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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'profitability'.

Category: Research article

article id 7816, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Harri Kilpeläinen, Eero Poutiainen. (2018). Effect of first thinning type and age on growth, stem quality and financial performance of a Scots pine stand in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7816
Highlights: Early commercial first thinning at the top height of 11 m with tree selection targeting high quality of remaining stems was more profitable in a Scots pine stand than thinning from below at similar time or delayed thinning 10 years later; After early first thinning only one intermediate thinning was needed, but a late thinning at age of 60 years was feasible in connection with increased amount of high quality butt logs after artificial pruning; The optimal rotation period for a Scots pine stand using a lower interest rate of 1% was 80–85 years depending on the thinning pattern. With a higher rate of 4%, the optimal rotation took only 60 years.

The objective of the study was to ascertain the effects of tree selection (thinning from below, from above and according to stem quality) and timing of first commercial thinning (early and delayed) on the growth, yield and quality of trees in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A long-term field experiment (25 years) was measured in 5-year periods and the further development was simulated with growth and yield models to final cuttings using alternative rotation periods of 55–85 years. The measurements included also the exact location and type of technical defects detected on all trees in the experimental plots. The measured volume increment per unit area during the study period, 25 years after the early thinning stage was the lowest in the plots thinned from below, and the highest in the plots thinned from above or in the delayed thinning plots. However, the largest volume of saw logs during the whole rotation of 80 years was yielded after early first thinning according to the quality. The largest volume of very high-quality butt logs was produced by pruning connected with early thinning from above, and a smaller volume after early thinning according to stem quality but no after thinning from below or delayed first thinning. Without pruning an early quality thinning with one intermediate thinning was the most profitable thinning treatment in the Scots pine stand regardless the rotation length or the interest rate used. By interest rates of 1% and 2%, the optimal rotations were 80–85 years and 70 years respectively. A late thinning at the age of 60 year with long rotation was profitable only for the pruned pine stands with a low interest rate.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Kampusranta 9 C, FI-60320 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pentti.niemisto@luke.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.kilpelainen@luke.fi
  • Poutiainen, Oulu ORCID ID:E-mail: eero1.poutiainen@dnainternet.net
article id 2017, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Soili Kojola, Anssi Ahtikoski, Raija Laiho. (2017). From useless thickets to valuable resource? – Financial performance of downy birch management on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 2017. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.2017
Highlights: The most profitable management regimes for pulpwood and energy wood production in dense downy birch stands on drained peatlands include no thinnings, but final cutting at the stand age of 40–45 years as whole-tree harvesting, or as integrated harvesting of pulpwood and delimbed energy wood stems about 10 years later depending on applicable harvesting method; A competitive management regime is early precommercial thinning at 4 m dominant height to a density of 2500 stems per hectare and production of pulpwood with a rotation of 55–65 years. Equal profitability is achieved with or without traditional first thinning, which can thus be included for other reasons, for example to improve regeneration of spruce.

Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) stands on drained peatlands are often considered useless because they typically do not yield good-quality sawn timber. However, covering an area of ca. 0.5 million hectares and with total yields of up to 250 m3 ha–1, downy birch stands on peatlands in Finland have a potential for pulpwood and/or energy wood production. We examined the financial performance of alternative management regimes (with or without thinnings, different thinning intensities, several rotation lengths) combined with alternative harvesting methods (pulpwood, energy wood, or integrated, energy wood being delimbed stems or whole trees). We used data from 19 experimental stands, monitored for 20–30 years. For harvesting removals we considered both actual thinning removals and final-cutting removals with alternative timings that were based on the monitoring data. We assessed the profitability as a combination of the net present value of the birch generation and the bare land value of future generations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The most profitable management was growing without thinnings until whole-tree final cutting at the stand age of 40–45 years with an advanced multi-tree harvesting method. In contrast, the standard method in whole-tree final cutting resulted in the lowest profitability, and an integrated method with the energy wood as delimbed stems was the best of the standard methods. Thinnings were unprofitable especially when aiming to produce energy wood, whereas aiming for pulpwood, light precommercial thinning was competitive. Commercial thinning at the traditional “pulpwood stage” had little effect on profitability. The best stand age for final cutting was 40–65 years – earlier for very dense stands and whole-tree energy wood harvesting with advanced method, later for precommercially thinned stands and pulpwood harvesting.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Kampusranta 9 C, 60320 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pentti.niemisto@luke.fi (email)
  • Kojola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: soili.kojola@luke.fi
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Paavo Havaksentie 3, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
  • Laiho, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raija.laiho@luke.fi
article id 176, category Research article
María Pasalodos-Tato, Timo Pukkala, Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Esther Fernández-Nunez, María Rosa Mosquera-Losada. (2009). Optimal management of Pinus radiata silvopastoral systems established on abandoned agricultural land in Galicia (north-western Spain). Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 176. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.176
Timber production has been the main objective in forest production in Galicia for a long time. Nevertheless, factors such as fire risk and the need to obtain non-timber benefits make other production alternatives like silvopastoral systems worth of consideration. Integration of grazing in the production system not only diversifies products and benefits, but also decreases fire risk by enhancing fuel control. Nonetheless, few studies have examined the economic profitability of these systems. This article analyses the economics of silvopastoral systems established on abandoned agricultural soils afforested with Pinus radiata D. Don. Different tree planting densities, discounting rates, grass values and fire risk scenarios were analysed. The technique employed is based on the combination of an optimization algorithm and a simulator of stand growth and grass yield. The most profitable schedules were obtained with initial stand densities of 1500 trees per hectare. However, with high unit values of pasture production (high value of grass), schedules with an initial stand density of 500 trees per hectare were the most profitable. When the risk of fire was included in the analyses, silvopastoral systems were always more profitable than timber production systems. With an assumption that grazing reduces fire risk thinnings should be done earlier and heavier to reduce the expected losses due to fire and to promote grass production. This lengthens the pasture period. In general, rotation lengt
  • Pasalodos-Tato, INIA, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria. Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: pasalodos.maria@inia.es (email)
  • Pukkala, University of East Finland, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rigueiro-Rodríguez, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fernández-Nunez, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mosquera-Losada, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 1416, category Review article
Ulf Sikström, Hannu Hökkä. (2016). Interactions between soil water conditions and forest stands in boreal forests with implications for ditch network maintenance. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1416. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1416
Highlights: Ditch network maintenance (DNM) may influence soil water conditions less than initial ditching due to reduced hydraulic conductivity of the peat; Stand stocking and management substantially influence soil-water conditions; DNM can lower the GWL and increase tree growth; DNM growth responses of 0.5–1.8 m3 ha–1 yr–1 during 15–20-years in Scots pine peatland stands reported; Greatest need for DNM in the early phase of a stand rotation; Need for better understanding of the link between soil water and tree growth.

At sites with either peat or mineral soils in large areas of boreal forests, high soil-water contents hamper tree growth and drainage can significantly increase growth. Hence, areas covering about 15 × 106 ha of northern peatlands and wet mineral soils have been drained for forestry purposes. Usually ditches gradually deteriorate, thus reducing their functionality as drains, and ditch-network maintenance (DNM) might be needed to maintain stand growth rates enabled by the original ditching. This article reviews current knowledge on establishing the need for DNM in boreal forest stands, subsequent growth responses, and the financial outcome of the activity. The issues covered in the review are: (i) ditching, changes in ditches over time and the need for DNM; (ii) interactions between soil water and both stand properties and stand management; (iii) ground-water level (GWL) and tree growth responses to DNM; and (iv) financial viability of DNM. Conclusions about the current understanding of issues related to DNM are drawn and implications for DNM in practice are summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge are identified and research needs are suggested.

  • Sikström, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ulf.sikstrom@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi

Category: Article

article id 7178, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Pekka Tiililä. (1968). Koivun ja kuusen istutuksen keskinäinen edullisuusjärjestys käenkaali-mustikkatyypin metsämailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7178
English title: The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) when planting Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest land.

The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.

The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7152, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1964). Yksityismetsätaloudelliset vaihtoehtolaskelmat. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 4 article id 7152. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7152
English title: Alternative calculations in private forestry.

The purpose of this theoretical study was to define the factors related to wood production that affect the financial result of private forestry in Finland on the viewpoint of alternative calculation. The paper introduces the main concepts, analyses the outturn factors and discusses feasibility of some calculation methods, and finally draws up a business plan for a forest holding based on the chosen method.

In forestry, the quantitative and sustainability objectives for yield, the difference between annual proceeds and costs, and the capital value of the costs affect which factors are included in the calculation of profitability of forestry. The base-line situation for the alternative calculations is defined by an inventory. The future proceeds and costs are valuated and procedural models are formulated for the most advantageous alternatives. The main goal in private forestry is profit.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7404, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1950). Suotyyppien liiketaloudellisesta ojituskelpoisuusjärjestyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 4 article id 7404. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7404
English title: Drainability of different peatland types from an economic perspective.

One of the factors that influence if a peatland is suitable for draining is the time required until fellings bring income, even if it the discounting calculations has uncertainties. This article discusses the factors that affect the economic profitability of draining peatlands.

The profitability of draining increases the more the yield or increase of the yield exceeds the costs of draining. Estimation of the yield is in Finland based on the peatland type, which reflects production capacity of the site. In addition, the growing stock of the site can vary in peatlands within same peatland type. The density and size of ditches affects the draining costs. Thus, productivity based on a peatland type alone does not describe well enough the drainability of a peatland area.

In Finnish classification of site quality of the peatlands, the treeless bogs and rich fens have been given too high a class compared to well stocked spruce swamps and pine swamps. Also, the drainability of two spruce and pine swamps can differ markedly in economic point of view if the tree’s quality, volume and ability to recover differ. The article discusses different methods to assess profitability of draining that have been descibed in the previous studies. It is suggested that the classification of peatlands by their drainability should be more selective.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7369, category Article
Eino Saari. (1942). Metsäojitusten yksityistaloudellisen edullisuuden määrääminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 16 article id 7369. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7369
English title: Calculating profitability for draining of peatlands.
Original keywords: suot; ojitus; kannattavuus; menetelmät

The article introduces methods that can be used to calculate economic profitability of draining of peatlands, and discusses their advantages and weaknesses. The time span from draining of a peatland and the future income is usually decades, which makes it difficult to assess profitability for the investment. For instance, income from future fellings depends on chosen rotation time, and price of timber that can fluctuate strongly.

When calculating the profitability, the drained area can be treated as a separate unit of account or as a part of the forest holding. In the first case, several methods can be used. First, yield in terms of value is a suitable method only if the peatland has no existing forest. Second, annual yield of a drained peatland and peatland in natural state can be compared. In this case yield can be defined in several ways. Third method uses value increment of the growing stock. Fourth method estimates value of increment for both the growing stock and land. Fifth method is based on present value of the future felling income, and sixth on actual value of the growing stock and yield in terms of value.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7352, category Article
Antero Piha. (1941). Maatilametsälöiden liikejäämä ja sen rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 7352. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7352
English title: Revenue of farm forests in Finland.
Original keywords: maatilametsä; maatila; tulos; liiketulos

Only fifth of the farms in Finland had no forests in 1936. Forests have been important for the economy of the farms by providing household timber and income from timber sales. However, forests have not been taken into account in the profitability studies of agriculture. The article analyses the revenues of forestry in private farms, and the different sources of revenue. The revenue is examined in farms of different sizes, different parts of the country and in different financial years in the period of 1925-26‒1936-37.

Forest holdings smaller than 25 hectares give relatively small financial support to the farm economy. Household timber saves costs, and timber sales can give opportunities to investments. The revenue given by bigger forest holdings are, however, important items in the income statement. Finally, the results are compared to profitability studies in other countries.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7258, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Über die ökonomischen Ziele bei der Bewirtschaftung der Wälder. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 7258. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7258
English title: On the economic objectives of the commercial use of forest.

The article has two parts: the first are the common principles of forestry and forest economics and the second part presents different theories of forest economics. The aim of the study is to find out how the best possible economic result can be achieved from forest management and use of forest resources.

The first part presents the economic foundations of forestry; the division between following the concept of economic profitability in forestry and forest management; concepts of capital and operating result in forestry; and productivity and profitability. It discusses the idea of economy as a dynamic entity instead of static.

In the second part the different economic theories related to forestry and forest economics are presented. Theory on the highest interest on forest capital, theory of sustained yield management system, land rent theory, theory on forest profitability and dynamic economic theory are discussed.      

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7249, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Wesens der Waldwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 36 article id 7249. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7249
English title: Paper on essence of forestry.

There are several competing theories about forestry: school on continuous forest management system, school on profitability of forestry and a dynamic view on economics. The article discusses the pros and cons of the different theories or viewpoints and wider the essence of forest as an economic asset.

To serve the needs of the practical forestry and the economics related to forests the forestry needs to seek for standardization in relation to growth potential of the forests and market orientation of the timber. A modern theory of forestry needs to base itself on both.  

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9239

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rantala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5489, category Article
Markku Penttinen, Matti Kinnunen. (1992). Profitability of forestry in jointly-owned forests of Northeastern Finland and Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5489. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15650

The profitability of jointly owned forest holdings in the two northernmost forest board districts of Finland was studied by means of ratio analysis. A time series of profit and loss statements and balance sheets from 33 holdings covering the fiscal years ending 1981–1990 served as the database. The studied area was 348,038 ha, the allowable cut 304,300 m3 per year and the average turnover, deflated by the wholesale price index, FIM 57.6 million per year. The key result obtained was that the average annual profit was FIM 107 per hectare and FIM 110 per m3. The time series showed that the ratios had increased significantly over the calculation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kinnunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5253, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Matti Leikola, Tapio Nummi. (1985). Käytännön typpilannoituksen vaikutus varttuneiden kuusikoiden kasvuun ja tuotokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15432
English title: The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of mature Norway spruce stands in south-western Finland.

A method for calculation of the effect of practical fertilization for economic evaluation is presented and discussed. 55 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites were surveyed five to eight years after fertilization with nitrogen (90-170 kg/ha). The relationships between the fertilization effect and various stand characteristics were discussed. Fertilization increased the growth of the stands on an average by 2.2 m3/ha/year. In total the increase of tree growth during the research period was 17.5 m3/ha. This corresponds to a yield of 525–659 FIM/ha.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7053, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Valtion metsätalous liikeyrityksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 7053. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7053
English title: State forestry as a business.

The income of forestry in the state lands was 136 million Finnish marks, expenditure 65 million Finnish marks and the result 71 million Finnish marks in 1920. Both the income and expenditure had steadily increased during the 1900s. The forests in state lands are poorer than the forests in the country in average, which affects the profitability of forestry. However, ways to improve the profitability could be found. These include better transport connections, especially floating in Northern Finland. The growth of the forest could be increased by forest improvement, for instance peatland draining. The local demand of wood could be improved by selling rights to harvest household wood.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5206, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Miten koivuun tulisi suhtautua metsätaloudessa? Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15385
English title: The proper attitude towards birch in forestry.

A literature survey based on Nordic literature deals with the biology, use, harvesting and economy of birch (Betula sp.). According to the results, the easily quantified hard facts are against cultivation of birch: lower growth, poorer production of valuable assortments, lower price of pulp, higher planting costs, and higher harvesting and transport costs than for conifers. The soft facts, which may be true, are not easily measured or their importance evaluated: the possible improvement of soil, decreasing risk of insect and fungi attacks, shelter against frost etc. Due to the differences in the nature of the facts the discussion of cultivation of birch will probably continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5170, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Näkökohta sisäisen korkokannan laskemisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5170. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15085
English title: Note on the calculation of the internal rate of return.

In forestry, a classical method of evaluating the profitability of an outlay is to calculate the internal rate of return. If there are many outlays and returns over a period, analytical determination of the internal rate is difficult and requires simulation methods. However, if there is only one outlay and one return, the computation is easy. In this paper, some formulae were developed for practical purposes. The equations also show how the return changes as the ratio between the return and the outlay changes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5105, category Article
John Eid. (1981). Forest as a capital asset. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5105. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15046

The paper discusses certain aspects of the capital management of forest assets. These aspects are of importance when one wants to consider what means to use to influence the capital management on both small and big forest properties. When quantifying the effects of different uses of capital, one must necessarily have a scale. The rate of return is for this purpose the usual measure of profitability. We will first discuss the differences between nominal and real rate of return, and point out the assumptions which are often implicit in analyses of the profitability of investments in forestry. We will the discuss certain liquidity and risk aspects of capital investments in forestry, and at the end deal with certain consequences of taxation.

  • Eid, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4962, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Ojitusalueiden hieskoivikoiden kasvatus taloudellisena vaihtoehtona. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14813
English title: The economics of growing downy birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland.

The aim of this study was to determine under what conditions and with what premises the growing of Betula pubescens Ehrh. is an economically competitive alternative to the growing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in drained peatlands. The basic material consisted of all drainage projects in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland in 1937–38 and 1957–59, according to the archives of the Central Board of Forestry Tapio, including such areas that were at least moderately fertile and had birch dominated young stands or no tree cover. A total of 202 sample plots were measured.

According to the results, the discounted timber yield of the thinned B. pubescens stands is about 10% greater than that of untreated stands. The removing of birch seedlings and the subsequent growing of fully stocked Scots pine is more profitable than growing B. pubescens stands only if the establishment and subsequent development of the pine stand involve no costs. If the site in question is a fertile open drained peatland, establishment of a pine stand is obviously a better financial proposition than a naturally regenerated birch stand. However, if there is already a fully stocked young birch stand on the site, it is more economical to let it grow using a shortish rotation time.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4891, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1973). Metsäojitustoiminta ja toimenpideraja. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4891. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14729
English title: The profitability limit in forest drainage.

The study describes the relationships between a method developed by the author for the calculation of the profitability of forest drainage and the old biological method. The calculations were based on empirical data, and they aimed at finding out the effect of a variation in the profitability limit in the areas in hectares to be drained, and on the profitability of drainage. The study deals also with the profitability of present-day drainage activities. The results showed that the profitability coefficient (the ratio between the discounted increase in returns and the costs of drainage) averages 3.04 for the whole country. The corresponding value was 5.68 for Southern Finland, 3.19 for Central Finland and 1.67 for Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14723
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4829, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Metsäojituksen kannattavuuden alueittainen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4829. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14618
English title: Regional variation of the profitability of forest drainage in Finland.

The study attempts to establish to what extent the present regional allocation of the forest improvement subsidies equalize the profitability of forest drainage in Finland. The benefit/cost ratio has been used to describe the regional variation of the profitability

The study revealed that the forest improvement subsidies granted in 1968, even the highest possible subsidies, did not equalize the profitability of forest drainage. According to the results, the northern regions are at a disadvantage compared to the southern parts of the country. To fully equalize the profitability of forest drainage the average subsidies granted in 1968 should have been raised in the second financing zone from 22 to 32%, in the third zone from 32 to 60%, and in the fourth, northernmost zone from 43 to 86%. The study also suggests that the boundary lines of the financing zones should run, at least in Central and Northern Finland, from southeast to northwest instead from east to west, as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Numminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7503, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Olavi Luukkanen, Olli Saastamoinen, Suree Bhumibhamon. (1993). Evaluation of the profitability of fast-growing tropical trees. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 241 article id 7503. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7503

The profitability of fast-growing trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Acacia mangium Willd. and Melia azedarach L.) was investigated in the north-eastern and eastern provinces of Thailand. The financial, economic, and tentative environmental-economic profitability was determined separately for three fast-growing plantation tree species and for three categories of plantation managers: the private industry, the state (the Royal Forest Department) and the farmers. Fast-growing tree crops were also compared with teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), a traditional medium or long rotation species, and Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg.) which presently is the most common cultivated tree in Thailand.

The optimal rotation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis pulpwood production was eight years. This was the most profitable species in pulpwood production. In sawlog production Acacia mangium and Melia azedarach showed a better financial profitability. Para rubber was more profitable and teak less profitable than the three fast-growing species. The economic profitability was higher than the financial one, and the tentative environmental-economic profitability was slightly higher than the economic profitability.

The profitability of tree growing is sensitive to plantation yields and labour cost changes and especially to wood prices. Management options which aim at pulpwood production are more sensitive to input or output changes than those options which include sawlog production. There is an urgent need to improve the growth and yield data and to study the environmental impacts of tree plantations for all species and plantation types.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Niskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bhumibhamon, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7684, category Article
Pekka Mäkinen. (1993). Puutavaran kuljetusyritysten menestymisen strategiat. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 238 article id 7684. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7684
English title: Strategies used by timber truck companies to ensure business success.

The aim of the study was to determine how timber truck transport business succeeds in the competition within its sector, and the effect it has on profitability structure of the sector. Furthermore, strategic groups were looked at in depth, as well as the competitive strategies of the most successful companies and groups of companies. The theoretical competitive strategy was operationalized.

A total of 53 timber truck transport entrepreneurs were interviewed. The average age of the entrepreneurs was 51 years. Of the businesses, 35% were partnership companies, 6% open companies, and 59% self-employed. The business owned an average 1.5 trucks, and at the time of interviewing their average age was four years. Nearly nine out of ten entrepreneurs had no schooling for the line of business, and four out of five had no short-term training. The attitude of the timber truckers toward their activities was more like that of self-employed persons than that of entrepreneurs. A total of 61.5% of them reporter that they carried on entrepreneurship simply to assure themselves a job.

The operational profitability of the sector has been good in the years 1984 to 1990, and the business profitability fairly good. The median equity ratio in the sector has remained at about 20% and the ratio of debts to turnover about 40%. The sector has been more profitable than forest machine contracting primarily due to the barriers to entry into the sector.

Cluster analysis, using Ward’s method, was used for seeking out strategic groups. The lengths of the customer relationships proved a significant barrier to mobility. The most successful business used the competitive strategy of cost weighted focussing. This was done through optimization of the capacity utilization rate and through choice of correct customers. The strategic position for successful business was judged to be good in the future. Success in the future will require above all activeness and innovation ability.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7565, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1973). Soiden metsänkasvatuskelpoisuuden laskentamenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 131 article id 7565. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7565
English title: A method for calculation of the suitability of peatlands for forest drainage.

The study is a part in a more comprehensive series of investigations into the profitability of forest improvement measures. The present paper describes a new method for calculation of the suitability of various peatlands for forest drainage. According to this method, the net profit is calculated as the difference between the gross profit and the costs, and the profitability coefficient, as the ratio between the gross profit and the costs. The most important factors used for calculation of the gross profit and the costs are as follows: the site quality index, the volume of the tree stand capable of development at the time of draining, the temperature sum and the stumpage development at the time of draining, the temperature sum and the stumpage price. For use in the field, simplified auxliary tables have been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7557, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1971). Sarkaleveyden vaikutus ojitusinvestoinnin taloudelliseen tulokseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 123 article id 7557. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7557
English title: Effects of drain spacing on the economic results of forest drainage investments.

The aim of the study was to determine how the spacing of drains affects the economic results of forest drainage projects. On the basis of empirical material consisting of 411 sample plots, it is presented marginal cost curves showing how many meters more of drains it is needed to increase the value of stock, 35 years after the drainage, by a value equivalent of one cu.m of coniferous pulpwood. Results indicate that wider spacings ought to be used on poor sites, on sloping swamps, and in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7554, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1971). Time factor and investment calculations in timber growing. Theoretical fundamentals. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 120 article id 7554. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7554

The role of the time factor is discussed from the viewpoint that investment calculations are expected to be used to transform and condense information and not necessarily to show the optimum. Some general conclusions are drawn concerning the recommendable form of such a calculation when used by a consultant advising a forest owner. A few of the practical problems arising in the connection of applications to timber growing are also discussed.

In conclusion, a recommendation was developed for the calculation procedure to be used in the so-called contractual research into the profitability sequence of forest improvements. It would seem advisable to carry out the calculations using both varying interest rates and varying time horizons. In addition, it is justifiable also to present the expected series of cash flow changes, such as they are, among the results. Further studies will follow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4661, category Article
Urho Karisto. (1957). Tilan tai lisämaan perustaminen, teknilliset ja kannattavaisuusnäkökohdat. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14062
English title: Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation addresses the prerequisites and planning of a settlement farm or supplementary land lot. The basic requirements are that the area has enough arable or cultivated land and a suitable place for the farm buildings, necessary forest land, and that the area is close to roads or that it is possible to build a road at a reasonable cost.

  • Karisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4596, category Article
Valtion metsäkauppakomitea. (1948). Valtion metsien pysty- ja hankintamyynneistä : valtion metsäkauppakomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 63 article id 4596. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9087
English title: On stumpage sales and sales at delivered price in state forests.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to study which method of selling wood, sale at delivered price or stumpage sale, is more profitable method for wood sales from state forests.

According to the committee, in normal conditions, when supply and demand determine the price of timber and forest work wages are dependent on the supply and demand of labour, returns from the sale at delivered price has proved more favourable than stumpage sale. During the World War II the case was, however, the opposite. Sale at delivered price can have also other advantages. The state has by means of logging a hold in the labour market and can use loggings, for instance, to ward off unemployment. Also, loggings can be more easily used in rational silviculture. They keep the supervising staff of forest districts employed throughout the year and provide better professional training for the foresters. In addition, the number of buyers from state forests has increased. The stumpage sale may, however, be good method in certain conditions. The committee states that the State forestry officials are best able to decide on the most favourable method of selling.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Valtion metsäkauppakomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4447, category Article
Oiva Johannes Lakari. (1927). Valtion metsätalouden tehostaminen. Silva Fennica no. 6 article id 4447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8395
English title: Work for greater efficiency in the state forestry.

The article proposes a plan to improve the efficiency of forest management in the state forests in Finland. The forests are situated mostly in Northern Finland. In 1926 the state forests covered 39.5% of the total land-area of the country, 13,580,611 hectares in total. A proportion of 52.3% of the land was productive forest land, 21.4% forest land of poor growth and 24.8% waste land. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). predominated 56.9%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30.5% and Betula sp. 11.9% of the productive forest land. The fellings have mainly been selective fellings of sawn timber, because the demand for small timber was small. Due to this, there is lack of seedling and young stands. Metsähallitus (Forest Service) has been able to increase the sales of small timber by increasing delivery loggings over standing sales. The net profit of state forestry was 136 million marks in 1929.

Several factors have had negative impact on profitability of state forestry: Major part of the forests are situated in Northern Finland, they are of poorer quality than the private forests, and they are located unfavorable in terms of wood demand. The means to improve financial result of state forest include expanding transport network, such as railroads and floating channels. The yield of the forests can be substantially increased by draining peatlands, improving the effectivity of forest management and increasing the proportion of delivery loggings. Changing the silvicultural practices alone is estimated to increase the productivity of the forests by 50–100%. However, the costs of the peatland draining and silvicultural work are high, and direct profits can’t be expected until later.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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