Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'pulp industry'.

Category: Article

article id 7124, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Central marketing of cellulose, with particular reference to brand policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 2 article id 7124. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7124

Sales of cellulose have been handled in Finland since 1918 on a central marketing system through the Finnish Cellulose Union (Suomen Selluloosayhdistys), which is a joint sales company formed by the enterprises. First part of the paper constitutes the questions of the channels and functions of marketing. The most focal problem is related to the interests of individual producers. The second part concentrates on the brand policy of central marketing.

The small number of producer companies and – for 40 years ago – the existence of relatively few categories and grades on the market have contributed to the birth of central marketing of cellulose in Finland. Central marketing is probably more advantageous for smaller firms and companies less well placed than the biggest concerns. It levels out the status held by the best and the weakest firm in individual marketing and consequently perhaps does not give a top brand the standing it would have in relation to the other brands in individual marketing. Central marketing may have advantages also in regards of general price level and marketing costs.

The marketing system is dependent on the conditions in which it is to be carried out. An example of this is that Scandinavian cellulose producers have fairly good opportunities under the individual marketing system of using the service factor, owing to the good and far-ranging scheduled shipping facilities of the countries. It is probably the different conditions in this country that have made Finland’s cellulose marketing system essentially different from that of the Scandinavian countries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7335, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuus raaka-aineen käyttäjänä vuosina 1925-1935. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 7335. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7335
English title: The consumption of wood in forest manufacturing industry in Finland in 1925-1935.
English keywords: saw industry; pulp industry

The consumption of wood and the value of the wood in the forest manufacturing industry in 1925‒1935 was studied using the official industrial statistics as the main source of data. The annual wood consumption of sawmills, plywood industry, match production, wood-wool industry, spool production, mechanical pulp mills, sulfite pulp mills and sulfate pulp mills was in average 15.6 million cubic meters, of which 4.0 million m3 was pulpwood, 11 million m3 saw logs and 0.44 million m3 veneer timber. The spool production used 163,200 m3, match production 39,900 m3 and wood-wool production 7,900 m3 of wood. When the wood consumption is at its maximum levels, the fellings cannot be increased sustainably. Thus, the sawing cannot be increased from the present level. The growth of pulp industry has created demand for small timber, and in that industry there is room for expansion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7266, category Article
Eino Saari. (1931). Tutkimuksia Suomen puuvanuketeollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 7266. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7266
English title: Investigations into the costs of raw material in the Finnish pulp industry.

The article is a review on the wood procurement and cost of pulpwood in the Finnish mechanical and chemical pulp industry in 1922‒1926, based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries), and the series Statistics of Industry and Foreign Trade. Wood trade is carried out by three types of sale: standing sales where the buyer of the wood takes care of fellings and transport (55% of the volume), contracts for the delivery of pulpwood (45% of the volume), and fellings in the own forests of the industry. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was the most important tree species, and was used almost exclusively especially in the mechanical pulp mills. According to the study, the demand of pulpwood increased markedly during the period. The stumpage prices did, however, not increase accordingly until in 1926. It is assumed that also the supply of wood was high after the World War I.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5162, category Article
Jarmo Eronen. (1982). Soviet pulp and paper industry: Factors affecting its areal expansion. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5162. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15077

Planners of the Soviet pulp and paper industry are constantly faced with the problem: which investment policy guarantees the best location structure? Should one invest in existing localities or expand to new areas, especially in heavily forested parts of Siberia? A location theory for the pulp and paper industry, based on three factors (markets, wood raw materials, relative costs) has been suggested by the Soviet authors Antonov and Trusova. In the present study the theory is – for the first time – given empirical contents and the feasible areas for future growth of the industry are tentatively determined. One of the main findings of the study is the detecting of considerable unutilized wood reserves in the European USSR. This supports those Soviet views advocating a European-oriented location in investment strategy for the industry, as market and cost factors are unfavourable to Siberian location.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Eronen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4927, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Kantojen käytön kehittyminen Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14769
English title: Development of stump utilization in Finland.

The utilization of stump and root wood is analysed in this paper on the basis of literature from middle of 19th century to the present date. According to the information available, the utilization of pine stumps in tar production was small compared to that of peeled Scots pine stemwood in the 19th century. During the 1st and 2nd World War the utilization of stumps for tar production reached its highest levels. Other industrial utilization of stumps has been small up to the present time but now stumps are beginning to be used in the pulp industry.

The greatest amounts of stumps have been utilized by the rural population. Stumps were used as fuel. In the thirties, the yearly amount used was over 200,000 m3 (solid measure), and even in the sixties over 100,00 m3. No industrial utilization method has yet reached these levels.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7627, category Article
Markku Simula. (1983). Productivity differentials in the Finnish forest industries. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 180 article id 7627. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7627

Improvement of Finnish forest industries’ competitiveness in the world markets through productivity increase as branch and plant level requires the search for appropriate comprehensive productivity indicators and the analysis of factors underlying productivity variations. These were the main objectives of the study. The data was based on the information on individual plants in 1974, obtained from the files of Industrial Statistics in the Central Statistical Office in Finland.

The study uses neoclassical average production functions as the starting point and the theory is expanded to cover factors underlying productivity variation when measured with regard to labour, capital, material input, and total factor input. For the measurement of the latter an index formula is suggested which would not necessarily incorporate neoclassical assumptions as they cannot be assumed valid in the Finnish forest industries. The estimation results of average production functions suggest increasing rate of returns in sawmilling but in pulp and paper production evidence remains inconclusive. The elasticity of substitution is unlikely to be constant and the non-homotheticity assumption cannot be rejected.

The productivity variation is, in general, best explained by a relatively simple model with capital-labour ratio, plant size and output quality as explanatory factors. Further trials with input quality, input price ratio, process characteristics, and the rate of capacity utilization improved the models only marginally in most cases, which may have been partly due to the failure to measure the variables successfully.

The cross-section results are compared with those of an earlier time-series study. The estimation results of average production functions yield somewhat different information in the long and short run. Both cross-section and time-series productivity models illustrate the importance of output level in total productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive