unit were interviewed, six of them representing the process responsible for the operational harvest planning and two representing the process responsible for the harvest and deliveries. Based on the study, two main decision making points with different information needs were confirmed. The first decision making point is related to finding the areas potential for immediate or near future harvesting. Here, geographical information on the need for the treatment as well as rough information on the harvestable volume is needed. In the second decision making point, a final decision of sites to be harvested is made with rather intensive field work. Precise delineations of the treatment are needed as well as good estimates of volumes of different timber assortments. When considering a new inventory system it is justified to consider how much of the information needs in these decision making points can be covered. Two different approaches are proposed for further analysis. The interviews revealed a need for a more structured tactical planning system. Some of the findings of this study – especially the decision making points and information needs in them – may be transferable to other large-scale forest owners.
  • Laamanen, Metsähallitus, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: risto.laamanen@metsa.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Metsähallitus, Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 100, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Lauri Mehtätalo, Antti Mäkinen, Kalle Vanhatalo. (2011). Sensitivity of harvest decisions to errors in stand characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 100. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.100
In forest planning, the decision maker chooses for each stand a treatment schedule for a predefined planning period. The choice is based either on optimization calculations or on silvicultural guidelines. Schedules for individual stands are obtained using a growth simulator, where measured stand characteristics such as the basal area, mean diameter, site class and mean height are used as input variables. These characteristics include errors, however, which may lead to incorrect decisions. In this study, the aim is to study the sensitivity of harvest decisions to errors in a dataset of 157 stands. Correct schedules according to silvicultural guidelines were first determined using error-free data. Different amounts of errors were then generated to the stand-specific characteristics, and the treatment schedule was selected again using the erroneous data. The decision was defined as correct, if the type of harvest in these two schedules were similar, and if the timings deviated at maximum ±2 for thinning and ±3 years for clear-cut. The dependency of probability of correct decisions on stand characteristics and the degree of errors was then modelled. The proposed model can be used to determine the required level of measurement accuracy for each characteristics in different kinds of stands, with a given accuracy requirement for the timing of treatments. This information can further be utilized in selecting the most appropriate inventory method.
  • Kangas, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, Simosol Oy, Riihimäki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanhatalo, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 116, category Research article
Eva-Maria Nordström, Ljusk Ola Eriksson, Karin Öhman. (2011). Multiple criteria decision analysis with consideration to place-specific values in participatory forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 116. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.116
The combination of multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and participatory planning is an approach that has been applied in complex planning situations where multiple criteria of very different natures are considered, and several stakeholders or social groups are involved. The spatial character of forest planning problems adds further to the complexity, because a large number of forest stands are to be assigned different treatments at different points in time. In addition, experience from participatory forest planning indicates that stakeholders may think about the forest in terms of place-specific values rather than in forest-wide terms. The objective of this study was to present an approach for including place-specific values in MCDA-based participatory forest planning and illustrate the approach by a case study where the objective was to choose a multipurpose forest plan for an area of urban forest in northern Sweden. Stakeholder values were identified in interviews, and maps were used to capture place-specific spatial values. The nonspatial and nonplace-specific spatial values were formulated as criteria and used to build an objective hierarchy describing the decision situation. The place-specific spatial values were included in the creation of a map showing zones of different silvicultural management classes, which was used as the basis for creation of forest plan alternatives in the subsequent process. The approach seemed to work well for capturing place-specific values, and the study indicates that formalized methods for including and evaluating place-specific values in participatory forest planning processes should be developed and tested further.
  • Nordström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd 1, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva-maria.nordstrom@slu.se (email)
  • Eriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd 1, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Öhman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd 1, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 163, category Research article
Blas Mola-Yudego. (2010). Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 163. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.163
The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha–1 yr–1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations.
  • Mola-Yudego, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: blas.mola@uef.fi (email)
article id 178, category Research article
Raili Hokajärvi, Teppo Hujala, Leena A. Leskinen, Jukka Tikkanen. (2009). Effectiveness of sermon policy instruments: forest management planning practices applying the activity theory approach. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 178. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.178
Recent and ongoing societal changes have brought about a need to foster multiple-use forestry and to strengthen customer orientation in family forestry outreach. The study assesses how forest management planning in family forest holdings could be developed to tackle these challenges. The approach introduces a new way of evaluating the effectiveness of information- and communication-based policy instruments. Here, the cultural-historical activity theory is applied in studying the interwoven practices of present-day planning and the associated advisory services targeted at landowners. The data, comprising semi-structured in-depth interviews with 19 professional planners, were qualitatively examined, and a forest management planning activity model was constructed with the emphasis placed on the inherent contradictions of planning work. As the main contradiction, the forest and the forest owner compete as objects. The aims of making the forest productive and advising the landowners towards an increased activeness motivate forest management planning but the planners feel that they lack the opportunity to respond to the needs of the landowner. A wood-production-emphasizing interpretation of the benefits to the national economy frustrates the policy goal of genuinely promoting the goals of multiple-use forestry. The conclusion drawn is that the actors engaged in forest management planning can reveal the needs for change by discussing their opinions and practical innovations. This can be done with the aid of facilitation by e.g. researchers oriented to developmental work study.
  • Hokajärvi, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Metsäkouluntie 4–6, FI-90650 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raili.hokajarvi@oamk.fi (email)
  • Hujala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leskinen, University of Eastern Finland, Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tikkanen, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Metsäkouluntie 4–6, FI-90650 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 467, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Ruut Haapakoski, Liisa Tyrväinen. (2008). Integrating place-specific social values into forest planning – Case of UPM-Kymmene forests in Hyrynsalmi, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 467. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.467
In participatory forest management planning, the perceived values of local inhabitants concerning the area under planning are collected. The results may, however, depend on the methods used. In this study, values of residents of Hyrynsalmi municipality concerning the nearby forests owned by UPM-Kymmene Ltd. were evaluated with a questionnaire consisting of general value questions and mapping of social values of forests. The data was collected from a public meeting and from a mailed survey from randomly sampled people and from members of municipal council. The aims of the study were to 1) test the social value mapping method in commercial forests in a rural-urban interface as well as to examine the benefits and drawbacks 2) in place-specific and non-specific data collection, and 3) in different data collection methods, from the viewpoint of forest management planning. We noted that while all respondents can claim to represent local values, different data collection methods produced statistically significantly different local values. This needs to be accounted for when planning a participatory process. In operational forest planning, place-specific information is more useful than questions concerning the general values, while the latter may help in defining forest policy goals. The social values mapping method is also relatively easy for the participants. However, in the studied case about one fifth of the area was delineated by the participants per each positive value. The answers were quite scattered, suggesting that most of the area had some social values for local people. This indicates that utilising a social values mapping method in planning needs further development in rural areas, where distinctive patches can not be easily detected.
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Haapakoski, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tyrväinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland. ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 238, category Research article
Mikko Kurttila, Pekka Leskinen, Jouni Pykäläinen, Tiina Ruuskanen. (2008). Forest owners' decision support in voluntary biodiversity-protection projects. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.238
New forest-biodiversity-protection instruments based on temporary protection periods and non-industrial private forest owners’ voluntary participation have been recently introduced and tested in pilot areas located in Southern Finland. Thanks to their several benefits, the use of voluntary instruments is becoming more common in many other countries as well. Voluntary protection here means that forest owners voluntarily set aside tracts of forest to be protected and define their compensation fees. Depending on the objectives of the forest owners, the compensation fee reflects the forest owners’ (positive) attitude towards biodiversity, scenic beauty, recreational values and/or the existence of long-term cutting possibilities. When a forest owner decides to offer part of his/her forest holding to be temporarily protected, the owner faces a new decision problem related to definition of the compensation fee, which should be based on diverse information concerning stand- and holding-level opportunity costs as well as on the biodiversity value of the stand. This article introduces three decision-support elements for assisting forest owners in defining their compensation fees. The first element relates to the assessment of the potential stand-level loss of timber harvesting income that the temporary protection of the stand may cause. The second element sets the holding-level opportunity cost of protection by utilizing the forest owners’ holding level goals, the holdings’ production possibilities and optimization methods. The third element describes the biodiversity value of the stand by means of a multi-criteria expert model. Case study material collected from the area of Central Karelia Herb-rich Forests Network pilot project is used to illustrate the characteristics of the decision-support elements and to point out some development needs for the future use of these elements.
  • Kurttila, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.kurttila@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Leskinen, Finnish Environment Institute, Research Programme for Production and Consumption, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pykäläinen, Metsämonex Ltd., Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ruuskanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 276, category Research article
Jianping Zhu, Pete Bettinger, Rongxia Li. (2007). Additional insight into the performance of a new heuristic for solving spatially constrained forest planning problems. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 276. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.276
The raindrop method of searching a solution space for feasible and efficient forest management plans has been demonstrated as being useful under a limited set of circumstances, mainly where adjacency restrictions are accommodated using the unit restriction model. We expanded on this work and applied the model (in a modified form) to a problem that had both wood flow and area restriction adjacency constraints, then tested the problem formulation on six hypothetical forests of different sizes and age class distributions. Threshold accepting and tabu search were both applied to the problems as well. The modified raindrop method’s performance was best when applied to forests with normal age class distributions. 1-opt tabu search worked best on forests with young age class distributions. Threshold accepting and the raindrop method both performed well on forests with older age class distributions. On average, the raindrop method produced higher quality solutions for most of the problems, and in all but one case where it did not, the solutions generated were not significantly different than the heuristic that located a better solution. The advantage of the raindrop method is that it uses only two parameters and does not require extensive parameterization. The disadvantage is the amount of time it needs to solve problems with area restriction adjacency constraints. We suggest that it may be advantageous to use this heuristic on problems with relatively simple spatial forest planning constraints, and problems that do not involve young initial age class distributions. However, generalization of the performance of the raindrop method to other forest planning problems is problematic, and will require examination by those interested in pursuing this planning methodology. Given that our tests of the raindrop method are limited to a small set of URM and ARM formulations, one should view the combined set of work as additional insight into the potential performance of the method on problems of current interest to the forest planning community.
  • Zhu, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bettinger, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: pbettinger@warnell.uga.edu (email)
  • Li, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 318, category Research article
Sofia Backéus, Peder Wikström, Tomas Lämås. (2006). Modeling carbon sequestration and timber production in a regional case study. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 318. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.318
Forests make up large ecosystems and by the uptake of carbon dioxide can play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In this study, mitigation of carbon emissions through carbon uptake and storage in forest biomass and the use of forest biofuel for fossil fuel substitution were considered. The analysis was performed for a 3.2 million hectare region in northern Sweden. The objective was to maximize net present value for harvested timber, biofuel production and carbon sequestration. A carbon price for build-up of carbon storage and for emissions from harvested forest products was introduced to achieve an economic value for carbon sequestration. Forest development was simulated using an optimizing stand-level planning model, and the solution for the whole region was found using linear programming. A range of carbon prices was used to study the effect on harvest levels and carbon sequestration. At a zero carbon price, the mean annual harvest level was 5.4 million m3, the mean annual carbon sequestration in forest biomass was 1.48 million tonnes and the mean annual replacement of carbon from fossil fuel with forest biofuel was 61 000 tonnes. Increasing the carbon price led to decreasing harvest levels of timber and decreasing harvest levels of forest biofuel. Also, thinning activities decreased more than clear-cut activities when the carbon prices increased. The level of carbon sequestration was governed by the harvest level and the site productivity. This led to varying results for different parts of the region.
  • Backéus, SLU, Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: sofia.backeus@resgeom.slu.se (email)
  • Wikström, SLU, Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lämås, SLU, Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 387, category Research article
Sanna Laukkanen, Teijo Palander, Jyrki Kangas, Annika Kangas. (2005). Evaluation of the multicriteria approval method for timber-harvesting group decision support. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 387. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.387
The decision support methods most often used in timber-harvesting planning are based on a single criterion. In this study, a voting-theory-based method called multicriteria approval (MA) is introduced to the group decision support of timber-harvesting. The use of voting methods alleviates the problems caused by the multitude of decision objectives involved in forestry decision-making and by the poor quality of information concerning both the preferences of decision-makers and the evaluation of decision alternatives with respect to the objectives often faced in practical timber-harvesting planning. In the case study, the tactical forest management plan of a forest holding jointly owned by three people was specified at the operative timber-harvesting level. The task was to find the best actual operative alternatives for the harvesting that had been proposed in the tactical plan. These timber-harvesting alternatives were combinations of treatment, timber-harvesting system and the timing of logging. Forest owners established multiple criteria under which the alternatives were evaluated. Two versions of MA were tested, one of them based on individual decision analyses and other one based on a composite analysis. The first was markedly modified from the original MA, combining properties of MA and Borda count voting. The other was an original MA with the order of importance for criteria estimated either using Borda count or cumulative voting. The results of the tested MA versions produced were very similar to each other. MA was found to be a useful tool for the group decision support of timber-harvesting.
  • Laukkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sanna.laukkanen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Palander, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, UPM-Kymmene Forest, P.O. Box 32, FI-37601 Valkeakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 396, category Research article
Timo Pukkala, Mikko Kurttila. (2005). Examining the performance of six heuristic optimisation techniques in different forest planning problems. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 396. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.396
The existence of multiple decision-makers and goals, spatial and non-linear forest management objectives and the combinatorial nature of forest planning problems are reasons that support the use of heuristic optimisation algorithms in forest planning instead of the more traditional LP methods. A heuristic is a search algorithm that does not necessarily find the global optimum but it can produce relatively good solutions within reasonable time. The performance of different heuristics may vary depending on the complexity of the planning problem. This study tested six heuristic optimisation techniques in five different, increasingly difficult planning problems. The heuristics were evaluated with respect to the objective function value that the techniques were able to find, and the time they consumed in the optimisation process. The tested optimisation techniques were 1) random ascent (RA), 2) Hero sequential ascent technique (Hero), 3) simulated annealing (SA), 4) a hybrid of SA and Hero (SA+Hero), 5) tabu search (TS) and 6) genetic algorithm (GA). The results, calculated as averages of 100 repeated optimisations, were very similar for all heuristics with respect to the objective function value but the time consumption of the heuristics varied considerably. During the time the slowest techniques (SA or GA) required for convergence, the optimisation could have been repeated about 200 times with the fastest technique (Hero). The SA+Hero and SA techniques found the best solutions for non-spatial planning problems, while GA was the best in the most difficult problems. The results suggest that, especially in spatial planning problems, it is a benefit if the method performs more complicated moves than selecting one of the neighbouring solutions. It may also be beneficial to combine two or more heuristic techniques.
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. BOX 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.pukkala@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kurttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 418, category Research article
Tron Eid. (2004). Testing a large-scale forestry scenario model by means of successive inventories on a forest property. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 418. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.418
Modellers of large-scale forestry scenario models face numerous challenges. Information and sub-models from different disciplines within forestry, along with statistical and mathematical methodology, have to be considered. The individual biological sub-models (i.e. models for recruitment, growth and mortality) applied in large-scale forestry scenario models are in general well documented and extensively evaluated. However, evaluations by means of full-scale comparisons of observed and predicted values for continuous forest areas, where the totality of the large-scale forestry scenario model including interactions between sub-models and other parts of the model, are considered, have rarely been seen. The aim of the present work was to test the totality of the Norwegian large-scale forestry scenario model AVVIRK-2000, and thereby evaluate the applicability of the model for use in management planning. The test was done by means of successive inventories and accurate recordings of treatments over a period of 30 years for a property comprising 78.5 ha forest-land. Seen in the perspective of management planning, the differences between observed and predicted values for potential harvest level, growing stock and growth were small, e.g. a difference between observed growing stock in year 2000 and growing stock in the same year predicted from 1970 of 2.6%. The model may therefore be applied for practical purposes without any fundamental changes or calibrations of the biological model basis. However, the present test should be seen as an example that failed to falsify the model, rather than a final validation. As long as the model is in practical use, further evaluations should continue and subsequent possible calibrations should be performed.
  • Eid, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003 NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tron.eid@ina.nlh.no (email)
article id 496, category Research article
Hampus Holmström, Hans Kallur, Göran Ståhl. (2003). Cost-plus-loss analyses of forest inventory strategies based on kNN-assigned reference sample plot data. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 496. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.496
The usefulness of kNN (k Nearest Neighbour)-assigned reference sample plot data as a basis for forest management planning was studied. Cost-plus-loss analysis was applied, whereby the inventory cost for a specific method is added to the expected loss due to non-optimal forestry activities caused by erroneous descriptions of the forest state. Four different strategies for data acquisition were evaluated: 1) kNN imputation of sample plots based on traditional stand record information, 2) imputation based on plot-wise aerial photograph interpretation in combination with stand record information, 3) sample plot inventory in the field with 5 plots per stand, and 4) sample plot inventory with 10 plots per stand. Expected losses were derived as mean values of differences between the maximum net present value and the corresponding value obtained when the treatment schedule believed to be optimal (based on data simulated according to method 1–4) was selected. The optimal choice of method was found to depend on factors such as stand maturity, stand area, and time to next treatment (thinning or clearcutting). In general, the field sample plot methods were competitive in large mature stands, especially when the time to the next (optimal) treatment was short. By in each stand (within an estate) employing the method with the lowest cost-plus-loss rather than choosing the method that performed best on average for the entire estate, the total cost for inventory at the estate level could be decreased by 15–50%. However, it was found difficult to identify what method should optimally be employed in a stand based on general stand descriptions.
  • Holmström, Regional Board of Forestry of Västra Götaland, P.O. Box 20008, SE-50420 Borås, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hampus.holmstrom@svsvg.svo.se (email)
  • Kallur, ÖKA Skogsplan, Kopparvägen 45 O, SE-90750 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ståhl, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 514, category Research article
Jukka Malinen. (2003). Locally adaptable non-parametric methods for estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.514
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the local adaptation of the non-parametric Most Similar Neighbour (MSN) method in estimating stand characteristics for wood procurement planning purposes. Local adaptation was performed in two different ways: 1) by selecting local data from a database with the MSN method and using that data as a database in the basic k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) MSN method, 2) by selecting a combination of neighbours from the neighbourhood where the average of the predictor variables was closest to the target stand predictor variables (Locally Adaptable Neighbourhood (LAN) MSN method). The study data used comprised 209 spruce dominated stands located in central Finland and was collected with harvesters. The accuracy of the methods was analysed by estimating the tree stock characteristics and the log length/diameter distribution produced by a bucking simulation. The local k-nn MSN method was not notably better than the k-nn MSN method, although it produced less biased estimates on the edges of the input space. The LAN MSN method was found to be a more accurate method than the k-nn methods.
  • Malinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jukka.malinen@joensuu.fi (email)
article id 545, category Research article
Pete Bettinger, David Graetz, Kevin Boston, John Sessions, Woodam Chung. (2002). Eight heuristic planning techniques applied to three increasingly difficult wildlife planning problems. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.545
As both spatial and temporal characteristics of desired future conditions are becoming important measures of forest plan success, forest plans and forest planning goals are becoming complex. Heuristic techniques are becoming popular for developing alternative forest plans that include spatial constraints. Eight types of heuristic planning techniques were applied to three increasingly difficult forest planning problems where the objective function sought to maximize the amount of land in certain types of wildlife habitat. The goal of this research was to understand the relative challenges and opportunities each technique presents when more complex difficult goals are desired. The eight heuristic techniques were random search, simulated annealing, great deluge, threshold accepting, tabu search with 1-opt moves, tabu search with 1-opt and 2-opt moves, genetic algorithm, and a hybrid tabu search / genetic algorithm search process. While our results should not be viewed as universal truths, we determined that for the problems we examined, there were three classes of techniques: very good (simulated annealing, threshold accepting, great deluge, tabu search with 1-opt and 2-opt moves, and tabu search / genetic algorithm), adequate (tabu search with 1-opt moves, genetic algorithm), and less than adequate (random search). The relative advantages in terms of solution time and complexity of programming code are discussed and should provide planners and researchers a guide to help match the appropriate technique to their planning problem. The hypothetical landscape model used to evaluate the techniques can also be used by others to further compare their techniques to the ones described here.
  • Bettinger, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail: pete.bettinger@orst.edu (email)
  • Graetz, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boston, Carter Holt Harvey Forest Fibre Solutions, Tokoroa, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sessions, Department of Forest Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chung, Department of Forest Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 560, category Research article
Christopher P. Quine, Jonathan W. Humphrey, Karen Purdy, Duncan Ray. (2002). An approach to predicting the potential forest composition and disturbance regime for a highly modified landscape: a pilot study of Strathdon in the Scottish Highlands. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.560
The existing native forests of Scotland are fragmented and highly modified and none are ‘natural’. There is considerable interest in expanding the area of this oceanic boreal forest and restoring forest habitat networks to benefit biodiversity. However, unlike regions with substantial remaining natural forest, it is difficult to provide reference values for forest composition and structure using methods related to historical variability. An alternative approach is to combine models that predict woodland type from knowledge of site conditions, and disturbance regime from knowledge of the disturbance agents (particularly abiotic agents). The applicability of this approach was examined as part of a public participatory planning exercise in a highly managed landscape in Eastern Scotland. Models of site suitability (Ecological Site Classification) and wind disturbance (ForestGALES) were combined to determine potential woodland composition and structure, and derive options for native woodland expansion. The land use of the upper Strathdon catchment is currently dominated by agriculture and planted forests of non-native species, and only small fragments of semi-natural woodland remain (< 0.5% of the land area). Model results indicated that a very substantial proportion of the land area could support woodland (> 90%) but of a restricted range of native woodland types, with Scots pine communities predominant. Structural types likely to be present included wind-induced krummholz (treeline) forest, forest with frequent stand replacement by wind, and also a large area where gap phase (or some other disturbance) would predominate. The merits of the approach are discussed, together with the difficulties of validation, and the implications for the management of existing forests.
  • Quine, Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, United Kingdom ORCID ID:E-mail: chris.quine@forestry.gsi.gov.uk (email)
  • Humphrey, Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, United Kingdom ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Purdy, Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, United Kingdom ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ray, Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, United Kingdom ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 578, category Research article
Kevin Boston, Pete Bettinger. (2001). Development of spatially feasible forest plans: a comparison of two modeling approaches. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.578
Spatial goals are becoming more frequent aspects of forest management plans as regulatory and organizational policies change in response to fisheries and wildlife concerns. The combination of green-up constraints (harvesting restrictions that prevent the cutting of adjacent units for a specified period of time) and habitat requirements for red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) in the southeastern U.S. suggests that spatially feasible forest plans be developed to guide management activities. We examined two modeling approaches aimed at developing management plans that had both harvest volume goals, RCW habitat, and green-up constraints. The first was a two-stage method that in one stage used linear programming to assign volume goals, and in a second stage used a tabu search – genetic algorithm heuristic technique to minimize the deviations from the volume goals while maximizing the present net revenue and addressing the RCW and green-up constraints. The second approach was a one-stage procedure where the entire management plan was developed with the tabu search – genetic algorithm heuristic technique, thus it did not use the guidance for timber volume levels provided by the LP solution. The goal was to test two modeling approaches to solving a realistic spatial harvest scheduling problem. One is where to volume goals are calculated prior to developing the spatially feasible forest plan, while the other approach simultaneously addresses the volume goals while developing the spatially feasible forest plan. The resulting forest plan from the two-stage approach was superior to that produced from the one-stage approach in terms of net present value. The main point from this analysis is that heuristic techniques may benefit from guidance provided by relaxed LP solutions in their effort to develop efficient forest management plans, particularly when both commodity production and complex spatial wildlife habitat goals are considered. Differences in the production of forest products were apparent between the two modeling approaches, which could have a significant effect on the selection of wood processing equipment and facilities.
  • Boston, Forest Fibre Solutions, Carter Holt Harvey, Tokoroa, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: kevin.boston@chh.co.nz (email)
  • Bettinger, Department of Forest Resources, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 597, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Jyrki Kangas, Jouni Pykäläinen. (2001). Outranking methods as tools in strategic natural resources planning. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.597
Two outranking methods, ELECTRE III and PROMETHEE II, commonly used as decision-aid in various environmental problems, and their applications to decision support for natural resources management are presented. These methods represent ‘the European school’ of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), as opposed to ‘the American school’, represented by, for instance, the AHP method. On the basis of a case study, outranking methods are compared to so far more usually applied techniques based on the ideas of multi attribute utility theory (MAUT). The outranking methods have been recommended for situations where there is a finite number of discrete alternatives to be chosen among. The number of decision criteria and decision makers may be large. An important advantage of outranking methods, when compared to decision support techniques most often applied in today’s natural resources management, is the ability to deal with ordinal and more or less descriptive information on the alternative plans to be evaluated. Furthermore, the uncertainty concerning the values of the criterion variables can be taken into account using fuzzy relations, determined by indifference and preference thresholds. The difficult interpretation of the results, on the other hand, is the main drawback of the outranking methods.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pykäläinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 606, category Research article
Pekka Leskinen, Jyrki Kangas. (2001). Modelling future timber price development by using expert judgments and time series analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 606. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.606
Timber prices belong to the most important variables affecting the optimality of forest management. On the other hand, forecasting of timber prices is very uncertain. One difficulty when using past time series data in forecasting future timber price development is the possibility of changes in the markets and in the society at large. Expert knowledge can be applied in forecasting of timber prices as information additional to that provided by time series modelling. This paper presents an approach utilising both time series data and expert judgments in modelling future timber prices. A time series model is used as the basis for the approach. Parameters describing future timber price trends, variation in future timber prices, and the probabilities of price peaks taking place in the future are estimated with expert judgments as the basis. A case study involving 12 experts was carried out in Finland, and models were estimated for all the six major timber assortments in the country. The model produced can be utilised in the optimisation calculations of forest planning.
  • Leskinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.leskinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 621, category Research article
Jyrki Kangas, Pekka Leskinen, Timo Pukkala. (2000). Integrating timber price scenario modeling with tactical management planning of private forestry at forest holding level. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 621. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.621
In forest management planning, deterministic timber prices are typically assumed. However, real-life timber prices vary in the course of time, and also price peaks, i.e. exceptionally high timber prices, might occur. If land-owners can utilise the price variation by selling timber with the high prices, they are able to increase their net revenues correspondingly. In this study, an approach is presented to study the timber price variation and its significance in the optimization of forest management. The approach utilizes stochastic timber price scenario modelling, simulation of forest development, and optimization of forest management. The approach is presented and illustrated by means of a case study. It is shown how the degree of uncertainty due to variation in timber prices can be analyzed in tactical forest planning of private forestry, and how the potential benefits of adaptive timber-selling behaviour for a forest landowner can be computed by using the approach. The effects of stochastic timber prices on the choice of forest plan are studied at the forest holding level considering also the spacing and type of cuttings and the optimal cutting order. A forest plan prepared under the assumption of constant timber price very seldom results in optimal forest management. Through studying the effects of stochastic timber prices, forest landowners and other decision makers obtain valuable information about the significance of adaptive timber selling behaviour. The presented methodology can also be used in analysing the land-owners’ economic risks as a function of time-price structure.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Leskinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 633, category Research article
Tron Eid. (2000). Use of uncertain inventory data in forestry scenario models and consequential incorrect harvest decisions. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 633. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.633
Uncertainty in long-term timber production analyses usually focus success of regeneration, growth/mortality of trees and future fluctuations of timber prices/harvest costs, while uncertainty related to inventory data is paid less attention. At the same time, evaluations of inventory methods usually stop when the error level is stated, while the uncertainty accompanied by using the data is seldom considered. The present work addresses uncertain inventory data in long-term timber production analyses. Final harvest decisions, i.e. possible outcome intervals with respect to timing and expected net present value-losses due to incorrect timing, were considered. A case study was presented where inventory data errors according to different error levels were generated randomly. The selected error levels were based on observations from practical forest inventories in Norway. The analysis tool was GAYA-JLP. The impact of errors on decisions was derived through repeated computations of management strategies maximising net present value without harvest path constraints. A real rate of discount of 3% and an error level of 15% resulted in expected net present value-losses of 1 NOK ha–1 for basal area, 63 NOK ha–1 for mean height, 210 NOK ha–1 for site quality, 240 NOK ha–1 for stand age, and 499 NOK ha–1 when random errors occurred simultaneously for all these variables. The expected net present value-losses varied considerably. The largest losses appeared for stands with ages around optimal economical rotation ages. The losses were also relatively large for young stands, while they were relatively low for overmature stands. The experiences from the case study along with considerations related to other sources of uncertainty may help us to get a more realistic attitude to the reliability of long-term timber production analyses. The results of the study may also serve as a starting point in a decision oriented inventory planning concept, in which alternatives for inventory design and intensity are based on considerations with respect to inventory costs as well as net present value-losses.
  • Eid, Department of Forest Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tron.eid@isf.nlh.no (email)
article id 644, category Research article
Jouni Pykäläinen. (2000). Defining forest owner’s forest-management goals by means of a thematic interview in interactive forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 644. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.644
Numerical optimization may not be the best way to launch an interactive planning process. The forest owner may not be able to identify precise management goals, as required in numerical optimization, for his forest. The owner may also think that it is impossible to express forest-management goals numerically. Due to these reasons, thematic interview was tested as an introductory method in interactive planning in several actual planning cases. It was observed that these interviews helped the owners in outlining their forest-management goals, and they offered an appropriate framework for defining these goals. It was also noticed that the goals defined in the course of the interviews could be included in the planning model in a way understood and accepted by the owners, and the goals defined could be fulfilled.
  • Pykäläinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.pykalainen@joensuu.fi (email)
article id 651, category Research article
Annika S. Kangas, Jyrki Kangas. (1999). Optimization bias in forest management planning solutions due to errors in forest variables. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 651. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.651
The yield of various forest variables is predicted by means of a simulation system to provide information for forest management planning. These predictions contain many kinds of uncertainty, for example, prediction and measurement errors. Inevitably, this has an effect on forest management planning. It is well known that uncertainty in the forest yields causes optimistic bias in the observed values of the objective function. This bias increases with the error variances. The amount of bias, however, also depends on the error structure and the relations between the objective variables. In this paper, the effect of uncertainty in forest yields on optimization is studied by simulation. The effect of two different sources of error, the correlation structure of these errors and relations among the objective variables are considered, as well as the effect of two different optimization approaches. The relations between the objective variables and the error structure had a notable effect on the optimization results.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: annika.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 677, category Research article
Pekka Leskinen, Jyrki Kangas. (1998). Analysing uncertainties of interval judgment data in multiple-criteria evaluation of forest plans. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 677. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.677
The use of interval judgments instead of accurate pairwise comparisons has been proposed as a solution to facilitate the analysis of uncertainties in the widely applied pairwise comparisons technique. A method is presented for deriving probability distributions for the pairwise comparisons and for utilizing the distributions in the analysis of uncertainties in the evaluation process. The first step is that the expert or the decision-maker is queried as to the best guess of the priority ratio of the attributes compared. This is followed by an adjusting query concerning the uncertainty in the comparison: what is the probability of the priority ratio being between the best guess ± 1 unit of the pairwise comparison scale? An application of the method is presented in the form of multiple-criteria evaluation of alternative management plans for a forest area.
  • Leskinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.leskinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 7760, category Review article
Maria A. Huka, Manfred Gronalt. (2018). Log yard logistics. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7760. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7760
Highlights: Characteristics of log yard logistics; Classification into tactical structural and operational problems in the wood industry; Different solution methods such as optimisation, heuristics and simulations and their possible application within the log yard with an overview of existing literature which includes several different case studies with varying emphases, problem analysis and solution methods.

For sawmills, paper mills, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), fiberboard and other wood production factories, the log yard is the first step, where raw materials are sorted and stored before production begins. Due to the size of these production sites great potential exists for the optimisation of internal logistics. In this paper the different planning problems of the log yard are introduced and existing literature examined. Beginning with the tactical problems of structure, such as assessing material flow, planning facility layout and assigning storage areas, it continues with operational problems such as vehicle movement planning within the log yard, empty trip minimisation and the seasonality of raw material availability. Data derived from this study reveals a variety of possible solution methods, the applicability of which depends on the precise nature of the log yard operations. Additionally, several real life examples are provided which illustrate the potential for operational improvement.

  • Huka, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.huka@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 390, category Review article
Bengt Gunnar Jonsson, Nicholas Kruys, Thomas Ranius. (2005). Ecology of species living on dead wood – lessons for dead wood management. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 390. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.390
Dead wood has been identified as a crucial component for forest biodiversity. Recent research has improved our understanding of habitat relations for many species associated with dead wood. However, the consequences for forest management are yet to be explored. In this review we build upon the growing volume of studies on dead wood dependent species, the dynamics of dead wood and ecological theory in order to identify the challenges for forest management at the landscape level. The review has a Fennoscandian focus, but the problems and challenges are similar in many forest ecosystems. We argue that it is necessary to 1) counteract the current shortage in availability of dead wood, 2) concentrate planning at the landscape level in order to minimize isolation and reduce edge effects, 3) create a variety of dead wood types, and 4) utilise available quantitative analytical tools. This calls for new approaches to management that to a large extent includes available knowledge, and to find platforms for planning forested landscapes with diverse holdings.
  • Jonsson, Mid Sweden University, Dept of Natural Sciences, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bengt-gunnar.jonsson@miun.se (email)
  • Kruys, SLU, Dept of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ranius, SLU, Dept of Entomology, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 527, category Discussion article
Jyrki Kangas, Ron Store. (2002). Socioecological landscape planning: an approach to multi-functional forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.527
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Store, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5636, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Jyrki Kangas, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne-Mari Tiainen. (1997). Integrating forest-level and compartment-level indices of species diversity with numerical forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5636. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8538

The study proposes a technique which enables the computation of user-defined indices for species diversity. These indices are derived from characteristics, called diversity indicators, of inventory plots, stand compartments, and the whole forest holding. The study discusses the modifications required to be made to typical forest planning systems due to this kind of biodiversity computation. A case study illustrating the use of the indices and a modified forest planning system is provided. In the case study, forest-level species diversity index was computed from the volume of dead wood, volume of broadleaved trees, area of old forest, and between-stand variety.

At the stand level, the area of old forest was replaced by stand age, and variety was described by within-stand variety. All but one of the indicators were further partitioned into two to four sub-indicators. For example, the volume of broadleaved trees was divided into volumes of birch, aspen, willow, and other tree species. The partial contribution of an indicator to the diversity index was obtained from a sub-priority function, determined separately for each indicator. The diversity index was obtained when the partial contributions were multiplied by the weights of the corresponding indicators and then were summed. The production frontiers computed for the harvested volume and diversity indices were concave, especially for the forest-level diversity index, indicating that diversity can be maintained at satisfactory level with medium harvest levels.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kniivilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5619, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1997). Decision support systems in wood procurement. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5619. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8520

Many kinds of planning systems have been labelled decision support systems (DSS), but few meet the most important features of real DSSs in planning and control of wood procurement. It has been concluded that many reasons exist to develop DSSs for wood procurement. The purchasing of timber seems to be one of the most promising areas for DSS, because there is no formal structure for these operations and decisions deal with human behaviour. Relations between DSSs and different features of the new approaches in wood procurement are also discussed, and hypotheses for future studies suggested.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5617, category Article
Teijo Palander. (1997). A local DLP-GIS-LP system for geographically decentralized wood procurement planning and decision making. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8518

Linear programming (LP) is an important method for allocation of wood inventory stock. It is, for instance, used alone in tactical planning systems, which currently are in wide use at the higher hierarchical level in the functionally decentralized planning of the Finnish forest industry. Unfortunately, LP as a solution method has not been capable of handling spatial data that seem to characterize planning systems in geographical decentralization. In the present study, GIS was used to assimilate data from different wood procurement functions, to calculate transportation distances and cost figures, and to write the data in ASCII files, which were then used as input for the LP model. Using the experiments and methods of GIS on a planning system developed according to participatory planning, the results of this study suggest that the participatory method was faster than the conventional LP method, when solved using actual data. The participatory method was also capable of providing the same global optimum for a wood allocation problem. The implications of these results for improving operational and tactical planning of wood procurement in Finland are discussed.

  • Palander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5596, category Article
Renaat S.A.R. van Rompaey. (1996). Need for integrated policy oriented national research programmes: the second phase (1995–2001) of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change NRP. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5596. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9241

As a follow-up on acid rain programmes many countries, e.g. Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, launched national research programmes on Climate Change by the end of the eighties. Other countries centred new programmes on Global Change, such as Belgium, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada. Also, the European Community included the climate issue in the research programme 'Environment & Climate'. The conclusion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) shifted in the successive assessment reports from possible climate change to actual climate change. The paper describes the first and second phase of the Dutch Climate Change Research Programme, and discusses the future of the programme.

  • Rompaey, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5575, category Article
Gintautas Mozgeris. (1996). Dynamic stratification for estimating pointwise forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9220

This paper deals with the testing of dynamic stratification for estimating stand level forest characteristics (basal areas, mean diameter, mean height and mean age) for a 117 ha study areas in Finland. The results do not show possibilities to achieve more accurate estimates using only Landsat TM principal components as auxiliary data opposed to static stratification. It was found that in dynamic stratification non-measured observations should be assigned the mean characteristics of the measured observations that belong to the same cube (class) instead of stratification variable classes until a certain limit. If only one principal component is used the number of classes has, however, little influence. Low field values are overestimated and high values underestimated.

The only successful results were obtained using two variables of different origin – the qualitative development stage class and the quantitative 1st principal component. The lowest root mean square error in estimating basal area was 6.40 m2/ha, mean diameter 3.34 cm, mean height 2.65 m and mean age 14.06 years. This increase of stratification accuracy is mainly resulted by the use of development stage class as an auxiliary variable.

  • Mozgeris, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5492, category Article
Ismo Nousiainen, Timo Pukkala. (1992). Use of computer graphics for predicting the amenity of forest trails. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15653

Ten trails, one kilometre each, were evaluated by 15 persons for scenic beauty, recreational value and variety. All trails passed through commercially managed forests dominated by conifers. The trails were first evaluated by viewing computer simulations based on a series of graphical illustrations of forest landscapes, then from a slide show, and finally in the field. In the computer simulation and slide show, landscape pictures along the trail at an interval of 35–40 m were presented for 3–4 seconds. The ranks between slide show and field were slightly more similar than those between simulation and field. The mean correlation of 12 persons between the field ranking and assessment of either computer simulations or slide shows or graphics than scenic beauty or recreational value. Spearman’s rank correlations computed from median scores of a group of 12 peers were clearly better than the average of individual persons varying from 0.6 to 0.9.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Nousiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5484, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Timo Pukkala. (1992). A decision theoretic approach applied to goal programming of forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5484. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15645

An alternative approach to formulating a forestry goal programming problem is presented. First, single objective optima levels are solved. The Analytical Hierarchy Process is applied in the estimation of a priori weights of deviations from the goal target levels. The ratios of the weights can be interpreted as relative importance of the goals, respectively. The sum of the weighted deviations from all single optima levels associated with the management goals is minimized. Instead of absolute deviations, relative ones are used. A case study problem of forest management planning with several objectives, measured in different units, is analysed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5419, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Owen Mubita, Jussi Saramäki. (1990). Management planning system for tree plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5419. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15573

The paper presents a simple model of long-term forest management planning in tree plantations. The model is particularly suitable for developing countries where the research resources are limited. The management plan is prepared in two steps. First, one or several treatment schedules are simulated for each calculation unit (age class, compartment, etc.) over the selected planning period. Second, an optimal combination treatment schedules according to the selected objectives and constraints is searched by mathematical programming. The simulation of growth is based on the prediction of the diameter distribution at the desired time point. All stand characteristics are derived from this distribution. The models needed in the yield simulation can be estimated from temporary sample plots. A case study management plan for 13,000 ha of Pinus kesiya (Royle ex Gordon) plantations in Zambia is presented to demonstrate the system.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mubita, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5363, category Article
Veli Pohjonen, Timo Pukkala. (1988). Profitability of establishing Eucalyptus globulus plantations in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5363. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15520

The economic analysis is based on computer simulations which covered a seedling rotation and three successive coppice rotations. Calculations were carried out for the four site productivity classes in Eucalyptus globulus plantations. The rotation length that maximized the land expectation value is 12–20 years for seedling rotation and 8–16 years for coppice rotations with discounting rates 2–8%. The mean wood production is over 40 m3/ha/a in the best site class and about 10 m3/ha/a in the poorest class with rotation lengths ranging from 10 to over 20 years. Thinnings increase the wood production and land expectation value by a few percentage points. In areas suitable to Eucalyptus globulus growth, the land expectation value is considerably higher in forestry than in agriculture, except in very poor areas or with very high rate of interest.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5346, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1988). Methods to incorporate the amenity of landscape into forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5346. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15503

The study presents methods that incorporate the amenity of a forest area into the management planning. The management plan is based on treatment schedules simulated for each compartment over the 20-year planning period. The best combination of treatment schedules is selected by multi-objective optimization. The amenity is divided into two parts: (1) within-stand amenity and (2) the amenity of landscape when viewed afar (distant scene). The within-stand amenity is expressed in terms of adjective sum which is estimated from stand characteristics. The adjective sum of the whole area in a selected year can be taken as an objective or constraining variable of optimization. The assessment of the distant scene is based on computer illustrations which show the predicted temporal change of landscape according to a particular management plan.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5299, category Article
Shigeru Shimotori. (1986). Private and municipal forests and the forestry planning system in Japan - trends and problems after World War II. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5299. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27755

In this paper, the author explains the characteristics of the Japanese forestry planning system and points out some of the problems found therein from the viewpoint of the management of privately-owned forests relating to the economic background and governmental policy.

The forestry planning system is a centralizes type of planning, the planning begins at the top and flows downward and outward the periphery. In order to make this planning system an effective instrument, the district forestry planning founded under the system must approach the problem of how to combine the resources of the forest with the district’s inhabitants and the forest owners; and further, the extent of the effective union of the district and the local timber manufacturing must be examined.

  • Shimotori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5286, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1986). Quantification problems in the design of forest policy programs. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5286. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27742

Some of the quantification problems which face the designer of a forest policy program are discussed. Experiences drawn from the preparation of the Forest 2000 program in Finland are used as examples. Both the defining of goals and the choice of means are surveyed and their interconnection in the planning process emphasized.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

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  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5044, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1979). Forest balance on the national level. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5044. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14901

Forest balance is a comparison between the growing stock volume at the beginning and end of a balance period and the gross increment and drain during that period. The forest balance of Finland during that period 1967-1973 and the increment and drain balance during the period 1953-1977 are used as examples in the paper. Forest balance is a check of the accuracy of basic estimates. If the discrepancy between the calculated growing stock at the end of the balance period and the growing stock estimated by an inventory is great, it calls for improvements in forest inventory methods and timber utilization statistics.

Balance may reveal possibilities for improving the utilization of forest resources. If natural losses are great, increased thinnings and regeneration cuttings of mature and over-mature tree stands increase the supply of timber. If logging losses are great, the efficiency of harvesting should be improved. An overcutting situation calls forth efforts to increase timber production or to decrease the uses of timber in order to avoid overexploitation. If gross increment is greater than the drain there are possibilities to increase harvesting, forest industrial expansion etc.

Forest balance is a way to check and improve the basic estimates of forestry production, to increase the effective use of timber grown in the forest, to commerce policies and measures concerning increment and to control timber utilization on the basis of sustained yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5030, category Article
Camilla Rosengren. (1979). Luonnonkasvillisuus asuntoalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14886
English title: Natural vegetation within housing areas.

The article describes the results of the studies made in 24 Finnish housing areas. They show that the building density is not as important as the way of building and the site planning, in the view of preserving natural vegetation in the site. Building on slopes was difficult with modern building techniques because of the extensive earthwork required. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Rosengren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4961, category Article
Helmut Schmidt-Vogt. (1977). Keski-Euroopan metsänhoidon kehityssuuntia. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4961. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14812
English title: Trends in the forest management in Central Europe.

In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.

  • Schmidt-Vogt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4918, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsätalousyksikön puuntuotannon suunnittelu lineaarista ohjelmointia käyttäen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4918. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14762
English title: Linear programming in the planning of timber production in a forestry unit.

The planning of timber production in a forestry unit is divisible into two phases. In the first phase, planning provides the decision-maker with a number of possible timber production policies; these policies define the production possibility boundary. After the decision-maker has chosen one of these policies, planning moves to the second phase, in which a detailed programme is prepared with a view to meeting the requirements of the timber production policy accepted. The paper indicates one possibility of solving these two tasks simultaneously. In the first phase, the solution of the primal linear programming problem is employed and in the second phase the respective dual or shadow price solution.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pökälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7513, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Teppo Loikkanen, Timo Pukkala, Jouni Pykäläinen. (1996). A participatory approach to tactical forest planning. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 251 article id 7513. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7513

The paper examines the needs, premises and criteria for effective public participation in tactical forest planning. A method for participatory forest planning utilizing the techniques of preference analysis, professional expertise and heuristic optimization is introduced. The techniques do not cover the whole process of participatory planning, but are applied as a tool constituting the numerical core for decision support. The complexity of multi-resource management is addressed by hierarchical decision analysis which assesses the public values, preferences and decision criteria toward the planning situation. An optimal management plan is sought using heuristic optimization. The plan can further be improved through mutual negotiations, if necessary. The use of the approach is demonstrated with an illustrative example. Its merits and challenges for participatory forest planning and decision making are discussed and a model for applying it in general forest planning context is depicted. By using the approach, valuable information can be obtained about public preferences and the effects of taking them into consideration on the choice of the combination of standwise treatment proposals for a forest area. Participatory forest planning calculations, carried out by the approach presented in the paper, can be utilized in conflict management and in developing compromises between competing interests.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loikkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pykäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7513, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Teppo Loikkanen, Timo Pukkala, Jouni Pykäläinen. (1996). A participatory approach to tactical forest planning. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 251 article id 7513. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7513

The paper examines the needs, premises and criteria for effective public participation in tactical forest planning. A method for participatory forest planning utilizing the techniques of preference analysis, professional expertise and heuristic optimization is introduced. The techniques do not cover the whole process of participatory planning, but are applied as a tool constituting the numerical core for decision support. The complexity of multi-resource management is addressed by hierarchical decision analysis which assesses the public values, preferences and decision criteria toward the planning situation. An optimal management plan is sought using heuristic optimization. The plan can further be improved through mutual negotiations, if necessary. The use of the approach is demonstrated with an illustrative example. Its merits and challenges for participatory forest planning and decision making are discussed and a model for applying it in general forest planning context is depicted. By using the approach, valuable information can be obtained about public preferences and the effects of taking them into consideration on the choice of the combination of standwise treatment proposals for a forest area. Participatory forest planning calculations, carried out by the approach presented in the paper, can be utilized in conflict management and in developing compromises between competing interests.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loikkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pykäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7680, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen, Markku Kuula. (1992). An integrated planning model for a farm with an adjoining woodlot. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 234 article id 7680. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7680

The study deals with medium-term economic planning for a multi-branched farm enterprise on which agriculture and forestry plus associated livelihoods are practiced. A personal enterprise consisting of the earning economy sphere of an individual person or family is found to provide a suitable point of departure and framework for farm enterprise planning. In this case, the consumer economy cash withdrawals of the entrepreneur and members of his family are linked to the planning model. In a combined planning model of this type serving the management of the agricultural entrepreneur’s entire economy, the problems of both the real process (chiefly pertaining to agriculture and forestry) and the financial process are solved simultaneously and optimally with regard to the goal function, taking into consideration the model’s production factor, financing, taxation and other such constraints. The model also takes into account the possibility of investing money in financial targets (e.g. governments bonds and stocks).

The study consists of constructing a multi-periodic, combined planning model in the form required by linear optimization. The model is applied to the economic planning of a farm and its adjoining woodlot located in south-western Finland. In order to simplify the presentation of the matter, the case calculation is made to apply to a planning period only two years; the time span in the formulae used in the model is actually ten years. For the same reason, the number of treatment alternatives for the stands in the woodlot may appear to be unrealistically small.

Within the planning period the model does not require the use of the calculation rate of interest typical of partial models; instead, it itself provides the solution to where to invest and what the financing costs will be. An essential feature of the model is that the plan for the entire farm is not compiled by adapting to one another the plans made separately for farming, forestry etc., and financing; instead, the entire real process and financial process plan are obtained as the solution for the model.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7680, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen, Markku Kuula. (1992). An integrated planning model for a farm with an adjoining woodlot. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 234 article id 7680. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7680

The study deals with medium-term economic planning for a multi-branched farm enterprise on which agriculture and forestry plus associated livelihoods are practiced. A personal enterprise consisting of the earning economy sphere of an individual person or family is found to provide a suitable point of departure and framework for farm enterprise planning. In this case, the consumer economy cash withdrawals of the entrepreneur and members of his family are linked to the planning model. In a combined planning model of this type serving the management of the agricultural entrepreneur’s entire economy, the problems of both the real process (chiefly pertaining to agriculture and forestry) and the financial process are solved simultaneously and optimally with regard to the goal function, taking into consideration the model’s production factor, financing, taxation and other such constraints. The model also takes into account the possibility of investing money in financial targets (e.g. governments bonds and stocks).

The study consists of constructing a multi-periodic, combined planning model in the form required by linear optimization. The model is applied to the economic planning of a farm and its adjoining woodlot located in south-western Finland. In order to simplify the presentation of the matter, the case calculation is made to apply to a planning period only two years; the time span in the formulae used in the model is actually ten years. For the same reason, the number of treatment alternatives for the stands in the woodlot may appear to be unrealistically small.

Within the planning period the model does not require the use of the calculation rate of interest typical of partial models; instead, it itself provides the solution to where to invest and what the financing costs will be. An essential feature of the model is that the plan for the entire farm is not compiled by adapting to one another the plans made separately for farming, forestry etc., and financing; instead, the entire real process and financial process plan are obtained as the solution for the model.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7635, category Article
Reino Pulkki. (1984). A spatial database - heuristic programming system for aiding decision-making in long-distance transport of wood. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 188 article id 7635. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7635

The applicability of operations research, database management systems and geographic information systems for decision-making in long-distance transport of wood in the Saimaa area in Central Finland were reviewed. Due to the complexity of the transport problem a geographic information system is the most applicable. However, investment in such a system for only long-distance transport decision-making is unjustified. A spatial database – heuristic programming system was developed. It was applied to studying the competitiveness and search for possible areas for rationalization of water transport in particular and long-distance transport in general. The system proved to be a useful aid in long-distance transport research. Also, with the increased use of computers for planning at the field level, a system similar to that described could be a powerful managerial aid.

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  • Pulkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7556, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1971). Optimization of stand treatment based on the marginal productivity of land and growing stock. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 122 article id 7556. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7556

Production of timber in forest stands is described by a production function. The variable inputs of the function are land and growing stock and the output is the annual value growth. The partial derivatives of this production function express the marginal productivity of the land and of auction function express the marginal productivity of the land and of the growing stock. These marginal productivities can be utilized for determination of the need of regeneration and thinning. The stand should be regenerated when the marginal productivity of the land falls below the annual rent of a unit area of open land and thinned when the marginal productivity of the growing stock falls below the annual rent of one unit of growing stock.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7600, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Income-oriented cutting budget. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 91 article id 7600. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7600

The aim of this study was to develop cutting budget methods for a forest undertaking. Cutting budget provides information on the future income from the forest undertaking, and on the development of the forest.

Two cutting budget models have been developed, by the application of simulation and linear programming. Both of the models are deterministic in nature, i.e. there is only one possible outcome once the stated input information has been given. To make the models simpler, it has been assumed that thinning and clear cutting with reforestation are the only activities that can occur in the forest. The models are directly applicable only to forests consisting of even-aged Scots pine stands at three different forest types. However, they can easily be extended to cover forests comprising several tree species and more sites.

In the light of this study, simulation seems today to be more appropriate than linear programming in the preparation of cutting budgets. However, the increasing capacity of computers may even in the near future make linear programming quite competitive, especially as if it is borne in mind that the theoretical basis of linear programming is much firmer than that of simulation. The most advisable cutting budget method might consist of a combination of simulation and linear programming. Simulation could be employed to find a rough cutting schedule, and linear programming to test and improve the solution.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4719, category Article
H. K. Seip. (1963). Metoder og muligheter for langsiktige prognoser i skoglig planlegging. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4719. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14278
English title: Methods and possibilities of long-term forecasts in forest management planning.

This paper describes different methods of long-term forecasts in forest management planning with a special attention on intention forecasts for a total forest property or district. Methods for calculating the sustained yield on the basis of the actual increment or the yearly area cut are discussed. It is concluded that a better estimate of the sustained yield is obtainable by the application of a long-term forecast technique. Forecasts for 100 years should not be viewed as plans, but as a background for making short-term decisions. Some of the long-term-type programmes, such as the programme of maximum profit, sustained yield in volume and in money are discussed briefly.

It is pointed out that there is often present a conflict between the various elements of the policy formulated by a forest owner. This leads to the conclusion that the calculations of the profitability of single projects may be misleading.

The precision of a long-term forecast is discussed, and how under certain assumptions the error of the allowable cut is influenced by errors in area, volume, age etc. It is shown that the precision in area and volume is more important in this connection than, say, the precision in increment. In conclusion, existing knowledge, methods and equipment for calculations constitute a basis for long-term forecasts which make them an important instrument in forest management planning.

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  • Seip, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4719, category Article
H. K. Seip. (1963). Metoder og muligheter for langsiktige prognoser i skoglig planlegging. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4719. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14278
English title: Methods and possibilities of long-term forecasts in forest management planning.

This paper describes different methods of long-term forecasts in forest management planning with a special attention on intention forecasts for a total forest property or district. Methods for calculating the sustained yield on the basis of the actual increment or the yearly area cut are discussed. It is concluded that a better estimate of the sustained yield is obtainable by the application of a long-term forecast technique. Forecasts for 100 years should not be viewed as plans, but as a background for making short-term decisions. Some of the long-term-type programmes, such as the programme of maximum profit, sustained yield in volume and in money are discussed briefly.

It is pointed out that there is often present a conflict between the various elements of the policy formulated by a forest owner. This leads to the conclusion that the calculations of the profitability of single projects may be misleading.

The precision of a long-term forecast is discussed, and how under certain assumptions the error of the allowable cut is influenced by errors in area, volume, age etc. It is shown that the precision in area and volume is more important in this connection than, say, the precision in increment. In conclusion, existing knowledge, methods and equipment for calculations constitute a basis for long-term forecasts which make them an important instrument in forest management planning.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seip, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4584, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Metsätaloudelliset näkökohdat ja keskitetyt hakkuut. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13986
English title: Forest management and centralized loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica issue 64.

This presentation discusses different ways of organizing felling cycle, forest management practices used in the forests of Finnish forest research institute, and how good practices developed in the institue could be applied in state forests.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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