Current issue: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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Articles containing the keyword 'puu'.

Category: Article

article id 7178, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Pekka Tiililä. (1968). Koivun ja kuusen istutuksen keskinäinen edullisuusjärjestys käenkaali-mustikkatyypin metsämailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7178
English title: The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) when planting Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest land.

The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.

The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7167, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia rauduskoivikon karsimisen kannattavuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 2 article id 7167. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7167
English title: Studies on the profitability of pruning of common birch (Betula pendula) stands.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.

The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.

Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.

The PDF includes a summary English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7164, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1965). Puiden paksuuden ja nuoruuden kehityksen sekä oksaisuuden ja sahapuulaadun välisistä suhteista männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 2 article id 7164. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7164
English title: Relation between the development of the early age and thickness of trees and their branchiness in Scots pine stands in Finland.

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of the founding density of a stand and the intensity of intermediate cutting on the quality of pine saw logs stems, primarily on their branchiness. Measurements were carried out in 68 Myrtillus-type and 32 Vaccinium-type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The quality of 1,982 sample trees was assessed.

According to the results, the branchless part of the stem is longest in the older age classes of trees. In all age classes the percentage of the branchless part is highest in medium sized stems. The relative height of the crown limit is greatest in small diameter classes and continues as the thickness of the tree increases. The crown is longer in the thicker tree. The grade of the butt log is on average highest in medium sized stems. Knottiness of a log made it unsuitable for a saw log only among the thickest stems. The relative share of the u/s grade decreased as the thickness of the trees increased.

From the point of view of early development of the trees it was concluded that in all age classes the branchless part is the shorter the faster the tree has grown in diameter when it was young. Also, branches of the butt log are the bigger the faster the tree has developed when it was young. The grade of the butt log improves as the thickness of the annual rings diminishes.

To produce good quality sawn timber, the pine stands should be established dense, and the first thinnings should be delayed as much as possible. The best time for the thinning would be when the diameter of the dominant trees at stump height is 12–15 cm and when all the branches have died on the length of the butt log. After the first thinning, comparatively intense intermediate thinning may be applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7143, category Article
O. Meurman. (1963). Puutarhantutkimuslaitoksella Piikkiössä kokeilluista koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 3 article id 7143. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7143
English title: Notes on ornamental trees and shrubs at the Department of horticulture (Piikkiö, Finland).

Trees and shrubs of foreign origin have been grown in Finland at least from the 1700th century. At the State Horticultural Institute in the neighbourhood of the town Turku in southwestern coast of the country, a number of ornamental trees and shrubs have been planted since 1927. During the first decade, weather conditions were quite favourable, but the winters in 1939–1940 were so severe, that only the hardiest plants survived.

It would be important to study hardiness and suitability of the various woody plants cultivated in the different parts of the country. This paper includes notes of the survival of the tree species and shrubs so far planted at the Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meurman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7143, category Article
O. Meurman. (1963). Puutarhantutkimuslaitoksella Piikkiössä kokeilluista koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 3 article id 7143. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7143
English title: Notes on ornamental trees and shrubs at the Department of horticulture (Piikkiö, Finland).

Trees and shrubs of foreign origin have been grown in Finland at least from the 1700th century. At the State Horticultural Institute in the neighbourhood of the town Turku in southwestern coast of the country, a number of ornamental trees and shrubs have been planted since 1927. During the first decade, weather conditions were quite favourable, but the winters in 1939–1940 were so severe, that only the hardiest plants survived.

It would be important to study hardiness and suitability of the various woody plants cultivated in the different parts of the country. This paper includes notes of the survival of the tree species and shrubs so far planted at the Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meurman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7137, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Ison-Saimaan yhteisuitto-ongelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 3 article id 7137. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7137
English title: Problem of co-operative floating on the Iso-Saimaa in Eastern Finland.

In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.

Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.

According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7122, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Pinotavaraleimikon taksatoriset tunnukset ja niiden vaikutus leimikkoarvioinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 5 article id 7122. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7122
English title: Mensurational characteristics of cordwood stock market for felling and their effect on the precision of stock estimation.

The annual fellings and sales of pulpwood from the State Forests of Finland comprised 4.0–4.6 million m3 in 1955–1959. In order to improve the accuracy of the methods used in estimating the pulpwood stocks marked for felling, a pilot survey of 18 marked stocks was carried out in 1959. The stock area, average plot volume, variation of the plot volumes, size and shape of the plot and the distribution of the trees by diameter classes as factors affecting the precision have been studied in this paper.

The greater the mean volume of a plot the more homogenous is the structure of the marked stock. The same number of plots gives a better relative precision for the south Finnish marked stock than for the north Finnish ones, which are heterogenous and less valuable. Stocks smaller than 50 ha can often be estimated more advantageously by the strip method or visually than by the plot method. The proper size of plot in Southern Finland is 0.02–0.03 ha. In Northern Finland the plots should be larger due to the heterogenous stocks, about 0.05 ha. The shape can be either circular or rectangular. The former may be more practical and reliable in the field. The minimum number of sample trees is considered to be about 200 per 100 sample plots 0.03 ha in size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7122, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Pinotavaraleimikon taksatoriset tunnukset ja niiden vaikutus leimikkoarvioinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 5 article id 7122. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7122
English title: Mensurational characteristics of cordwood stock market for felling and their effect on the precision of stock estimation.

The annual fellings and sales of pulpwood from the State Forests of Finland comprised 4.0–4.6 million m3 in 1955–1959. In order to improve the accuracy of the methods used in estimating the pulpwood stocks marked for felling, a pilot survey of 18 marked stocks was carried out in 1959. The stock area, average plot volume, variation of the plot volumes, size and shape of the plot and the distribution of the trees by diameter classes as factors affecting the precision have been studied in this paper.

The greater the mean volume of a plot the more homogenous is the structure of the marked stock. The same number of plots gives a better relative precision for the south Finnish marked stock than for the north Finnish ones, which are heterogenous and less valuable. Stocks smaller than 50 ha can often be estimated more advantageously by the strip method or visually than by the plot method. The proper size of plot in Southern Finland is 0.02–0.03 ha. In Northern Finland the plots should be larger due to the heterogenous stocks, about 0.05 ha. The shape can be either circular or rectangular. The former may be more practical and reliable in the field. The minimum number of sample trees is considered to be about 200 per 100 sample plots 0.03 ha in size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7119, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1960). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvavan puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7119
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained peatlands.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between faultless timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength to the grain, volume weight, and shrinkage. In addition, the influence of the boundary zone between the close-ringed wood formed before draining and the wide-ringed wood produced after draining on strength of the timber was studied. The material consisted of 15 sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (B. Pendula Roth).

The volume weight of wood of the tree species in ascending order is; spruce, pine, white birch, silver birch. The volume weight of Scots pine seems to decrease from the butt end upwards, while no trend was revealed for spruce. In the coniferous trees, the wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior draining. No distinct trend was seen in the birch species. The volume weight of pine and spruce increased with decreasing width of the growth rings up to a certain limit, after which the conditions inverted.

The compressive strength of the different kinds of wood seems to increase from the butt end upwards, but after height of two meters it begins to decrease considerably. In birch, this point of inversion is in somewhat greater height. In spruce timber, the compressive strength parallel to the grain is lowest for wood which contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed after draining. The boundary zone between the woods formed before and after draining is very distinguishable, but has no remarkable influence on the compressive strength parallel to the grain. Shrinkage of close-ringed wood is higher in all three principal directions than that of wide-ringed wood. This can be explained by the variations in volume weight and fibrillar orientation of the tracheid walls.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7119, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1960). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvavan puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7119
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained peatlands.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between faultless timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength to the grain, volume weight, and shrinkage. In addition, the influence of the boundary zone between the close-ringed wood formed before draining and the wide-ringed wood produced after draining on strength of the timber was studied. The material consisted of 15 sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (B. Pendula Roth).

The volume weight of wood of the tree species in ascending order is; spruce, pine, white birch, silver birch. The volume weight of Scots pine seems to decrease from the butt end upwards, while no trend was revealed for spruce. In the coniferous trees, the wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior draining. No distinct trend was seen in the birch species. The volume weight of pine and spruce increased with decreasing width of the growth rings up to a certain limit, after which the conditions inverted.

The compressive strength of the different kinds of wood seems to increase from the butt end upwards, but after height of two meters it begins to decrease considerably. In birch, this point of inversion is in somewhat greater height. In spruce timber, the compressive strength parallel to the grain is lowest for wood which contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed after draining. The boundary zone between the woods formed before and after draining is very distinguishable, but has no remarkable influence on the compressive strength parallel to the grain. Shrinkage of close-ringed wood is higher in all three principal directions than that of wide-ringed wood. This can be explained by the variations in volume weight and fibrillar orientation of the tracheid walls.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

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  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7117, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1961). Metsäojituksen vaikutuksesta puuston kasvuun ja poistumaan hakkuusuunnitteiden laskemista varten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 8 article id 7117. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7117
English title: The influence of forest drainage on growth and removal in Finland. For estimations of allowable cut.

The Finnish forest industry is undergoing a vast expansion, which has raised questions of forest balance. This paper studies the possibilities to increase the amount available timber by means of forest drainage. About third of the Finnish land area is peatlands. The calculations of the investigation are based on Forestry Board districts. Based on earlier studies, there is estimated to be 3,042,000 ha of true drainable swamps, 973,000 ha of poor swamps, 1,381,000 ha of uplands in need of drainage, and 1,205,000 ha of drained peatlands. Therefore, the area of drainable and drained lands totals 6,6 million ha, and requirement of forest drainage 5,4 million ha. The drainage hardly reaches this extent, however. It can be assumed that part of the poor swamps is uneconomical to drain. In addition, a half of the paludified forest land will probably not be drained. Thus, it can be estimated that the area to be drained in the future is about 5 million ha. It seems possible that this area could be drained within about 50 years with the present draining capacity.

Draining of all objects of forests would increase the annual increment of our forests, in time, by about 10.5 million m3. This would signify an increase of 23% compared to the present growth of the forests. The increase in the growth consists mainly of softwood: 16% is birch, and the remaining 84% almost equally of Scots pine and Norway spruce. The increase of growth is relatively slow. Depending on the rate of the drainage program, the mean increase of growth will be reached in about 25–35 years. The increase in removal indicated by the increase in the mean increment will be reached in only 50–60 years.

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  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7114, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1960). Metsiköiden routa- ja lumisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7114
English title: Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests.

Snow cover and ground frost was studied in 29 forest stands in Southern and Central Finland in 1957–1959. The tree species influenced greatly accumulation of snow on the forest floor. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) retains snow in its crown. In addition, snow and water falling from the branches compress the snow cover under the trees, and the ground freezes deeper because of the shallow snow cover. In the spring, the dense crown prevents rain and radiation reaching the ground, which remains cold longer. However, ground frost may protect spruce, which has a weak root system, from wind damages.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has similar, but milder, effects on snow cover within the forest. The crowns of pine seedlings and young trees pass snow easily, but later the crowns intercept it considerably. The lower branches are, however, high up and the snow is evenly spread on the ground. The deciduous trees intercept little snow and in the spring the snow smelts and the frozen soil thaws early. The snow conditions of deciduous forests are, however, changed by a spruce undergrowth.

It can be assumed that the unfavourable conditions in spruce forests can be alleviated by thinning. Also, mixture of pine and deciduous trees can transform the conditions more favourable in the spruce stands.

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  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

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  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7474, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1957). Puutavaran hankinnan yhteiskustannukset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 4 article id 7474. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7474
English title: Joint costs of logging in Finland.

The analysis of costs is the foundation for the efficient management of logging activities. However, there is little research on cost accounting of logging. This article is an overview on harvesting of timber and its cost accounting, concentrating on joint costs. Costs have to be divided on their structural elements and then regrouped according to different accounting needs to be investigated. This investigation bases the structural cost analysis on running booking of costs. Due to the variability of logging, the costs are divided in detail into categories. The costs of logging are classified by their origin into personnel cost, material costs, costs of services, compensation for use, unrequited costs, risks, depreciation and interest. Further, the costs are classified according to the subject and quality of performance, and by location.

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  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

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  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7463, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1955). Koivun vetopuun anatomisesta rakenteesta ja ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7463
English title: On the anatomical structure and properties of the tension wood in birch.

The investigation concerns with the strength of the eccentric growth accompanying formation of tension wood in silver birch  (Betula pendula Roth.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), behaviour of wood in wood-working machines and its macroscopic characteristics, its microscopic and sub-microscopic structure, chemical composition, resistance against certain chemicals, physical properties, and the strength characteristics of wood.

The most detrimental properties of tension wood used in wood working industry are high longitudinal shrinkage, warping, twisting and checking. The wooliness of the cut is unwanted, for instance, in plywood and furniture. In pulp industry tension wood is better raw material than normal wood because it yields more and purer cellulose than normal wood. However, it has poorer strength properties.

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  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7445, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1954). Puutavaran valmistuksen keskityötulosten määrittäminen tilastoteitse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 33 article id 7445. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7445
English title: Statistical determination of the average work performance in the preparation of timber.

Work studies conducted in Finland and Sweden on forest work have shown that the performance of different workers or even of a same worker vary greatly, although external conditions such as the size and other properties of the trees, weather etc. are similar. It has been decided in the Northern Countries that as it is impossible to assess the working speed of a man, it is not possible to find out the average work performances, not even from long term time studies. The only way is to collect performance statistics.

Metsäteho (Forest Work Studies Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries) has collected since 1946 statistics on the working sites of forest industry companies in different parts of Finland on the preparation on timber. To make it comparable the material has been converted to uniform values by using the ratios given by the work time studies of various forest jobs conducted by Metsäteho. The ratios are necessary in trying to determine average performances by statistical means. The actual length of time each man is at work on different days and the actual number of days is needed, because in Finland the workers can themselves decide fairly freely the length of a working day. In forest work, wages are paid for the quantity prepared, not for time. The statistics collected by Metsäteho include information on the length of the working days, and conditions in each forest, such as the size of the trees, form of stem, branchiness, bark thickness, terrain, density of the forest, weather conditions etc.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

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  • Vöry, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

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  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7434, category Article
Jarl Lindfors. (1954). Sahatukkien kaukokuljetuksen eräitä piirteitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 22 article id 7434. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7434
English title: Long-distance transport of saw logs in Finland.

Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries decided in 1953 to begin collecting annual statistics of timber transportation of its members. The survey of members covers almost 97% of the timber transportations of the member companies, which have production over 1,000 cu ft. In all 79 companies answered the survey. Their total timber transportation was 166,4 million cu ft in 1952.

The long-distance transportation of saw logs by horse transport directly to the mill or other such location was 1,297 cu ft, by truck transport 42,644 cu ft, by rail transport 6,707 cu ft, and by water transport 115,789 cu ft. The average transportation distance was for horse transport 2.4 km, truck transport 27 km, rail transport 224 km and water transport 209 km.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7434, category Article
Jarl Lindfors. (1954). Sahatukkien kaukokuljetuksen eräitä piirteitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 22 article id 7434. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7434
English title: Long-distance transport of saw logs in Finland.

Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries decided in 1953 to begin collecting annual statistics of timber transportation of its members. The survey of members covers almost 97% of the timber transportations of the member companies, which have production over 1,000 cu ft. In all 79 companies answered the survey. Their total timber transportation was 166,4 million cu ft in 1952.

The long-distance transportation of saw logs by horse transport directly to the mill or other such location was 1,297 cu ft, by truck transport 42,644 cu ft, by rail transport 6,707 cu ft, and by water transport 115,789 cu ft. The average transportation distance was for horse transport 2.4 km, truck transport 27 km, rail transport 224 km and water transport 209 km.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7434, category Article
Jarl Lindfors. (1954). Sahatukkien kaukokuljetuksen eräitä piirteitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 22 article id 7434. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7434
English title: Long-distance transport of saw logs in Finland.

Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries decided in 1953 to begin collecting annual statistics of timber transportation of its members. The survey of members covers almost 97% of the timber transportations of the member companies, which have production over 1,000 cu ft. In all 79 companies answered the survey. Their total timber transportation was 166,4 million cu ft in 1952.

The long-distance transportation of saw logs by horse transport directly to the mill or other such location was 1,297 cu ft, by truck transport 42,644 cu ft, by rail transport 6,707 cu ft, and by water transport 115,789 cu ft. The average transportation distance was for horse transport 2.4 km, truck transport 27 km, rail transport 224 km and water transport 209 km.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7430, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1954). Paperipuurankojen mittauksen tarkkuudesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 18 article id 7430. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7430
English title: On the accuracy of measurements of pulpwood boles in Northern Finland.

The study examines the accuracy of volume tables for top measurement of pulpwood boles, and that of top measurement in general in Northern Finland. In this method only top diameter and length of the boles are measured, and the volume is obtained from volume tables. The boles have previously been measured in the middle of the bole, but the method is very time consuming in practice.

The result indicates that the form of both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) varies greatly. A pulpwood parcel, however, contains both rapidly and gently tapering logs, and the average form differences are much smaller. The difference between the real volume and the volume obtained from the volume tables is generally less than 12% and for more than third of the stock less than 4%.

Pine boles from private forests have been somewhat more and spruce boles less rapidly tapering than boles cut from state forests. The significance of the differences is not clear. Also, the boles in the northern part of the investigation area taper more sharply than those in the southern part.
It is concluded that the accuracy of the top measurement should be improved, but this is only theoretically possible by means of special tables and correction coefficients.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7430, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1954). Paperipuurankojen mittauksen tarkkuudesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 18 article id 7430. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7430
English title: On the accuracy of measurements of pulpwood boles in Northern Finland.

The study examines the accuracy of volume tables for top measurement of pulpwood boles, and that of top measurement in general in Northern Finland. In this method only top diameter and length of the boles are measured, and the volume is obtained from volume tables. The boles have previously been measured in the middle of the bole, but the method is very time consuming in practice.

The result indicates that the form of both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) varies greatly. A pulpwood parcel, however, contains both rapidly and gently tapering logs, and the average form differences are much smaller. The difference between the real volume and the volume obtained from the volume tables is generally less than 12% and for more than third of the stock less than 4%.

Pine boles from private forests have been somewhat more and spruce boles less rapidly tapering than boles cut from state forests. The significance of the differences is not clear. Also, the boles in the northern part of the investigation area taper more sharply than those in the southern part.
It is concluded that the accuracy of the top measurement should be improved, but this is only theoretically possible by means of special tables and correction coefficients.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7417, category Article
N. Stolpe. (1954). Uittoa, sen organisatiota ja tulevaisuutta koskevia näkemyksiä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 5 article id 7417. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7417
English title: Observations on floating, its organizations and future in Finland.

The costs of floating have increased by about 20-fold after the Second World War in Finland, which has raised concerns in the forest sector. At the same time, the costs of road transport have increased by 16% and costs of rail transport by 15%. Floating has been replaced mainly by road transport in transport of roundwood, especially near the factories. This development is likely to continue as new roads are built and the truck fleet develops.  

In spite of the changes in timber transportation, floating was still the most common way of transporting roundwood in 1952: 69% of saw logs, 53% of veneer timber, 42% of domestic pulp wood, 14% of exported pulp wood and mining timber and 14% of firewood was transported by a water route. There are several ways to improve the efficiency of floating and decrease its costs. This can be achieved in two ways. First, using modern technology, such as tugboats, bundlers and other equipment, and second, improving the operation and co-operation between different actors.  

The PDF includes a summary in German. 

  • Stolpe, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7415, category Article
W. E. Roitto. (1954). Eräitä näkökohtia Saimaan vesistöalueen puutavaran kaukokuljetuksen kehittymismahdollisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 3 article id 7415. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7415
English title: Development potential of transportation of roundwood in the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa in Finland.

About 17.5% of forest lands of Finland is situated around the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa. Furthermore, the growth of the forests  of the area correspond about 25% of the total growth of forests in Finland. The watersystem is one of the most important portages of roundwood in the country. It consists 11,000 km of floating channels, 2,000 km of which suit for floating in bundles. Annually 30-35 million cu ft of saw logs, 7 million cu ft of veneer timber and 2,5-3 million cu ft of pulp wood is floated in the area.

Even if the water system at present still suits well for floating, there are many opportunities for development, which would improve its competitiveness against other modes of transport. Several different sites where building of floating channels or improving the floatways are needed are described in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7414, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1954). Suomen maaseudun tulisijat. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 2 article id 7414. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7414
English title: Rural fireplaces in Finland.
Original keywords: tulisijat; kiukaat; puun käyttö; Suomi
English keywords: fireplaces; firewood; Finland

Wood consumption in Finland in 1938-1939 was studied by investigating the wood consumption of aprroximately 2,000 farms. One of the surveys connected to the investigation studied fireplaces and heating equipment in rural districts, and recorded the types of fireplaces in the farms.

The majority of the rural fireplaces are rather old-fashioned and the technically best equipment are rare. The fireplaces in Eastern and Northern Finland are often more primitive than in Western and Southern Finland.

In Western Finland, where hard bread is common, the baking oven is lit 30-50 times a year. In Eastern Finland, where soft bread is baked, the oven is lit about 200 times a year. The sauna i heated about 40 times a year in the west, and 80 times a year in the east.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7413, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1954). Tutkimuksia Suomen teollisuuden vuonna 1950 käyttämistä polttoaineista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 1 article id 7413. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7413
English title: Investigations into industrial fuel in Finland in 1950.

The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.

The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.

According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7413, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1954). Tutkimuksia Suomen teollisuuden vuonna 1950 käyttämistä polttoaineista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 1 article id 7413. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7413
English title: Investigations into industrial fuel in Finland in 1950.

The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.

The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.

According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7407, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1951). Alikasvosasemasta vapautettujen männyn taimistojen toipumisesta ja merkityksestä metsänhoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 3 article id 7407. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7407
English title: On the recovery of released Scots pine undergrowth and its silvicultural importance.

There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.

The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vaartaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7407, category Article
Olli Vaartaja. (1951). Alikasvosasemasta vapautettujen männyn taimistojen toipumisesta ja merkityksestä metsänhoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 3 article id 7407. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7407
English title: On the recovery of released Scots pine undergrowth and its silvicultural importance.

There are contrary opinions on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to withstand oppression by hold-overs and recover after their felling. The recovery potential of oppressed pine stands in Southern and Northern Finland was studied using two kinds of material, fully recovered Scots pine stands and stands recently released. The volume and volume increment of the stand were measured, and the health of the sample trees was determined.

The study showed that those released pine stands that had been in oppressed state very long (25-60 years) had recovered after clear-cutting. After the release the stands grew at first slowly, but after recovery at about the same rate as natural normal stands of a similar height. The smaller, younger, and less stunted the seedlings were when they were released, and the better the site, the faster was the recovery. At the base of released pine stands various defects was detected. When the trees were released, the defects decrease their technical value. A heavy partial cutting had generally a disadvantageous effect on the stand. Recovering seedlings were found clearly to hinder the development of younger seedlings nearby. This inhibition seemed to be a result of the rapid spread of the root system of released pine trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vaartaja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7405, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1950). Eräiden Suomen kaupunkien halkojen hankinta-alueet : markkinatieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 1 article id 7405. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7405
English title: The firewood supply areas of four Finnish towns.

In the present investigation, the problems connected to demand of firewood are dealt with by studying the fuel markets of the three biggest towns in Finland – Helsinki, Turku and Tampere as well as those of Vaasa. The purpose of the investigation was to study the firewood supply areas in two time periods, in 1933-1939 and in 1945-1947, after the Second World War.

Railway and shipping were the most important ways for transporting firewood in 1933-1939. Towards the end of the period, road transport increased especially in Turku and in Vaasa. In 1945-47 almost 90% of the firewood transported to Helsinki, 60% to Tampere and Turku, and over 50% of the firewood transpors to Vaasa were carried by rail. One factor supporting rail transport was that the tariff policy of the State Railways gave preference to firewood transports.

The supply areas increased markedly from 1933-1939 to 1945-1947. Supply of firewood near the towns in the southern, southwestern and western parts of the country was small. Also, pulp industry began to use small-sized timber in 1930s, which increased competition of the wood. Coal and coke began to replace firewood in the 30s, but their use decreased during and after the war due to supply shortage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7405, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1950). Eräiden Suomen kaupunkien halkojen hankinta-alueet : markkinatieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 1 article id 7405. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7405
English title: The firewood supply areas of four Finnish towns.

In the present investigation, the problems connected to demand of firewood are dealt with by studying the fuel markets of the three biggest towns in Finland – Helsinki, Turku and Tampere as well as those of Vaasa. The purpose of the investigation was to study the firewood supply areas in two time periods, in 1933-1939 and in 1945-1947, after the Second World War.

Railway and shipping were the most important ways for transporting firewood in 1933-1939. Towards the end of the period, road transport increased especially in Turku and in Vaasa. In 1945-47 almost 90% of the firewood transported to Helsinki, 60% to Tampere and Turku, and over 50% of the firewood transpors to Vaasa were carried by rail. One factor supporting rail transport was that the tariff policy of the State Railways gave preference to firewood transports.

The supply areas increased markedly from 1933-1939 to 1945-1947. Supply of firewood near the towns in the southern, southwestern and western parts of the country was small. Also, pulp industry began to use small-sized timber in 1930s, which increased competition of the wood. Coal and coke began to replace firewood in the 30s, but their use decreased during and after the war due to supply shortage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7405, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1950). Eräiden Suomen kaupunkien halkojen hankinta-alueet : markkinatieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 59 no. 1 article id 7405. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7405
English title: The firewood supply areas of four Finnish towns.

In the present investigation, the problems connected to demand of firewood are dealt with by studying the fuel markets of the three biggest towns in Finland – Helsinki, Turku and Tampere as well as those of Vaasa. The purpose of the investigation was to study the firewood supply areas in two time periods, in 1933-1939 and in 1945-1947, after the Second World War.

Railway and shipping were the most important ways for transporting firewood in 1933-1939. Towards the end of the period, road transport increased especially in Turku and in Vaasa. In 1945-47 almost 90% of the firewood transported to Helsinki, 60% to Tampere and Turku, and over 50% of the firewood transpors to Vaasa were carried by rail. One factor supporting rail transport was that the tariff policy of the State Railways gave preference to firewood transports.

The supply areas increased markedly from 1933-1939 to 1945-1947. Supply of firewood near the towns in the southern, southwestern and western parts of the country was small. Also, pulp industry began to use small-sized timber in 1930s, which increased competition of the wood. Coal and coke began to replace firewood in the 30s, but their use decreased during and after the war due to supply shortage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7404, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1950). Suotyyppien liiketaloudellisesta ojituskelpoisuusjärjestyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 4 article id 7404. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7404
English title: Drainability of different peatland types from an economic perspective.

One of the factors that influence if a peatland is suitable for draining is the time required until fellings bring income, even if it the discounting calculations has uncertainties. This article discusses the factors that affect the economic profitability of draining peatlands.

The profitability of draining increases the more the yield or increase of the yield exceeds the costs of draining. Estimation of the yield is in Finland based on the peatland type, which reflects production capacity of the site. In addition, the growing stock of the site can vary in peatlands within same peatland type. The density and size of ditches affects the draining costs. Thus, productivity based on a peatland type alone does not describe well enough the drainability of a peatland area.

In Finnish classification of site quality of the peatlands, the treeless bogs and rich fens have been given too high a class compared to well stocked spruce swamps and pine swamps. Also, the drainability of two spruce and pine swamps can differ markedly in economic point of view if the tree’s quality, volume and ability to recover differ. The article discusses different methods to assess profitability of draining that have been descibed in the previous studies. It is suggested that the classification of peatlands by their drainability should be more selective.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7401, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1950). Tutkimuksia pinopuutavaran proomuun lastauksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 7401. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7401
English title: Investigations on loading piled wood into barges.

In Finland, transportation of wood by vessels has decreased, but is still an important mode of transport especially for firewood. In 1941-1947, nearly 25% of the firewood procured by the State Fuel Board was transported by vessels. This investigation concentrates on loading of wood into barges, since the share of wages of total expenses is greatest in this phase. The loading work amounts to nearly 40% of the total wages.

Two methods of loading barges are used in Finland: loading from the shore and truck loading. This study concentrates on the more common method, loading from the shore. A time study was conducted on the different stages of loading and piling wood into barges, most of which is done by hand. Most time-consuming part of the work is transporting the logs to the barge with a wheelbarrow, comprising over 40% of the working time. Time required for loading firewood is almost twice as much as loading pulp wood. Recommendations for loading places and organization of work are given in the article to improve the efficiency of the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7401, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1950). Tutkimuksia pinopuutavaran proomuun lastauksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 7401. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7401
English title: Investigations on loading piled wood into barges.

In Finland, transportation of wood by vessels has decreased, but is still an important mode of transport especially for firewood. In 1941-1947, nearly 25% of the firewood procured by the State Fuel Board was transported by vessels. This investigation concentrates on loading of wood into barges, since the share of wages of total expenses is greatest in this phase. The loading work amounts to nearly 40% of the total wages.

Two methods of loading barges are used in Finland: loading from the shore and truck loading. This study concentrates on the more common method, loading from the shore. A time study was conducted on the different stages of loading and piling wood into barges, most of which is done by hand. Most time-consuming part of the work is transporting the logs to the barge with a wheelbarrow, comprising over 40% of the working time. Time required for loading firewood is almost twice as much as loading pulp wood. Recommendations for loading places and organization of work are given in the article to improve the efficiency of the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7379, category Article
Paavo Harve. (1947). Puunjalostusteollisuutta ja puutavarakauppaa harjoittavien yhtiöiden maan hankinta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7379. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7379
English title: Land purchases of wood manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales in Finland.

The article is a report of land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Finland in 1935. Second World War postponed publishing of the report. The land purchases of wood manufacturing industry, especially farms with agricultural land, was considered a concern in the end of 19th century, because it caused social problems related to landless people. To solve the problem, the government of Finland enacted in 1915 an act that restricted land purchase of the companies. The aim of this report was to collect statistics on the extent of the land purchases.

According to the investigation, forest manufacturing industry and companies operating on timber sales intensified land purchases in 1890s. After 1894 the companies purchased 80,000-100,000 ha land yearly. When the regulations restricting purchases of land came into act in 1915, the companies evaded the regulations by using private people or other companies to buy the land. Still, the annual purchases decreased to in average 21,000 ha in 1915-1936. The companies were still allowed to buy forest land when it did not affect agriculture in the farm. During and after the war the land purchases were interrupted. The report concludes that the regulations have worked as expected, and suggests some improvements in the legislation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Harve, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7371, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1942). Kuusisahapuun teknillisen ja pinokuution välinen suhde sekä sen riippuvaisuus muotoluokasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 18 article id 7371. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7371
English title: Relation between technical and piled cubic meter of Norway spruce saw logs and their relation to form class.

Due to shortage of large logs, sawmill industry has been forced to buy also smaller logs, which also pulp industry uses as a raw material. Sawmills must be careful in the pricing of the logs, because profitability of sawing of timber depends on the size of the logs. These industries use different measures when they buy timber: pulp industry uses piled measure in meters, while saw logs are measured individually in cubic feet. The aim of the study was to develop sets of figures on technical cubic measure of a saw log and its relation to a piled cubic meter from the same log used as pulp wood. In addition, the effect of form class on the measures was studied.

The relation was assessed for trunks that had good, mediocre or unfavourable form class, which distinction is easy to make for a forest worker buying timber. The relations can be used by a buyer of saw logs or pulpwood who need to compare the prices or when the seller of the wood compares the offers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7370, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1942). Männyn taimien juurien suhtautumisesta emäpuun juuriin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 17 article id 7370. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7370
English title: Roots of a seedling in relation to roots of the mother tree.

The study is based on observations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on a dry upland forest site in Karhumäki, where a 10-15-year old seedling stand grew under a hold-overs of larger trees that had been left in the site in a previous felling. The root systems of 80-120 cm tall seedlings growing around single mother trees were unearthed. Root maps were drawn of the root systems of 120 seedlings.

No seedlings grew around old, large hold-overs. It seems that seedlings could not compete with their root system. If the hold-overs were stunted in their growth, seedlings grew also under the canopy of the mother tree. 90% of the seedlings had a tap root. Rest of the roots grew horisontally in the topsoil. Around a vigorous mother tree, the seedlings grew their roots away from the mother tree. Hold-overs that had belonged originally to the lower canopy layer of the old forest did not have similar effect on the root orientation of the seedlings. Their roots had been previously affected by trees of higher canopy layer, later removed in the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7363, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1942). Puuston hakkuuarvosta ja sen määräämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 10 article id 7363. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7363
English title: Determination of felling value.

The article discusses use of felling value in determining the value of growing stock. It has been argued that use of felling value to calculate value for a forest holding usually leads to too high values. Consequently, when setting a price for growing stock, felling value should be applied only for such parts of the property that can be sold immediately at a current price.

The article describes in detail assessment of the felling value, first using timber assortments of the stand, and second, by conducting the felling value using parameters affecting the value, such as volume and tree species of the stand. An assessment method  was developed to calculate the value by using structure of a cubic metre of timber in a stand. The structure was determined using data of the national forest inventory in Finland. Finally, the article discusses application of the method.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7363, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1942). Puuston hakkuuarvosta ja sen määräämisestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 10 article id 7363. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7363
English title: Determination of felling value.

The article discusses use of felling value in determining the value of growing stock. It has been argued that use of felling value to calculate value for a forest holding usually leads to too high values. Consequently, when setting a price for growing stock, felling value should be applied only for such parts of the property that can be sold immediately at a current price.

The article describes in detail assessment of the felling value, first using timber assortments of the stand, and second, by conducting the felling value using parameters affecting the value, such as volume and tree species of the stand. An assessment method  was developed to calculate the value by using structure of a cubic metre of timber in a stand. The structure was determined using data of the national forest inventory in Finland. Finally, the article discusses application of the method.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7345, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Tuntsa-Oulankajoen sekä Jäämeren päävesistöalueiden metsät ja niiden kaukokuljetusmahdollisuudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 7345. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7345
English title: The forests in the Tuntsa-Oulanka and the use of Arctic Ocean main water system area in long-distance transport.

The principal method of transporting timber for long distances in Finland is floating. It is supplemented in the principal forest districts by transport in ships, by rail and lorries. However, in north-eastern and northern parts of the country the main water systems flow into Arctic Ocean, and floating cannot be used to transport timber. The area does not have railroad and road network is sparse. The poor accessibility has hindered the use of forest in the area. A division of the Tuntsa-Oulanka and Arctic Ocean water system area into supply areas is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7343, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1939). Kuusen kylvöstä ja istutuksesta metsitettävillä soilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 7343. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7343
English title: Sowing and planting of Norway spruce in drained peatlands in Finland.

The drained peatlands regenerate usually well, and artificial regeneration by sowing or planting has been rare. Field trials of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were established in northern Satakunta in Western Finland in three drained peatlands in 1934. Sowing trials of Norway spruce consisted of patch and broadcast sowed sample sites in treeless bogs and under protective forest. The seedlings of spruce were planted either under protective forest or in treeless peatland.

The results show that artificial regeneration of Norway spruce succeeds best under protective forest. The best tree species for upper storey is Betula sp. which grows fast and controls growth of ground vegetation. The peat is relatively decomposed on those peatlands that are suitable for spruce, and breaking of the surface of the peat is not recommended. In the sowing trials, breaking of the upper layer of the peat caused frost heaving, cracking of the dried surface and sticking of mud in the seedlings in the patch sown sample site. The shoot and root growth of seedlings of the broadcast sown site was better than seedlings of the patch sown site. The planted spruce seedlings seemed to be more susceptible for spring frost than the seedlings in the sown site. The plants of seed origin succeeded in general better than the planted seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7340, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1938). Puiden vikanaisuuksien vaikutuksesta hakkuutulokseen Perä-Pohjolan havumetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 7340. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7340
English title: The effect of injuries of the stems to amount of merchantable timber in the northernmost Finland.

The effect of different kinds of injuries in the amount of merchantable timber was studied in 57 sample plots in the northernmost Finland. Without any injuries the yield of timber would have been 72.3% in Scots pine (Pinus sylverstris L.) and 89.9% in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Butting, and removal of parts of the stems due to Injuries decreased the volume by 10.4% in pine and 13.5% in spruce. The main cause for butting of pine was fire wounds, and butt rot in spruce. Also pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum) causes injuries in Scots pine. The better the forest site type, the smaller is the timber discarded due to injuries. In pine 54% and in spruce 53% of the trees and were healthy. The forests in the northernmost Finland are over-mature which increase the occurrence of fire wounds and decay. Thus, forest fire control and the felling or thinning of over-mature stands will improve the quality of the timber in the long run.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7335, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuus raaka-aineen käyttäjänä vuosina 1925-1935. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 7335. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7335
English title: The consumption of wood in forest manufacturing industry in Finland in 1925-1935.
English keywords: saw industry; pulp industry

The consumption of wood and the value of the wood in the forest manufacturing industry in 1925‒1935 was studied using the official industrial statistics as the main source of data. The annual wood consumption of sawmills, plywood industry, match production, wood-wool industry, spool production, mechanical pulp mills, sulfite pulp mills and sulfate pulp mills was in average 15.6 million cubic meters, of which 4.0 million m3 was pulpwood, 11 million m3 saw logs and 0.44 million m3 veneer timber. The spool production used 163,200 m3, match production 39,900 m3 and wood-wool production 7,900 m3 of wood. When the wood consumption is at its maximum levels, the fellings cannot be increased sustainably. Thus, the sawing cannot be increased from the present level. The growth of pulp industry has created demand for small timber, and in that industry there is room for expansion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7333, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1938). Puutase metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa : tulosbilanssioppiin (dynaamiseen bilanssiteoriaan) perustuva tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 7333. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7333
English title: Timber balance in the financial accounting of forestry.

The financial accounting of the forestry needs redefining in Finland due to the effect of forest improvement, especially peatland drainage, on timber balance and valuation of forest land. The aim of the study was to develop methods to determine the timber balance using a separate forest land account. The problems of timber balance are related to the technical methods to assess timber balance and the cost of the work, quantitative determination of the profit, and qualitative determination of the profit. One main problem is to whether to define the quantitative profit as a sustainability of timber resources or difference in the allowable cut and outturn. The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, and concludes that regardless of the method that is used to calculate the timber balance, profit or loss accounts have less exact nature in forestry than in other sectors. Replacing reliably calculated revenue surplus with operating result based on timber account would lead to tentative results.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7325, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1936). Kuusi männyn kilpailijana kasvupaikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 8 article id 7325. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7325
English title: Norway spruce as competitor in the sites typical for Scots pine.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is a species that becomes in Finland over time the dominant species in the sites that are suitable for it. The reason that it covers only a quarter of the forest areas in Finland depends mainly on forest fires. The aim of this review was to discuss the biological factors that affect competition between Scots pine and Norway spruce.

Especially important is the ability to regenerate and grow past seedling stage. There does not seem to be significant differences in the number of good seed and seedling years of the species. Spruce regenerates better on moss covered forest floor than pine. On the other hand, pine seedlings grow faster than spruce seedlings, and tolerate better dry conditions. Consequently, one of the defining biological differences is that Norway spruce needs more humid conditions than Scots pine. Spruce is shown to have greater transpiration than pine. Spruce also has higher site requirements, however, growing as undergrowth, it seems to be better able to compete of the nutrients with the larger trees than pine. It also tolerates shading better. Spruce is less frost tolerant than pine.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7323, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1935). Tutkimuksia tukkipuurunkojen ja sahatukkien välisestä kuutiosuhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 6 article id 7323. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7323
English title: Investigations of the regression between the cubic content of trunks and that of logs.

The aim of the study was to explain the regression between the cubic content of the trunk of a tree and of logs cut from the trunk. The minimum size of trunk that can be used to saw logs has been 18 feet long and 5″ of top diameter in Finland (in 1930s). The average length of logs is 16‒18 feet. The data of this study was collected in seven areas around Finland. The results show that there is regression between the volume of the trunk, the volume and the logs cut from the trunk and the number of logs. Consequently, it is possible to determine the average regression between the trunk and log sizes for forest technical purposes. The regression varies in different parts of the country due to varying growth condition of the trees and different age classes. It is probable that the figures have to be re-examined in the future.

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  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7317, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Tutkimuksia metsikön ja kasvupaikan vaikutuksesta kuusen rungon kelpoisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 7317. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7317
English title: Studies on the influence of stand and forest site type on the quality of Norway spruce stem.

Healthy, straight, more or less free from branches and slowly tapering stems are good raw material for woodworking industry. The aim of the study was to investigate, from the stand point of forest management, the influence of stand and forest site type on the technical quality of the stems. Sample plots were measured in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in Eastern Finland. Norway spruce growing in a stand with closed crowns developed thin branches and self-pruned, if the stand was dense in the early stages. The decisive time for the stand is, therefore, when it is at seedling stage and young stand. The stems are more branchy if the stand has been planted. The adequate planting density is discussed based on earlier studies. The sufficient density seems to be achieved when the spacing is at maximum two meters. When the stems are branchless up to four meters, thinning of spruce stand does not affect knottiness or stem form. A sparsely stocked, knotty young stand does not produce good-quality timber even if the stand is later dense. Selective thinning from above can be used to improve the quality of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7310, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1934). Havaintoja eräitten yksityistilojen metsätaloudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 33 article id 7310. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7310
English title: Observations on forestry in private farms in Finland.

Private forests account for about 2/3 of the growth of the forests in Finland, but little is known about the economy of forestry in private farms. The study analyses the forestry in private farms using accounting data of farms, collected in a survey of profitability in agriculture that was compiled by the Board of Agriculture. The sample of 18 farms represent farms where the use of forests was sustainable. The accounting data was complemented by survey of forest recourses in the farms. The typical forest site type is Myrtillus type, and the average growing stock is 96‒136 m3/ha which is above the average of the private forests. Fellings exceeded the growth of the forests in some farms, but this was compensated by uncommonly large forest resources. In average, growth exceeded the fellings. Timber accounted for most of the sales, while fuel wood sales exceeded the pulpwood sales. The significance of thinning seems not be fully understood in the farms. Especially standing sales of timber was important for the economy of the farms.

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  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7309, category Article
I. Lassila. (1934). Kestävyys puun laadun tunnuksena. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 32 article id 7309. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7309
English title: Durability as indication of wood quality.
Original keywords: puuaine; lujuus; kestävyys; puun laatu
English keywords: wood; timber; strength; durability

The article reviews the change in how the most sufficient wood material was chosen for different uses. The craftsmen used different characteristics to determine the quality of wood, for instance, tree species, location in the stem, whether it was sapwood or heartwood etc. Scientifically, the quality of the wood has been described by, for instance, specific gravity, bending strength and compressive strength. Durability would, however, be better attribute than strength to describe the quality of wood, because circumstances, like humidity and temperature can change where the wood is used. The article discusses further the development of durability indexes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7309, category Article
I. Lassila. (1934). Kestävyys puun laadun tunnuksena. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 32 article id 7309. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7309
English title: Durability as indication of wood quality.
Original keywords: puuaine; lujuus; kestävyys; puun laatu
English keywords: wood; timber; strength; durability

The article reviews the change in how the most sufficient wood material was chosen for different uses. The craftsmen used different characteristics to determine the quality of wood, for instance, tree species, location in the stem, whether it was sapwood or heartwood etc. Scientifically, the quality of the wood has been described by, for instance, specific gravity, bending strength and compressive strength. Durability would, however, be better attribute than strength to describe the quality of wood, because circumstances, like humidity and temperature can change where the wood is used. The article discusses further the development of durability indexes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7303, category Article
J. Keränen. (1934). Lämpöoloista puiden ja eräiden pensaiden kasvupaikkojen pohjoisilla rajoilla Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 26 article id 7303. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7303
English title: Thermal conditions in the northern limits of some tree species and bushes in Finland.

The article discusses the thermal conditions in the northern limits of trees and some bushes in Finland. Temperature is the most important limiting factor for distribution of plant species. Precipitation variations, however, are small in Finland. The article lists the main features of thermal conditions during the different seasons in different parts of Finland. The northern limits and the thermal condition of the area are described for the following species: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), mezereon, buckthorn, common alder, linden, elm, maple, hazel, ash, oak, hybrid mountain ash, yew and Swedish whitebeam.

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  • Keränen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7302, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1934). Karsimisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 25 article id 7302. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7302
English title: The silvicultural influences of pruning.

Pruning growing trees influences tree growth and value of the wood and yield of timber of the stand. Pruning living branches create open wounds on the stems that can risk the growth of tree species that are vulnerable to injuries. For instance, pruning has been shown to cause decay in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), while Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can quickly heal over the branch scars. Pruning of living branches reduces the crown, the effect of which remains small if only the lowest branches are pruned. Pruning of dry branches has little effect on the health of the tree. The main objective of pruning is to improve the quality of timber. Knottiness decreases strength and appearance of timber. Pruning increases the yield of knot-free sapwood, which is especially valuable in veneer timber. Pruning is, therefore, at present most suitable for birch and aspen which are used in veneer industry. In both species pruning should be directed mainly to dry branches.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7295, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1934). Lounais-Suomen metsien puulajihistoriasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 18 article id 7295. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7295
English title: The history of tree species in southwest Finland.

Pollen analysis has given information on development of the tree species composition after the ice age, but this kind of studies have not been published in Finland. In this study, pollen analysis was performed in five peatlands in the southwest Finland. According to the analysis, the forests of the area have had similar tree species composition for many thousands of years. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been the dominant species as long as there has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the area. Norway spruce seems to have arrived about 4,500 years ago. It increased slowly in the beginning, and after reaching a maximum has been slowly decreasing. Before spruce arrived, Betula sp. was more abundant, and seemed to be the dominant tree species in some places. Traces of fire in the peat layers indicate that forest fires have been common before people arrived in the area, and may have beneficial to birch. Like Betula sp., also Alnus sp. were more common before spruce arrived. Also pollen of other broadleaved species, for example, Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Corylus could be found. However, Quercus pollen was not found. The paludification of the peatlands had begun at different times which indicates that there has not been a common cause for the development of the peatlands in the area.

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  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7291, category Article
Paul Wallden. (1934). Tutkimuksia koivupuun anatoomisen rakenteen ja teknillisten ominaisuuksien keskinäisestä riippuvuudesta solumittauksien perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 14 article id 7291. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7291
English title: Studies on relationship between anatomical structure and technical properties of birch wood.

Birch wood is used widely in wooden structures where mechanical strength is needed. The aim of the research was to study the influence of the relative share of mechanically weak tracheids, and length of the wood fibers on specific gravity and bending strength of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) wood. According to the results, the strength of wood is strongly dependent on the relative share of tracheids, and length of the libriform cells. The strength of the wood increases when the share of tracheids decreases and the length of libriform cells increases. The specific gravity can be used as an indication of the strength of wood, especially if it is possible to analyze the structure of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wallden, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7286, category Article
Matti Jalava. (1934). Havaintoja puun aseman vaikutuksesta puun ominaisuuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 9 article id 7286. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7286
English title: Influence of the position of a tree in the stand upon the properties of the wood.

The growth of a tree is influenced by inherited properties and external circumstances, including climate, soil, the position of the tree in the stand, and the position of the wood in the stem. The tree species have optimum climate and optimum conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if the summerwood content of the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the rate of growth of the tree. Comparing the position of the sample trees in the stand, it seems that the position of the tree and the size of its crown influences strongly the quality of the wood. In a dense stand the summerwood content was higher in the trees that had small crowns. Thinning of the stand decreased the difference in summerwood content of the trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7286, category Article
Matti Jalava. (1934). Havaintoja puun aseman vaikutuksesta puun ominaisuuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 9 article id 7286. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7286
English title: Influence of the position of a tree in the stand upon the properties of the wood.

The growth of a tree is influenced by inherited properties and external circumstances, including climate, soil, the position of the tree in the stand, and the position of the wood in the stem. The tree species have optimum climate and optimum conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if the summerwood content of the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the rate of growth of the tree. Comparing the position of the sample trees in the stand, it seems that the position of the tree and the size of its crown influences strongly the quality of the wood. In a dense stand the summerwood content was higher in the trees that had small crowns. Thinning of the stand decreased the difference in summerwood content of the trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7286, category Article
Matti Jalava. (1934). Havaintoja puun aseman vaikutuksesta puun ominaisuuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 9 article id 7286. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7286
English title: Influence of the position of a tree in the stand upon the properties of the wood.

The growth of a tree is influenced by inherited properties and external circumstances, including climate, soil, the position of the tree in the stand, and the position of the wood in the stem. The tree species have optimum climate and optimum conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if the summerwood content of the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the rate of growth of the tree. Comparing the position of the sample trees in the stand, it seems that the position of the tree and the size of its crown influences strongly the quality of the wood. In a dense stand the summerwood content was higher in the trees that had small crowns. Thinning of the stand decreased the difference in summerwood content of the trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7286, category Article
Matti Jalava. (1934). Havaintoja puun aseman vaikutuksesta puun ominaisuuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 9 article id 7286. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7286
English title: Influence of the position of a tree in the stand upon the properties of the wood.

The growth of a tree is influenced by inherited properties and external circumstances, including climate, soil, the position of the tree in the stand, and the position of the wood in the stem. The tree species have optimum climate and optimum conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if the summerwood content of the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is dependent on the rate of growth of the tree. Comparing the position of the sample trees in the stand, it seems that the position of the tree and the size of its crown influences strongly the quality of the wood. In a dense stand the summerwood content was higher in the trees that had small crowns. Thinning of the stand decreased the difference in summerwood content of the trees.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jalava, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7277, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1933). Kuusipaperipuun kutistumisesta ja kutistumisen osuudesta pinon painumiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 6 article id 7277. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7277
English title: Studies on shrinkage of Norway spruce pulpwood and its effect on sinking of the stacks.
Original keywords: pino; pinomitta; puukauppa; kuitupuu

When the volume of the pulpwood was determined from the dimensions of the stack, the practice was to add an agreed percentage to the height of the stack which took account of the sinking of the stack as the wood dried. The stack was piled to the agreed added height, or the percentage was compensated when the stack was delivered to the buyer. The aim of the study was to determine a more accurate percentage to be used in the pulpwood sales.

The dimensions of a stack of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) pulpwood and the diameter of each log was measured during the drying. The 223 cm high pile sank by 0.8% to 221 cm, and the stacked cubic meter decreased from 4.46 m3 to 4.42 m3. However, the shrinkage of a solid cubic meter of the wood was 2.8%, markedly more than the sinking of the stack.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7277, category Article
Einari Wuoti. (1933). Kuusipaperipuun kutistumisesta ja kutistumisen osuudesta pinon painumiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 6 article id 7277. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7277
English title: Studies on shrinkage of Norway spruce pulpwood and its effect on sinking of the stacks.
Original keywords: pino; pinomitta; puukauppa; kuitupuu

When the volume of the pulpwood was determined from the dimensions of the stack, the practice was to add an agreed percentage to the height of the stack which took account of the sinking of the stack as the wood dried. The stack was piled to the agreed added height, or the percentage was compensated when the stack was delivered to the buyer. The aim of the study was to determine a more accurate percentage to be used in the pulpwood sales.

The dimensions of a stack of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) pulpwood and the diameter of each log was measured during the drying. The 223 cm high pile sank by 0.8% to 221 cm, and the stacked cubic meter decreased from 4.46 m3 to 4.42 m3. However, the shrinkage of a solid cubic meter of the wood was 2.8%, markedly more than the sinking of the stack.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wuoti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7272, category Article
Viljo O. Sierla. (1933). Uittoyhdistysten kuljettamat puumäärät vv. 1922-1927. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 7272. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7272
English title: Timber transportation of the floating associations in 1922¬‒1927.

 The numerous waterways have promoted the development of forest industry in Finland by offering an easy way to transport timber almost in the whole country. Floating associations arrange the floating for its members. This study, accomplished in the Forest Research Institute, compiles the statistics of the different associations in 1922­‒1927.  The volume of timber transported by the floating associations increased by 40% during the 6-year period, reaching 10.5 million m3 in 1927. The increase has been supported by the number of collectively used floating channels. The number of the floating associations increase from 17 to 26 and the length of the floating channels used by them to 8,300 km in 1922‒1927. About 70‒80% of the transported timber was logs and the 20‒30% small timber. Floated timber comprised 70-80% of the all roundwood used in the forest industry in Finland at the time. Majority of the logs were softwood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sierla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7268, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Höyryalusten polttopuun kulutus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 7268. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7268
English title: Höyryalusten polttopuun kulutus.
Original keywords: höyryalus; polttoaine; polttopuu
English keywords: steamboat; steamship; fuelwood; fuel; coal

A questionnaire was sent to the steamship owners to investigate the annual fuelwood consumption of the steamships in Finland in 1927‒1929. Most of the steamships used split spillet as fuel, and the share of coal and waste wood remained low. The fuelwood consumption of cargo ships, passenger ships and tugboats was calculated for different kinds of steamships, and by the engine power of the ships and by the fuelwood type. The annual fuelwood consumption of cargo ships was 22,768‒27,390 m3, passenger ships 24,738­‒33,616 m3 and tugboats 76,764‒113,791 m3 in 1927‒1929.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7267, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Jalostamattoman puutavaran vienti Suomesta vuosina 1911-1931. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 7267. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7267
English title: Export of roundwood from Finland in 1911‒1931.
Original keywords: puun vienti; raakapuu; vienti; sahatukki; parru

The export of roundwood from Finland was studied based on the official statistics of foreign trade. The volumes were converted to solid volumes under bark. Roundwood (logs and masts) or raw timber trade consisted mainly of saw logs. The main tree species was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrs L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The annual volumes varied from 29,200 m3 in the war year 1918 to 657,200 m3 in 1924. Before the World War I the roundwood was exported mainly to Sweden and Russia, after the war the trade to Russia ceased. Also split spillet was a significant export item before the war. The export peaked in 1916 to 3 million m3, but decreased after the war to 30,000‒40,000 m3. The most important export item in the group of hewn timber has been Egyptian rafters, with annual export of 15,000‒284,600 m3 with the exception of the time of war. The export of spars exported to other countries than Egypt was highest before the war with 125,000 m3. The export of sleepers varied strongly, peaking in 1922. The total export of roundwood varied from 131,000 m3 in 1918 to 4.3 million m3 in 1927. Roundwood has mainly been exported to the European countries. Before the war, the main trading partners were United Kingdom and Russia. After the war the share of United Kingdom was nearly half of the volume, and Russia was replaced with Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7267, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Jalostamattoman puutavaran vienti Suomesta vuosina 1911-1931. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 7267. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7267
English title: Export of roundwood from Finland in 1911‒1931.
Original keywords: puun vienti; raakapuu; vienti; sahatukki; parru

The export of roundwood from Finland was studied based on the official statistics of foreign trade. The volumes were converted to solid volumes under bark. Roundwood (logs and masts) or raw timber trade consisted mainly of saw logs. The main tree species was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrs L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The annual volumes varied from 29,200 m3 in the war year 1918 to 657,200 m3 in 1924. Before the World War I the roundwood was exported mainly to Sweden and Russia, after the war the trade to Russia ceased. Also split spillet was a significant export item before the war. The export peaked in 1916 to 3 million m3, but decreased after the war to 30,000‒40,000 m3. The most important export item in the group of hewn timber has been Egyptian rafters, with annual export of 15,000‒284,600 m3 with the exception of the time of war. The export of spars exported to other countries than Egypt was highest before the war with 125,000 m3. The export of sleepers varied strongly, peaking in 1922. The total export of roundwood varied from 131,000 m3 in 1918 to 4.3 million m3 in 1927. Roundwood has mainly been exported to the European countries. Before the war, the main trading partners were United Kingdom and Russia. After the war the share of United Kingdom was nearly half of the volume, and Russia was replaced with Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7266, category Article
Eino Saari. (1931). Tutkimuksia Suomen puuvanuketeollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 7266. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7266
English title: Investigations into the costs of raw material in the Finnish pulp industry.

The article is a review on the wood procurement and cost of pulpwood in the Finnish mechanical and chemical pulp industry in 1922‒1926, based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries), and the series Statistics of Industry and Foreign Trade. Wood trade is carried out by three types of sale: standing sales where the buyer of the wood takes care of fellings and transport (55% of the volume), contracts for the delivery of pulpwood (45% of the volume), and fellings in the own forests of the industry. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was the most important tree species, and was used almost exclusively especially in the mechanical pulp mills. According to the study, the demand of pulpwood increased markedly during the period. The stumpage prices did, however, not increase accordingly until in 1926. It is assumed that also the supply of wood was high after the World War I.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7266, category Article
Eino Saari. (1931). Tutkimuksia Suomen puuvanuketeollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 7266. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7266
English title: Investigations into the costs of raw material in the Finnish pulp industry.

The article is a review on the wood procurement and cost of pulpwood in the Finnish mechanical and chemical pulp industry in 1922‒1926, based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries), and the series Statistics of Industry and Foreign Trade. Wood trade is carried out by three types of sale: standing sales where the buyer of the wood takes care of fellings and transport (55% of the volume), contracts for the delivery of pulpwood (45% of the volume), and fellings in the own forests of the industry. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was the most important tree species, and was used almost exclusively especially in the mechanical pulp mills. According to the study, the demand of pulpwood increased markedly during the period. The stumpage prices did, however, not increase accordingly until in 1926. It is assumed that also the supply of wood was high after the World War I.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7266, category Article
Eino Saari. (1931). Tutkimuksia Suomen puuvanuketeollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 7266. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7266
English title: Investigations into the costs of raw material in the Finnish pulp industry.

The article is a review on the wood procurement and cost of pulpwood in the Finnish mechanical and chemical pulp industry in 1922‒1926, based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries), and the series Statistics of Industry and Foreign Trade. Wood trade is carried out by three types of sale: standing sales where the buyer of the wood takes care of fellings and transport (55% of the volume), contracts for the delivery of pulpwood (45% of the volume), and fellings in the own forests of the industry. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was the most important tree species, and was used almost exclusively especially in the mechanical pulp mills. According to the study, the demand of pulpwood increased markedly during the period. The stumpage prices did, however, not increase accordingly until in 1926. It is assumed that also the supply of wood was high after the World War I.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7259, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsätyypin vaikutuksesta puun painoon. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 7259. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7259
English title: The influence of forest site type on the weight of wood.

Earlier research has presented contradictory results of the influence of forest site type on the weight of wood. In this study, dominant trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was chosen as sample trees on four forest site types: Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus and Oxalis site types. The trees were felled in autumn, when the water content of the wood is low. Weight of the test samples was measured weigh before and after drying. Undried wood, both sapwood and heartwood, is heavier in Myrtillus type than in Vaccinium type. The weight of the air-dried heartwood did not differ between the two forest site types. Air-dried- sapwood was heaviest in Myrtillus site type. Air-dried heartwood was heaviest in Vaccinium site type, and lightest in Oxalis type. Owen-dried sapwood was heaviest in Calluna site type, where the tree growth is slow, but weight differences were small in owen-dried heartwood. It can be claimed that forest type affects wood quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7257, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1929). Ulkomaisten puulajien kasvu- ja menestymissuhteista eräässä Kulosaaren yksityispuistikossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 7257. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7257
English title: Growth and success of exotic tree species in a private garden in Kulosaari, Finland.
English keywords: climate; provenance

The growth of 35 exotic tree species in garden established in 1912 is discussed in the article. The site is located in Kulosaari, Helsinki in the Southern coast of Finland. The species represented the Chamaecyparis, Abies, Tsuga, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Juglans, Populus, Salix, Tilia, Acer, Prunus, Crataegus and Amelanchier families. All the tree species from northern continental climate and most of the species of temperate regions grew well or moderately well. Species form northern oceanic climate succeeded moderately well. The species from southern continental or oceanic climate did not endure the climate in Kulosaari. Definite conclusions were not possible to make, because the precise origin of the seedlings was not known, and there was usually only one tree from each species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7240, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1929). Kontusaaren tervalepikkö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 27 article id 7240. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7240
English title: Common alder forest in Kontusaari.
English keywords: Alnus incana; productivity

The aim of the study was to determine the value of common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) in forestry by studying an unusually large alder forest in Kontusaari, an island of the size of 75 hectares in the Southern Finland. The forest is grass-herb forest site type. The coastline of the island is partly flooded. Wood has been harvested mainly for fuel wood. The stands have regenerated easily from stump shoots. The annual volume growth is slightly higher than what would be in Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) Karst.) or Betula sp. stands, estimated based on growth and yield tables made by Ilvessalo. The site is well suited for common alder, and it is difficult to judge what the yield would be for other species on the site.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7203, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Puun mekaanillis-teknillisten ominaisuuksien tutkimuksesta, sen tuloksista ja tehtävistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 7203. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7203
English title: Research on mechanic technical properties of wood.

The article includes a detailed review on the technical properties of wood. The weight, water content, strength and conductivity of the wood, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The mechanical and technical properties of wood are influenced, for instance, by tree species, age and part of the tree, geographical situation, site and growth conditions of the stand, anatomical structure of the wood, and temperature. The author summarizes the topics where further research should be addressed. For instance, the forest site types developed in Finland could be utilized in studies of the mechanic technical properties of wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7203, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Puun mekaanillis-teknillisten ominaisuuksien tutkimuksesta, sen tuloksista ja tehtävistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 7203. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7203
English title: Research on mechanic technical properties of wood.

The article includes a detailed review on the technical properties of wood. The weight, water content, strength and conductivity of the wood, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The mechanical and technical properties of wood are influenced, for instance, by tree species, age and part of the tree, geographical situation, site and growth conditions of the stand, anatomical structure of the wood, and temperature. The author summarizes the topics where further research should be addressed. For instance, the forest site types developed in Finland could be utilized in studies of the mechanic technical properties of wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7203, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Puun mekaanillis-teknillisten ominaisuuksien tutkimuksesta, sen tuloksista ja tehtävistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 7203. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7203
English title: Research on mechanic technical properties of wood.

The article includes a detailed review on the technical properties of wood. The weight, water content, strength and conductivity of the wood, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The mechanical and technical properties of wood are influenced, for instance, by tree species, age and part of the tree, geographical situation, site and growth conditions of the stand, anatomical structure of the wood, and temperature. The author summarizes the topics where further research should be addressed. For instance, the forest site types developed in Finland could be utilized in studies of the mechanic technical properties of wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5632, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Petteri Vanninen. (1997). An application of process-based modelling to the development of branchiness in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8534

A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7195, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1925). Niinipuun uudistumisesta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 5 article id 7195. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7195
English title: Regeneration of small leaved lime in Finland.

The northern range of small leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in Finland has remained the same since the end of 1800s, but according to the studies of subfossiles of lime found in peatlands, the northern limit has once been higher than at the present. The northernmost natural specimens of the species in Reisjärvi do not produce seed, and are therefore probably a relict. The article includes a review on the distribution of the species in Finland and its capacity to regenerate. The natural regeneration of lime in Finland is at present very rare. The species has lost its ability to sexual reproduction, but reproduces readily vegetatively.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7075, category Article
A. F. Tigerstedt. (1922). Mustilan kotikunnas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 7075. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7075
English title: The Mustila arboretum.

The article describes experiences in exotic tree and shrub species in Mustila arboretum in 1901-1921, situated in Southern Finland. Mustila is the first arboretum of the country, established in 1901. The tree species have mostly been planted as small stands or groups of trees. The objective has been to find species that suit the Finnish climate. The article describes experiences of cultivation trials of coniferous tree species from the genus of Taxus, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Thyopsis, Thuya, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus, in total 100 different species. The climate of Finland ranges from maritime to semi-maritime and semi-continental, becoming more continental towards the eastern parts of the country. According to the experiments, in Mustila area most promising are the Western American species from regions that are suitable distance from the Pacific Ocean. The exact origin of the seeds in the America is important for the survival of the species in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7075, category Article
A. F. Tigerstedt. (1922). Mustilan kotikunnas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 7075. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7075
English title: The Mustila arboretum.

The article describes experiences in exotic tree and shrub species in Mustila arboretum in 1901-1921, situated in Southern Finland. Mustila is the first arboretum of the country, established in 1901. The tree species have mostly been planted as small stands or groups of trees. The objective has been to find species that suit the Finnish climate. The article describes experiences of cultivation trials of coniferous tree species from the genus of Taxus, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Thyopsis, Thuya, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus, in total 100 different species. The climate of Finland ranges from maritime to semi-maritime and semi-continental, becoming more continental towards the eastern parts of the country. According to the experiments, in Mustila area most promising are the Western American species from regions that are suitable distance from the Pacific Ocean. The exact origin of the seeds in the America is important for the survival of the species in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5427, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1990). Salama puustokuolemien aiheuttajana. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5427. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15581
English title: Lightning as a cause of death of tree groups.
English keywords: lightning; forest damage

The writer reports in this discussion article of four stands in Finland that have died due to a bolt of lightning. A death of a group of trees because of lightning has been relatively uncommon for the forest professionals. The trees may not have no lightning marks. The four sites are presented in detail. Characteristic for this type of death of trees is, for instance, that trees have died within a circular area (of usually 30 m of diameter), only conifers have died, trees die from the top down, sometimes marks can be found in trees in the centre of the area, and under the bark may be brown patches or stripes.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5404, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1990). Suomen metsittyminen jääkauden jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5404. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15556
English title: The history of forests in Finland after the last ice age.

Based on literature this paper describes the natural afforestation of Finland that took place after the last ice age and the changes which have taken place during the last 10,000 years. The origin and development of the vegetation and trees are related to the changes in the edaphic and climatic factors. The first tree species to arrive in Finland were the primary colonizing species, birch and Scots pine. The appearance of Norway spruce dates back to about 5000 B.P. There have been great changes in the species composition of Finnish forests during the last several thousands of years but some 2,000–3,000 years ago the various species reached their present balance. The epoch of naural forests, which had lasted some 9,500 years, came to a conclusion, however, when man started to have a marked effect on the forest’s development 300–400 years ago.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5388, category Article
Martti Varmola. (1989). Männyn istutustaimikoiden lustonleveysmalli. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5388. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15546
English title: A model for ring width of planted Scots pine.

Ring width at breast height is presented as a function of stem radius at breast height, the ratio between the diameter of a tree and the basal area median diameter, site index, and density of stand. By means of a conversion model ring width at stump height can be estimated as a function of ring width at breast height.

According to previous studies substantially better wood quality can be expected if mean width near the pith at stump height decreases from 3 to 2 mm. According to the present study only on the poorest sites suitable for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) planting (poor Vaccinium type) the ring width is less than 3 mm at stump height even in the thickest trees. On more fertile sites a substantial increase in the recommended planting density is required, if the mean ring width is aimed to be less than 3 mm. On the best sites it is impossible to reach mean ring width of less than 2 mm, when the density is less than 4,000 stems/ha. Only the thinnest trees on the poorest sites can have a mean ring width less than 2mm.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Varmola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5371, category Article
Riitta Laurila. (1989). Pieniläpimittaisen männyn kuituominaisuudet. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5371. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15530
English title: Fibre properties in Pinus sylvestris pulpwood.

Properties of fibres in pulpwood, especially length, width and the thickness of walls in tracheids, are essential for strength properties of pulp and paper. Length and width of tracheids increase from pith to surface in radial direction. Young and small-sized stems have also smaller fibres. Small-sized Pinus sylvestris L. test trees had tracheids that were shorter both in stems and knot wood than those in normal sized trees. However, cell walls in test trees were as thick as in normal sized trees. It seems that especially the L/T -ratio (length/thickness) in small stems is worse than in normal sized pulp wood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Laurila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5371, category Article
Riitta Laurila. (1989). Pieniläpimittaisen männyn kuituominaisuudet. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5371. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15530
English title: Fibre properties in Pinus sylvestris pulpwood.

Properties of fibres in pulpwood, especially length, width and the thickness of walls in tracheids, are essential for strength properties of pulp and paper. Length and width of tracheids increase from pith to surface in radial direction. Young and small-sized stems have also smaller fibres. Small-sized Pinus sylvestris L. test trees had tracheids that were shorter both in stems and knot wood than those in normal sized trees. However, cell walls in test trees were as thick as in normal sized trees. It seems that especially the L/T -ratio (length/thickness) in small stems is worse than in normal sized pulp wood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Laurila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5371, category Article
Riitta Laurila. (1989). Pieniläpimittaisen männyn kuituominaisuudet. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5371. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15530
English title: Fibre properties in Pinus sylvestris pulpwood.

Properties of fibres in pulpwood, especially length, width and the thickness of walls in tracheids, are essential for strength properties of pulp and paper. Length and width of tracheids increase from pith to surface in radial direction. Young and small-sized stems have also smaller fibres. Small-sized Pinus sylvestris L. test trees had tracheids that were shorter both in stems and knot wood than those in normal sized trees. However, cell walls in test trees were as thick as in normal sized trees. It seems that especially the L/T -ratio (length/thickness) in small stems is worse than in normal sized pulp wood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Laurila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15529
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5277, category Article
Kirsi Maasalo. (1986). Pihlajan puuaineen ominaisuuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15456
English title: Properties of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

The basic density of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) is almost the same along the stem but that of the bark is increasing along the stem. The moisture content of the wood and of the bark is increasing along the stem. Its strength in the bending and in the compression is high. The volume shrinkage is high.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Maasalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5277, category Article
Kirsi Maasalo. (1986). Pihlajan puuaineen ominaisuuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15456
English title: Properties of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

The basic density of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) is almost the same along the stem but that of the bark is increasing along the stem. The moisture content of the wood and of the bark is increasing along the stem. Its strength in the bending and in the compression is high. The volume shrinkage is high.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Maasalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nepveu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5266, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Malli männyn, kuusen ja koivun puuaineen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15445
English title: Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, spruce and birch.

A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.

The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5261, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Koivuvaneritukkien ja -runkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5261. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15440
English title: Value relations of birch veneer logs and stems in Finland.

A model was developed in order to describe the peeling of veneer for determining value relationship for birch veneer logs and stems. The model was based on selling prices of veneer and other products as well as processing costs. The model was utilized for determining the effect of various input variables on the log value.

According to the results, the effect of tree size was important for the value of raw material. Even knottiness had an effect although only in the higher manufacturing costs of knotty veneer were taken into account. Pruning was a method to increase substantially the proportion of knotless veneer.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5256, category Article
Outi Muona, Raimo Hiltunen, Erkki Morén, D. V. Shaw. (1986). Analysis of monoterpene variation in natural stands and plustrees of Pinus sylvestris in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15435

Variation of monoterpene composition of Pinus sylvestris L. was studied in Southern, Central and Northern Finland using data from both natural stands and plus trees. The natural stands were analysed using different techniques and for fewer terpenes than the plus trees.

There were large differences between areas in the proportion of 3-carene in trees from natural stands, as has been discussed by previous authors. The proportion of 3-carene is bimodally distributed and believed to be controlled by a single gene with large effect. For this reason, we stratified our samples into high carene (>10%) and low carene (<10%) groups. Univariate analysis did not reveal any additional differences between natural populations in different zones for components other than 3-carene. In plus trees, several components showed significant differences, but the proportion of 3-carene did not differ between areas. Multivariate discrimination analysis did not distinguish between areas for natural stands. However, for the plus trees discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate between the zones relatively efficiently. The proportion of correct classification was greater than 64% using the best methods. The central zone was most distinct, and 80% of its trees were correctly classified. Broad generalizations are not possible due to the limitations imposed by our data. Our analysis of phenotypic variation does not support the suggestion that plus trees selected from the north represent a southern type.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Muona, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Morén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Shaw, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7060
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7060, category Article
August Renvall, Aarne Boman. (1921). Tilastollisia tutkimuksia yhtiöiden maanomistuksesta Suomessa III. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 7060. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7060
English title: Statistical studies on the landholdings of companies in Finland.

The timber companies began acquiring forest land in 1890s which raised concerns about decrease of the number of private farms and agricultural land, as had happened in Sweden earlier. This was not considered to be a major problem in Finland, but the sale of homesteads on former state lands for sawmill companies was considered to be against their objective. One reason for the sale of farms was the farmers’ poor conception of the value of the land. In 1915 three decrees that restricted the right of companies that use timber to buy land were approved. The article discusses in detail the arguments that led to the legislation and compares it to the situation in Sweden.

A survey was commissioned to study the of landholdings of the companies, and to compare it with farming in private and company owned farms. The article includes a study about individual farms in the municipalities of Multia, Heinävesi, Sulkava, Ruokolahti and Luumäki, and about land use in the areas.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Boman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5228, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1985). Kontortamännyn runkopuun trakeidien pituuden, halkaisijan ja soluseinän paksuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5228. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15407
English title: Length, diameter and cell wall thickness of tracheids in mature lodgepole pine bole wood.

Variation in tracheid morphology were examined for the bole wood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) grown in Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid lengths were examined in a fast-grown and in slow-grown trees from three stands. Tracheid length increased with increasing height to 4–8 metres and decreased after that, and increased also with increasing age from the pith. The variation between stems was high. The shortest tracheids were about 1.11 mm near the piths and the longest about 4.10 mm near the bark.

Tracheid diameter and cell wall thickness were measured for the total number of 16 stems from Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid diameter increased with increasing distance from pith and the largest tracheids were at a height of 4–8 metres. Cell wall thickness varied independently of height in the stem. Summerwood cell wall thickness was twice that of springwood. There was a difference of 0.6 μm in springwood and 1.0 μm in summerwood double cell wall thickness between the two stands. Cell wall percentage was 29±4.7 in springwood and 69±7.3 in summerwood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5228, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1985). Kontortamännyn runkopuun trakeidien pituuden, halkaisijan ja soluseinän paksuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5228. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15407
English title: Length, diameter and cell wall thickness of tracheids in mature lodgepole pine bole wood.

Variation in tracheid morphology were examined for the bole wood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) grown in Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid lengths were examined in a fast-grown and in slow-grown trees from three stands. Tracheid length increased with increasing height to 4–8 metres and decreased after that, and increased also with increasing age from the pith. The variation between stems was high. The shortest tracheids were about 1.11 mm near the piths and the longest about 4.10 mm near the bark.

Tracheid diameter and cell wall thickness were measured for the total number of 16 stems from Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid diameter increased with increasing distance from pith and the largest tracheids were at a height of 4–8 metres. Cell wall thickness varied independently of height in the stem. Summerwood cell wall thickness was twice that of springwood. There was a difference of 0.6 μm in springwood and 1.0 μm in summerwood double cell wall thickness between the two stands. Cell wall percentage was 29±4.7 in springwood and 69±7.3 in summerwood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5199, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1983). Puuaineen tiheyden ja vuosiluston leveyden vaikutus kuusen iskutaivutuslujuuteen Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15182
English title: The influence of basic density and growth ring width on the impact strength of Norway spruce wood from Southern and Northern Finland.

Basic density and absorbed energy in impact bending were measured for 500 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples from Northern and Southern Finland. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between impact strength and basic density was significant and regression analysis showed that it was linear.

Furthermore, with constant density, the impact strength was higher in Northern than in Southern Finland. This was due to growth ring width: i.e. when density was kept constant the impact strength increased with decreasing growth ring width. In addition, when the growth ring width was kept constant, the basic density of wood was higher in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7050, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1920). Ulkomaalaisten puulajien viljelymahdollisuudet Suomen oloja silmälläpitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 7050. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7050
English title: Prospects of cultivating exotic tree species in Finland.

The article includes a dendrological review on the effect of climate to the success of cultivation of exotic tree species, based on literature and analysis of the existing Finnish field tests. The cultivation of an exotic tree species succeeds only if the seed has been procured from an area, which climate is similar to the place of cultivation. Climate is even more important than site quality.

Finnish climate is boreal and continental, and thus tree species of similar climate suit here best. In favorable site conditions it is possible to grow also species from boreal marine, and temperate climates. Finnish summers are not warm enough for species from temperate continental climate to get prepared for the winter, and the shoots can get frost damages. This may be compensated with a warm and sheltered site. If the species tolerates shading, it can be planted under sheltering trees. For species from maritime boreal climate, the Finnish summer tends to be too short, and the winters too cold. A suitable site is rich, warm and sheltered, and has preferably a protective sparse tree cover. Species from southern maritime climate cannot be grown in Finland. The provenance of the seeds is also very important. An important source of seeds are the successful plantations in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5185, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Männyn oksien murtolujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5185. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15101
English title: Strength of Scots pine branches.

Empirical measurements showed that the strength of a dead branch of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was related to the second power of the branch diameter and the third power of the basic density of branch wood. The same factors affected also the strength of living branches. Especially, the contribution of wood density was important. The significance of the results is discussed considering the natural process of self-pruning and its effect on the branchiness of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5182, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Herman Hakala. (1983). Kuusitukin koon vaikutus sivulautojen taivutus- ja puristuslujuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5182. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15098
English title: Effect of log size on the bending and compression strength of side boards in Norway spruce.

In order to evaluate the strength properties of boards made from small and large Norway spruce (Picea abies) butt logs, 15 small (top end diameter 13 cm) and 15 large (top end diameter 25 cm) logs were sampled from a sawmill in Finland. From each log two test pieces were made in order to measure the bending and compression strength, dry density and average ring width.

The boards from small logs were stronger and their density higher. When the differences between groups were analysed it was found that the strength was determined by the density and ring width. When the density was kept constant, the increase in ring width had a decreasing effect on the strength properties. Because there was a negative correlation between ring width and density, ring width alone had a great effect on the strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5179, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Antti Maukkonen. (1983). Tavanomainen ja kuormainprosessori varttuneissa harvennusmetsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5179. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15095
English title: A conventional and grapple loader processor in second and third thinnings. A simulator experiment.

Using literature and a simulator experiment, an ordinary processor and a grapple loader processor were compared in conditions corresponding to thinning later than the first commercial thinning. Visual bucking only was employed in the simulator experiment. The strip road spacing was 30 m and there was no preliminary skidding of the trees. The simulator experiment confirmed the view reached in the literature that work productivity of the grappler loader processor is 20–40 % greater than that of an ordinary processor provided that the stem size is under 0.2–0.4 m3.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Maukkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5166, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Tervalepän kuitujen pituus. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5166. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15081
English title: Fibre length in common alder.

A material consisting of 21 common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) trees from 11 stands was collected. From each stem discs were sawn by 2 m interval. Samples were taken of the discs from various distances from pith. They were macerated and the average fibre length was based on 50 observations.

The fibre length increased significantly from the pith to the disc surface. The increase was approximately similar at various heights of the tree. The tree characteristics had only minor effect. However, near the pith the increase in fibre length was higher in trees with wide growth rings than in other trees. Near the disc surface the growth rate had no effect. In typical pulpwood bolts the average length was 800–950 μm which corresponds well to the data given in the literature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5166, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Tervalepän kuitujen pituus. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5166. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15081
English title: Fibre length in common alder.

A material consisting of 21 common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) trees from 11 stands was collected. From each stem discs were sawn by 2 m interval. Samples were taken of the discs from various distances from pith. They were macerated and the average fibre length was based on 50 observations.

The fibre length increased significantly from the pith to the disc surface. The increase was approximately similar at various heights of the tree. The tree characteristics had only minor effect. However, near the pith the increase in fibre length was higher in trees with wide growth rings than in other trees. Near the disc surface the growth rate had no effect. In typical pulpwood bolts the average length was 800–950 μm which corresponds well to the data given in the literature.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5130, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Mikroaaltotutka jään paksuuden mittaukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5130. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15187
English title: Radar measurement of ice thickness on ice roads and landing.

Light and economic FM-CW radar has been developed for controlling the bearing capacity of ice roads and landings on ice used for timber transportation and storage of timber in Finland. It was tested on natural ice and ice roads of three lakes in Southern Finland and one location on sea on the southren coast of Finland (a total of 166 observations). Ice thickness varied from 0 to 100 cm. Correlation coefficient between auger and radar measured ice thickness was r=0.99 and absolute error varied from -10 to +7 cm. The quality of ice had no influence, but by improving the interpretation of results, also the quality factors might be detected.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5126, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Koneiden uppoaminen suometsien puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5126. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15067
English title: Sinkage of forest machines during harvesting operations on peatlands.

Questionnaires were sent out to determine the volume of wood harvested from peatlands during 1978 and the harvesting problems encountered. In total there were 110 responses which accounted for 8 million m3 of wood harvested, of which 1.0 million m3 (14%) was harvested from peatlands. The largest proportion of wood harvested from peatlands was during the winter. Most of the respondents reportet that they wait for the soil frost to set before harvesting is started on peatlands. Respondents indicated a total of 263 machines bogging down in to the soil or, for 1978, a total for Finland of 750 to 1,000 machines.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7040, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Metsämaitten puuntuotantokyvyn, nykyisen tuoton ja puunkulutuksen välisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 7040. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7040
English title: The relation of the productive capacity of forests, their current production and wood utilization.

Annual variations in wood utilization makes it complicated to estimate the balance between wood utilization and wood production of forests. According to the article, the balance is unsustainable especially in the private forests in the southern part of Finland. The annual wood utilization of the country was 37.3 million m3 in 1913, and the annual wood production 35.2 million m3, according to a report of a committee that was appointed to find methods to prevent overcutting. The committee suggested legislation to forbid forest devastation. Also the growth of the forests could be increased, if the forests are well managed, the article argues. To prove this, the potential wood production capacity is estimated for the municipalities of Viipuri, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and compared to the present wood production and wood utilization of the area.

The PDF includes a German summary.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7040, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Metsämaitten puuntuotantokyvyn, nykyisen tuoton ja puunkulutuksen välisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 7040. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7040
English title: The relation of the productive capacity of forests, their current production and wood utilization.

Annual variations in wood utilization makes it complicated to estimate the balance between wood utilization and wood production of forests. According to the article, the balance is unsustainable especially in the private forests in the southern part of Finland. The annual wood utilization of the country was 37.3 million m3 in 1913, and the annual wood production 35.2 million m3, according to a report of a committee that was appointed to find methods to prevent overcutting. The committee suggested legislation to forbid forest devastation. Also the growth of the forests could be increased, if the forests are well managed, the article argues. To prove this, the potential wood production capacity is estimated for the municipalities of Viipuri, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and compared to the present wood production and wood utilization of the area.

The PDF includes a German summary.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5114, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Haapa- ja poppelilajien (Populus) käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5114. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15055
English title: Utilization of aspen and poplars (genus Populus).
Original keywords: haapa; poppelit; viljely; puulajit; käyttö

The aim of this study was to establish from the literature the purposes and for which aspen (Populus tremula L.) and related poplar species are used and can be used.  According to the literature, numerous Populus species can be utilized in the industry with success instead of light softwood species in addition to them. The main emphasis is in the growing of large-sized timber, and there is no clear trend to changing to the short-rotation forestry of poplar. However, the utilization of the good sprouting properties of Populus species will probably increase as this regeneration method is cheap.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5112, category Article
Timo Kyttälä. (1981). Yhteistoiminnan kehittäminen puunkorjuuorganisaatiossa työmaatapaamisen avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15053
English title: Development of cooperation between workers and supervisors in logging through work-site meetings.

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of the working place meetings on the increased cooperation between workers and supervisors, the improved work performance, the intensified use of machines and the improved job satisfaction. In the study loggers, forest machine operators and forement were interviewed. The results showed that the working place meeting is a useful means to realise the above-mentioned aims.

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  • Kyttälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7039, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1920). Pohjois-Suomen kuusimetsien esiintyminen, laajuus ja puuvarastot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 7039. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7039
English title: The distribution and volume of Norway spruce forests in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in Northern Finland are situated mainly in the state lands. The survey is based on silvicultural surveys made in the northernmost districts of the state forests. The quality of private lands of the area was deduced based on the adjacent state lands and specific observations. A map was drawn on the distribution of productive Norway spruce forest in the study area.

The continuous Norway spruce forest areas covered 1,112,000 hectares, of which 866,000 hectares were on the state lands. Especially in the northern parts of the area also more fragmented spruce forest could be found (130,000 hectares in the state lands). The estimated total volume of the wood in the forests in the state and private lands was 57.78 million m3 in the continuous spruce forest area. The spruce forests were often situated on hill and fell areas relatively high above the sea level. In the areas north of the 66th parallel, almost half of the forests were above 300 meters above the sea level. Because spruce forests of the state lands were concentrated near watershed areas, the wood harvesting was more expensive, and reduced the value of the state forests. The spruce forests grow usually on fresh mineral soil sites. However, towards north the species was found on drier sites. The stands were mostly pure spruce stands or mixed birch-spruce stands. The older age groups were the most common, but young stands were rare.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5089, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Alustavia mittaustuloksia kuivauksen ja liotuksen vaikutuksesta kuorellisen mänty- ja kuusipuutavaran kuoren paksuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5089. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15030
English title: Preliminary results of the effect of drying and soaking of the bark thickness of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

On the basis of a limited material, the drying of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber at room temperature decreased the thickness of the bark proportionally to the decrease in the moisture content. The decrease was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. During soaking, the bark thickness of both tree species decreased, too, contrary to the presupposed hypothesis. In both cases, the shrinkage was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. Possible explanation for the phenomenon is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5089, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Alustavia mittaustuloksia kuivauksen ja liotuksen vaikutuksesta kuorellisen mänty- ja kuusipuutavaran kuoren paksuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5089. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15030
English title: Preliminary results of the effect of drying and soaking of the bark thickness of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

On the basis of a limited material, the drying of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber at room temperature decreased the thickness of the bark proportionally to the decrease in the moisture content. The decrease was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. During soaking, the bark thickness of both tree species decreased, too, contrary to the presupposed hypothesis. In both cases, the shrinkage was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. Possible explanation for the phenomenon is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5083, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1980). Havaintoja koivutukkien epäpyöreydestä ja pituusmittaeroista. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5083. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15024
English title: Observations on the out-of-roundness and deviations from nominal lengths of birch logs.
English keywords: Betula; birch; logs; roundness; diameter

A material of 478 birch logs were measured. The horizontal diameter was on average larger than the vertical one, the difference increasing with the increasing diameter. The reason was supposed to be the effect of sweep and out-of-roundness of logs. The difference between the actual and nominal length increased with the increasing lengths, but decreased with increasing diameter.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5059, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1980). Jäljelle jäävä puusto ja ajouralta toimivat harvennuspuun korjuukoneet. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5059. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15000
English title: Remaining trees and machines working from the strip roads in thinning.

In the first part of the study the hindrance of the remaining trees when felling trees by machines working from the strip road in selective thinning was studied on the basis of the literature. In the second part there was geometrically studied the need of schematic thinning in some type stands when bundles are pre-skidded straight-lined to the strip road. In average only 0-1 trees per pre-skidding trail needs to be removed. It was concluded that trees removed from the pre-skidding trail do not significantly increase the need of schematic thinning. Remaining trees do not limit the length of machine booms if the pre-skidding trails are planned during the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5059, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1980). Jäljelle jäävä puusto ja ajouralta toimivat harvennuspuun korjuukoneet. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5059. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15000
English title: Remaining trees and machines working from the strip roads in thinning.

In the first part of the study the hindrance of the remaining trees when felling trees by machines working from the strip road in selective thinning was studied on the basis of the literature. In the second part there was geometrically studied the need of schematic thinning in some type stands when bundles are pre-skidded straight-lined to the strip road. In average only 0-1 trees per pre-skidding trail needs to be removed. It was concluded that trees removed from the pre-skidding trail do not significantly increase the need of schematic thinning. Remaining trees do not limit the length of machine booms if the pre-skidding trails are planned during the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5014, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1979). Punapuiden suojeluongelmia Kaliforniassa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5014. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14868
English title: Preservation problems of redwoods in California.

The paper deals with the problems of the preservation of the redwood groves (Sequioia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) J. Buchholz) in California. The activity to protect these groves from flood and fire may finally lead to dying of these long-lived trees. A program to use prescribed burning as a tool for the management of natural ecosystem has been started.

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  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Kokemuksia visakoivun kasvatuksesta Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14865
English title: Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: visakoivu; Lappi; puunkasvatus

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

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  • Etholén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5006, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Typpilannoituksen vaikutus havupuiden fotosynteesikapasiteettiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14860
English title: Effects of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic capacity of coniferous trees.

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the photosynthetic capacity of conifers is assessed on the basis of literature. The review emphasizes the role of changes of needle mass as a factor affecting the result of nutrient application. In particular, the increase in needle mass results in a considerable increase in photosynthetic capacity. The effect of fertilization on the photosynthetic rate seems to be of minor importance. The effect on the photosynthetic rate is, however, poorly documented as is the case for the effect of fertilization on the respiration rate. There is evidence that proper application of nitrogen fertilizers may double the photosynthetic capacity of conifers, mainly as a result of increase in needle mass.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5005, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Kuorinnan vaikutus pinon tiiviyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5005. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14859
English title: The effect of barking on the pile density.

According to the available literature, the times when pulpwood limbing was made by axe and barking by hand tools, barking either had no effect on the pile density (if limbing quality was good) or increased pile density (if limbing was bad). When rotary barking machines are used, the branch stumps remain intact during barking. Therefore, if there are branch stumps in the pulpwood, barking decreases the pile density. Nowadays, when power saw limbing is a common practice in Finland, barking presumably greatly decreases the pile density, due to the fact that in power saw limbing branch stumps are numerous and high. Therefore, the method to estimate the solid volume of a pile of unbarked pulpwood are not applicable to barked pulpwood without modification.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4987, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja kokopuuhakkeen tiheyden laskemisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4987. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14841
English title: Observations on the calculations of the basic density of total tree chips.
Original keywords: kokopuuhake; hake; menetelmät
English keywords: chips; basic density; methods

In this study two methods of determining the basic density of total tree chips are compared. The method of Mäkelä (1977) is based on the volumes of Scots pine, Norway spruce, birch, and alder in a logging area, and the age of the trees. In the other method the basic density of total tree chips is measured by the common displacement method. The correlation was 0,730 in the material of 22 logging areas. Besides this it was found that the basic density of chips increases as the size of the chip particles increases with the exception of the smallest particles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7026, category Article
August Renvall. (1919). Suojametsäkysymyksestä VI. Asutusolojen järjestely mäntymetsärajaseuduilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 6 article id 7026. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7026
English title: Protection forests VI.

The sixth part of the six-article series about protection forest in the Northern Finland is a review of the population and villages situated in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) timber line area, and how private use of wood can be coordinated with the protection of pine timber line. Both the preservation of forests and the use of the forest as the source of timber and fuel wood in the timber line area are essential for the local communities, especially because in the area there is are few livelihoods. The article includes a proposal for a decree for new settlements in the northern protection forest area.

The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4974, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Teknisesti korjattavissa oleva hakkuutähde sekä kanto- ja juuripuu Kaakkois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4974. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14825
English title: The amounts of logging residues and stump and root wood technically harvestable in southeast Finland.

The amounts of harvestable logging residues and stump and root wood were examined in the area where 100,000 solid m3 of stemwood was cut in 1975. The cutting amounts of stemwood from work sites suitable for harvesting of logging residues was 35,000 m3, and suitable for harvesting of stump and root wood 38,000 m3. The increase in the yield of wood (without bark) from logging residues compared with the unbarked stemwood was 2.4%. The same percentage of wood from stump and root wood was 5.0–5.8% depending on the harvesting loss.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4970, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Metsähakkeen tiheyden laskeminen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14821
English title: Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips.

A method is presented in this study for calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips and the results of trial measurements on some commonly used chip sorts. The basic density of Scots pine whole tree chips was found to be 1–18 kg/m3 smaller than that of pine pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of Norway spruce whole tree chips was 4–22 kg/m3 greater than that of similar aged pulpwood. The basic density of birch whole tree chips was 4–16 kg/m3 and grey alder whole tree chips 7–24 kg/m3 greater than pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of conifer logging residue chips was considerably greater than that of pine and spruce whole tree ships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4965, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Marjut Raivonen. (1977). Reaktiopuun mekaaninen lujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4965. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14816
English title: Mechanical strength of reaction wood.
Original keywords: lyly; reaktiopuu; vetopuu; lujuus

According to the literature, the mechanical strength of the green reaction wood of softwood species (compression wood) is greater than that of normal wood. Drying increases the mechanical strength but less in reaction wood than in normal wood. In particular, the tensile strength along the grain and the impact strength are lower than in normal wood. The compression strength and possibly bending strength are greater, however.

The properties of the reaction wood of hardwood species (tension wood) differ from those of softwoods. When green, all mechanical properties are weaker than those of normal wood. When dried, the tensile strength and impact strength are better and compression strength lower. There is no great difference in the bending strength.

When the higher density of reaction wood is not taken into account and there are no impact forces, the mechanical strength of reaction wood in sawn goods etc. does not differ so much from that of normal wood. The harmful effect of knots, for example, can in practice be much greater.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4965, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Marjut Raivonen. (1977). Reaktiopuun mekaaninen lujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4965. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14816
English title: Mechanical strength of reaction wood.
Original keywords: lyly; reaktiopuu; vetopuu; lujuus

According to the literature, the mechanical strength of the green reaction wood of softwood species (compression wood) is greater than that of normal wood. Drying increases the mechanical strength but less in reaction wood than in normal wood. In particular, the tensile strength along the grain and the impact strength are lower than in normal wood. The compression strength and possibly bending strength are greater, however.

The properties of the reaction wood of hardwood species (tension wood) differ from those of softwoods. When green, all mechanical properties are weaker than those of normal wood. When dried, the tensile strength and impact strength are better and compression strength lower. There is no great difference in the bending strength.

When the higher density of reaction wood is not taken into account and there are no impact forces, the mechanical strength of reaction wood in sawn goods etc. does not differ so much from that of normal wood. The harmful effect of knots, for example, can in practice be much greater.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4958, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Araukaarian ja männyn puuaineen ominaisuuksien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14809
English title: Comparison of wood properties of Parana pine and Scots pine.

According to the available literature, the appearance of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze) wood resembles that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The anatomy is quite different, however. There are no resin canals and fusiform rays with resin canals in Parana pine. They are abundant in Scots pine, however. The basic density of Parana pine is higher. In both species the density increases from the pith outwards, the maximum being reached at the age of 100 years. Compression wood is more common in Parana pine than in Scots pine, and this makes the longitudinal shrinkage of Parana pine greater than that of Scots pine. Otherwise the shrinkage properties do not differ. The mechanical strength is of the same magnitude with the exception of hardness, where Parana pine is superior.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4950, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Lisähavaintoja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4950. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14796
English title: Auxiliary observations on the measurement of the cross-sectional area of aspen logs.

In this study the area, 8 diameters, and 16 radii were measured of 174 discs representing aspen logs in a mill. The average difference between the largest and smallest diameter was 18 mm, or 7% of the longest diameter. The difference between the largest and smallest radius was 29 mm, or 22% of the longest radius. The diameter was on the average 2.4 mm longer than the two corresponding radii.

The exact area of each disc was measured using a planimeter. In comparison, the area based on the circle formula the diameter being the arithmetic mean of largest and smallest diameters overestimated the area by 1.7%. The results also indicated that the use of random direction in the measurement of diameter overestimated the cross-sectional area on the average by 1.8%.

The study is continuation of the earlier study where the bibliography is presented. As far as the results are comparable, they support each other.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4948, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Puun ja kuoren tiheys ja kosteus sekä kuoren osuus koivun, kuusen ja männyn oksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14794
English title: Density and moisture content of wood and bark, and bark percentage in the branches of birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine.

In the study the proportion of branch samples of various diameter were studied. The branches were taken from small trees to be harvested by total tree chipping method. The material consisted of 1,056 branch samples of birch (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula Roth, and Betula pubescens Erhr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at intervals of 20 cm along each branch.

With exception of the basic density of bark, there was a relation between all the other properties which were studied and the diameter. Even when the effect of diameter was eliminated, in many cases the effect of the distance of the samples from the stem became apparent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4938, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden korkeus ja leveys. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14783
English title: Height and width of rays in Scots pine stems.

In this study the width and height of 1,588 uniseriate and 454 fusiform rays were measured from tangential sections of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trunks. The samples represented various height levels and distances from the pith. The average width of the uniseriate rays was 19.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays, 51.9 μm. The average height of the uniseriate rays was 215.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays 406.2 μm. Due to this difference in height, it may be possible to develop an automatic system for distinguishing between uniseriate end fusiform rays on the basis of their height.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4938, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden korkeus ja leveys. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14783
English title: Height and width of rays in Scots pine stems.

In this study the width and height of 1,588 uniseriate and 454 fusiform rays were measured from tangential sections of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trunks. The samples represented various height levels and distances from the pith. The average width of the uniseriate rays was 19.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays, 51.9 μm. The average height of the uniseriate rays was 215.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays 406.2 μm. Due to this difference in height, it may be possible to develop an automatic system for distinguishing between uniseriate end fusiform rays on the basis of their height.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4927, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Kantojen käytön kehittyminen Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14769
English title: Development of stump utilization in Finland.

The utilization of stump and root wood is analysed in this paper on the basis of literature from middle of 19th century to the present date. According to the information available, the utilization of pine stumps in tar production was small compared to that of peeled Scots pine stemwood in the 19th century. During the 1st and 2nd World War the utilization of stumps for tar production reached its highest levels. Other industrial utilization of stumps has been small up to the present time but now stumps are beginning to be used in the pulp industry.

The greatest amounts of stumps have been utilized by the rural population. Stumps were used as fuel. In the thirties, the yearly amount used was over 200,000 m3 (solid measure), and even in the sixties over 100,00 m3. No industrial utilization method has yet reached these levels.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4922, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Koivu- ja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14764
English title: Measurement of the cross-sectional area of birch and aspen logs.

The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the cross section of birch (Betula sp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) logs differ from a circle and to test some simple methods for measuring the cross-sectional area which can be used, for instance, for determining the volume of the logs. The material consisted of 420 debarked birch disks and 240 aspen disks which were representative of the logs arriving at two factories.

The convex deficit values for the material were very small, the cross-sectional area error being in general less than 1%. On the other hand, the other parameters deviated from the circular form to quite a large degree. It was also evident that the radii measured from the piths to the surface of the wood varied considerably more in the same disk, as regards length, than the diameters measured in different directions.

It was evident that the shape of the average cross-sectional area was not in general elliptical. It thus appears that any method for measuring the cross-sectional area which is based on elliptical formula is not suitable. The method which gave the best result was that in which the cross-sectional area was taken as the average of the area of the circle calculated from the smallest diameter and that calculated from the diameter passing at right angles to it. This method also appeared to be the best for disks which deviated to quite a large degree from the circular form. The suitability of this method is increased by the fact that the relative error is only slightly dependent on the size of the disk.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7020
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14776
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

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  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4918, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsätalousyksikön puuntuotannon suunnittelu lineaarista ohjelmointia käyttäen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4918. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14762
English title: Linear programming in the planning of timber production in a forestry unit.

The planning of timber production in a forestry unit is divisible into two phases. In the first phase, planning provides the decision-maker with a number of possible timber production policies; these policies define the production possibility boundary. After the decision-maker has chosen one of these policies, planning moves to the second phase, in which a detailed programme is prepared with a view to meeting the requirements of the timber production policy accepted. The paper indicates one possibility of solving these two tasks simultaneously. In the first phase, the solution of the primal linear programming problem is employed and in the second phase the respective dual or shadow price solution.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pökälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

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  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14754
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pahkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

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  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4900, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1974). Eräiden koneellistamisennusteiden herkkyydestä kustannustason muutoksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4900. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14744
English title: The influence of the change of cost level on some mechanization prognosis.

In this study a formula has been developed to describe the influence of the change of cost level on such a mechanization prognosis, where is assumed that wages and machine costs bear compound interest. In the study there are some numerical examples.

In the formula p1 = annual per cent increase of wages, p3 = annual per cent increase of machine costs, p2 = sudden and incident per cent increase of machine costs, and tv = delay in the profitability of mechanization.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4896, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Keskusmuotoluvun perusteita tukkien ja kuitupuun mittauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4896. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14740
English title: Foundations of middle form factor in the measurement of logs and pulpwood.

In this literature review some error possibilities in the measurement of solid volume of logs and pulpwood are discussed. Although both underestimation and overestimation can occur for various reasons it seems likely that in the stereometric measurement method the real volume is underestimated, at least when Huber’s formula is applied, and the respective middle form factors are too low. Numerous results of empirical investigations are presented in the paper, too.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4896, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Keskusmuotoluvun perusteita tukkien ja kuitupuun mittauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4896. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14740
English title: Foundations of middle form factor in the measurement of logs and pulpwood.

In this literature review some error possibilities in the measurement of solid volume of logs and pulpwood are discussed. Although both underestimation and overestimation can occur for various reasons it seems likely that in the stereometric measurement method the real volume is underestimated, at least when Huber’s formula is applied, and the respective middle form factors are too low. Numerous results of empirical investigations are presented in the paper, too.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4896, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Keskusmuotoluvun perusteita tukkien ja kuitupuun mittauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4896. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14740
English title: Foundations of middle form factor in the measurement of logs and pulpwood.

In this literature review some error possibilities in the measurement of solid volume of logs and pulpwood are discussed. Although both underestimation and overestimation can occur for various reasons it seems likely that in the stereometric measurement method the real volume is underestimated, at least when Huber’s formula is applied, and the respective middle form factors are too low. Numerous results of empirical investigations are presented in the paper, too.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14723
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

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  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

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  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

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  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4883, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Näkökohta kuitupuupölkkyjen siirtelymatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4883. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14720
English title: A note on the moving distance of pulpwood bolts.

The aim of the paper was to analyse, using a computer simulation technique, the moving distance of pulpwood bolts when direct felling of trees is used and the bolts are gathered alongside the strip road. According to the results, the average moving distance of bolts depends in a complicated way on the usable part of the stem and the spacing of strip road. As a rule, the differences between moving distances of two-meter bolts weighted and unweighted by bolt volume of various trees is 0–16% when the strip road spacing is 30 m the reason being the fact that the heaviest butt bolts are often more far away from the strip road than the top bolts.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4883, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Näkökohta kuitupuupölkkyjen siirtelymatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4883. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14720
English title: A note on the moving distance of pulpwood bolts.

The aim of the paper was to analyse, using a computer simulation technique, the moving distance of pulpwood bolts when direct felling of trees is used and the bolts are gathered alongside the strip road. According to the results, the average moving distance of bolts depends in a complicated way on the usable part of the stem and the spacing of strip road. As a rule, the differences between moving distances of two-meter bolts weighted and unweighted by bolt volume of various trees is 0–16% when the strip road spacing is 30 m the reason being the fact that the heaviest butt bolts are often more far away from the strip road than the top bolts.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4879, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden määrä ja koko. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4879. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14713
English title: Amount and size of rays in Scots pine stems.

The material consists of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems from which 757 samples were taken from various heights and distances from the pith. According to the results, the number of rays and their sizes are greater at the stump level than higher up in the stem. The size increases, and the number decreases on moving from the pith outwards. However, there are differences between stems as regards the variation model. The ratio between the number of fusiform rays and that of uniseriate rays seems to be lower than anticipated earlier, about 1:40–1:50. The average proportion of ray volume varied from 5.6% to 7.3%.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; sydänpuu; kuitupuu; läpimitta

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; sydänpuu; kuitupuu; läpimitta

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4865, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Esimerkki kuusikon lahovikaisuuden Etelä-Suomessa aiheuttamasta taloudellisesta menetyksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4865. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14668
English title: An example on the economic loss caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber in Southern Finland.

A growing stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) marked for cutting was investigated in the winter of 1971–72 in Helsinki in Southern Finland in order to determine the economic loss caused by decay. Taking a sample from growing spruce trees with increment borer is not a reliable method of determining the frequency of decay. The decayed stems were twice measured for assortment cutting into lengths; the first time disregarding the decay and the second time doing the actual assortment cutting according to the grade of timber. The direct economic loss caused by decay was 13% of the price for standing timber. The indirect loss may be as great as the direct loss.

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  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

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  • Erjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

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  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4848, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1971). Lahon leviäminen puunkorjuun aiheuttamista kuusen runko- ja juurivaurioista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4848. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14650
English title: Decay following logging injury in stems and roots of Norway spruce.

The material of 78 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees was gathered in Southern Finland in order to clarify the advance of decay. The harvesting which had caused the scars had been carried out 12 years earlier and at the moment of the investigation the growing stand was 110 years old. It was noticed that the variables used could explain only a few per cent of the variation of the advance of decay. It was concluded that the only important thing in practice is whether the injuries are in roots or in stems.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4848, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1971). Lahon leviäminen puunkorjuun aiheuttamista kuusen runko- ja juurivaurioista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4848. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14650
English title: Decay following logging injury in stems and roots of Norway spruce.

The material of 78 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees was gathered in Southern Finland in order to clarify the advance of decay. The harvesting which had caused the scars had been carried out 12 years earlier and at the moment of the investigation the growing stand was 110 years old. It was noticed that the variables used could explain only a few per cent of the variation of the advance of decay. It was concluded that the only important thing in practice is whether the injuries are in roots or in stems.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14648
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

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  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14648
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

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  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4843, category Article
Unto Silvennoinen, Rihko Haarlaa. (1971). Metsätraktoreiden liikkuvuus lumessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4843. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14645
English title: The mobility of logging tractors on snow.

The mobility of logging tractors was tested in the winter 1969 on difficult snow conditions to gather information for planning of logging operations and for logging machinery design. The tractors tested were Clark Ranger 666, Timberjack C, Valmet Terra, Ford Brunett 5000, Fiskars 510, BM-Volvo SM 660, BM Volvo SM 661, Ford Country 6, MF-Robur I and BM-Boxer T-350.

According to the results, there is a preference of tracked vehicles in difficult snow conditions compared to wheeled tractors. Ford Country with long and bearing full-tracks proved to have the best mobility. On downhill grades it was found significant differences between three-quarter-track-tractors and skidders, although the performance on level ground and uphill grades was relatively similar. The tracked vehicles can easier move on the packed snow layer and reach a higher speed.

The driving speed does not increase significantly until the density of snow has entirely changed through getting wet. Wet top layer of snow affects positively on driving, because it increases packing of the snow. Increasing density of the snow improves especially the mobility of broad-tired wheeled tractors. To be able to predict the driving speed of a tractor in winter working conditions one must know the depth of the snow layer and the density of the snow and the grade of the slope. In addition, the passages on the same route and the packing of the snow must be regarded.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Silvennoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14625
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7534, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Kaskiviljelyksen vaikutus Suomen metsiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 7534. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7534
English title: The effect of shifting cultivation on forests in Finland.

The article is a review on shifting cultivation, its methods and use in Finland, and its effect on the condition of forests. Shifting cultivation decreases forest reserves not only by burning large amounts of wood. Of the area used for shifting cultivation, 10-50% can be open land. The older age classes of forests are often missing, and range of tree species shift towards deciduous trees. This causes lack of large timber. The shorter the rotation, the less well the most valuable trees survive on the area. One reason is lack of seed trees. Of the coniferous trees, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is able to survive in the burnt-over lands better than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), because it can produce seeds at a relatively young age. Betula sp. and especially grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) regenerate well on burnt-over lands. Also the frequency of good seed years determine which tree species become the dominant species on a burnt-over site.

When shifting cultivation is abandoned, deciduous trees keep their advantage over coniferous trees, because the wood of coniferous trees is used more in the surrounding villages. Pine and spruce spread to the burnt-over areas from the poorer sites that often had remained unburned. In densely populated areas in some counties in Savo in eastern Finland, where shifting cultivation was practiced intensively, Norway spruce became rare. Dominant tree species in the burnt-over areas became birch and pine.

The article is divided in two parts. A German summary is included in a separate PDF
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4820, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1970). Ideaalinäkemys metsätyöorganisaatioiden kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4820. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14609
English title: The concept of ideal systems in design of forestry work organizations.

The most effective work organization will be used as a goal in minimizing of logging costs. Some type of problem approach is usually utilized. The concept of the ideal system offers a possibility to get guidance in this difficult task. The idea of an ideal system is based on the fact that an ideal system, even imagined, can be utilized for any purpose. There are checklists in handbooks to accomplish the four existing steps: define of function, design ideal, develop optimum and deliver results.

In this paper two special cases are taken up to illustrate the concept itself, and it’s use in design of forestry work organizations. There were found no such reasons which could limit or even prevent the use of this method for forest technological purposes. That is why the author believes the method to give better results than any other customary approach.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ouni, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4785, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1969). Maannousemasieni yleismaailmallisena ongelmana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4785. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14571
English title: Fomes annosus – A universal problem. A review in recent literature.

Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. (now Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.)) has proved highly adaptable to varying conditions. Thus, the fungus is able to alter the pH as well as in alkalic as acid direction according to the original pH-grade. The fungus spreads mainly by basidiospores or by the sterile mycelium, but maybe also by the conidiospores. The fungus has spread through the temperate zone; in the tropical and sub-tropical zone it is found sporadically. There is a mention in the literature of at least 136 species in which it has been found. It is found in hardwoods but is most disastrous in conifers. The economic losses are considered biggest in England, Germany and Scandinavia.

The research has not been able to find a safe way to protect the trees growing on an infected site. The only way to limit the damage seems to be the use of mixed stands. Stump-protection has proved to be a relatively effective way to prevent the spread of the fungus to uninfected sites. The formerly used creosote has been mainly substituted by new chemicals, such as sodium nitrite. They act by altering the stump in a way that is favourable for antagonists to Fomes annosus, such as Trichoderma viride and Penicillium sp., or the recently presented Peniophora gigantea.

Although the fungus is found in many tree species, there is a difference in the relative resistance of different species. Among the conifers, the Abies-species (with exception of Abies grandis, A. alba and A. sachalienensis) are considered comparatively resistant. The species of Larix and Pseudotsuga are more resistant than those of Picea and Pinus.

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  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4766, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1968). Roomalaisten taimitarhat. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4766. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14551
English title: The nurseries of the ancient romans.

The paper outlines the information about forest tree nurseries in the Roman Empire, found in ancient writings. According to the author, it cannot be stated that actual forest cultivation was practiced in the times of the Roman Empire, even if tree seedlings were used for a variety of purposes, such as embellishment of cities, parks and gardens, and raising supporting trees in forest vineyards. Nurseries were usually established on farms to fill the owner’s needs. For instance, Gato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny and Colulmella have given instructions about establishment and management of nurseries, and methods to sowing seeds of different tree species. Except for seeds, both root- and branch-cuttings were used in cultivation of trees. Also, grafting was known.

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  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4765, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1968). Raakapuuvaraston suunnittelusta ja tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4765. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14550
English title: On the planning and control of raw-wood inventories.

The present study is an examination of the problems involved in raw-wood inventory from the viewpoint of business economics. The term inventory used here includes the standing timber marked for cutting as well as delivery contracts. The task of inventory is to buffer the differences in timing, locality, quantity and quality caused by purchase, production and delivery processes. The basic problem is concerned with profits.

The basic aim is to keep the inventory small. Its limits are determined by comparing the storage costs and costs of shortage. The costs may be decreased without risking the reliability of deliveries by technical development and road improvement, which also decrease dependence on the seasonal variation of harvesting of timber. A model based on present practices, statistics and practical experiences can be used to calculate different alternatives. The volume of purchases, felling, deliveries, transportation, and differences in quantities and transfer is used to estimate the target level of the inventory. It forms a forecast which the future performances can be compared to. In addition to monitoring turnover rate of the total inventory and capital tied to the inventory, also the exceptions in structure, time and quantity of the inventory and the factors changing it should be monitored. A special difficulty in timber inventory book-keeping are the continuous variations in the measured volumes even if no loss occurs.

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  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4765, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1968). Raakapuuvaraston suunnittelusta ja tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4765. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14550
English title: On the planning and control of raw-wood inventories.

The present study is an examination of the problems involved in raw-wood inventory from the viewpoint of business economics. The term inventory used here includes the standing timber marked for cutting as well as delivery contracts. The task of inventory is to buffer the differences in timing, locality, quantity and quality caused by purchase, production and delivery processes. The basic problem is concerned with profits.

The basic aim is to keep the inventory small. Its limits are determined by comparing the storage costs and costs of shortage. The costs may be decreased without risking the reliability of deliveries by technical development and road improvement, which also decrease dependence on the seasonal variation of harvesting of timber. A model based on present practices, statistics and practical experiences can be used to calculate different alternatives. The volume of purchases, felling, deliveries, transportation, and differences in quantities and transfer is used to estimate the target level of the inventory. It forms a forecast which the future performances can be compared to. In addition to monitoring turnover rate of the total inventory and capital tied to the inventory, also the exceptions in structure, time and quantity of the inventory and the factors changing it should be monitored. A special difficulty in timber inventory book-keeping are the continuous variations in the measured volumes even if no loss occurs.

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  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

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  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14456
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

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  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14456
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

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  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4744, category Article
Pekka Tiililä. (1967). Tutkimuksia eräiden ulkomaisten puulajien siemensadon laadusta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4744. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14454
English title: Studies on the quality of seed yields in some foreign tree species in Finland.

The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.

The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.

Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.

The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.

According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.

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  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7684, category Article
Pekka Mäkinen. (1993). Puutavaran kuljetusyritysten menestymisen strategiat. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 238 article id 7684. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7684
English title: Strategies used by timber truck companies to ensure business success.

The aim of the study was to determine how timber truck transport business succeeds in the competition within its sector, and the effect it has on profitability structure of the sector. Furthermore, strategic groups were looked at in depth, as well as the competitive strategies of the most successful companies and groups of companies. The theoretical competitive strategy was operationalized.

A total of 53 timber truck transport entrepreneurs were interviewed. The average age of the entrepreneurs was 51 years. Of the businesses, 35% were partnership companies, 6% open companies, and 59% self-employed. The business owned an average 1.5 trucks, and at the time of interviewing their average age was four years. Nearly nine out of ten entrepreneurs had no schooling for the line of business, and four out of five had no short-term training. The attitude of the timber truckers toward their activities was more like that of self-employed persons than that of entrepreneurs. A total of 61.5% of them reporter that they carried on entrepreneurship simply to assure themselves a job.

The operational profitability of the sector has been good in the years 1984 to 1990, and the business profitability fairly good. The median equity ratio in the sector has remained at about 20% and the ratio of debts to turnover about 40%. The sector has been more profitable than forest machine contracting primarily due to the barriers to entry into the sector.

Cluster analysis, using Ward’s method, was used for seeking out strategic groups. The lengths of the customer relationships proved a significant barrier to mobility. The most successful business used the competitive strategy of cost weighted focussing. This was done through optimization of the capacity utilization rate and through choice of correct customers. The strategic position for successful business was judged to be good in the future. Success in the future will require above all activeness and innovation ability.

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  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7684, category Article
Pekka Mäkinen. (1993). Puutavaran kuljetusyritysten menestymisen strategiat. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 238 article id 7684. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7684
English title: Strategies used by timber truck companies to ensure business success.

The aim of the study was to determine how timber truck transport business succeeds in the competition within its sector, and the effect it has on profitability structure of the sector. Furthermore, strategic groups were looked at in depth, as well as the competitive strategies of the most successful companies and groups of companies. The theoretical competitive strategy was operationalized.

A total of 53 timber truck transport entrepreneurs were interviewed. The average age of the entrepreneurs was 51 years. Of the businesses, 35% were partnership companies, 6% open companies, and 59% self-employed. The business owned an average 1.5 trucks, and at the time of interviewing their average age was four years. Nearly nine out of ten entrepreneurs had no schooling for the line of business, and four out of five had no short-term training. The attitude of the timber truckers toward their activities was more like that of self-employed persons than that of entrepreneurs. A total of 61.5% of them reporter that they carried on entrepreneurship simply to assure themselves a job.

The operational profitability of the sector has been good in the years 1984 to 1990, and the business profitability fairly good. The median equity ratio in the sector has remained at about 20% and the ratio of debts to turnover about 40%. The sector has been more profitable than forest machine contracting primarily due to the barriers to entry into the sector.

Cluster analysis, using Ward’s method, was used for seeking out strategic groups. The lengths of the customer relationships proved a significant barrier to mobility. The most successful business used the competitive strategy of cost weighted focussing. This was done through optimization of the capacity utilization rate and through choice of correct customers. The strategic position for successful business was judged to be good in the future. Success in the future will require above all activeness and innovation ability.

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  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7666, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Sakari Salminen. (1991). Suomen metsävarat 1977-1984 ja niiden kehittyminen 1952­-1980. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 220 article id 7666. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7666
English title: Forest resources of Finland in 1977–1984 and their development in 1952–1980.

The field of work of the 7th National Forest Inventory was carried out during 1977–84. This report consists of the analysis of the forest resources, long-term development of forests and the results by ownership categories in Finland.

The area of forestry land, 26.4 million ha, has decreased slightly because of the increase of build-up areas and communication routes. Forest land, which is suitable to growing wood profitably, amounted 20.1 million ha. It has increased, although not as fast as earlier, due to drainage and fertilization of scrub and waste land swamps and the afforestation of agricultural land.

The growing stock volume was 1,660 million m3 and the estimated gross annual increment 68.4 million m3. A large quantity of young, rapidly growing stands, and fellings markedly below the increment, are the principal factors increasing the growing stock. The volume of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has increased most but the greatest proportional increase has been in the volume of broadleaved trees.

The silvicultural quality of stands has improved and the increase in saw log tree volume has resulted in an increase in the total growing stock volume. The proportional volume of saw logs, however, has decreased. Both aging mature stands and postponed thinnings increase the risk of losses due to mortality and decay. Too dense stands retard the diameter growth of trees. The proportion of unsuccessful artificial regeneration has increased.

The area of private forests has slightly decreased, while companies and collective bodies have increased their ownership. Non-farmer private ownership already accounts for one half of the area of private forests. The silvicultural quality of company forests is best and the increase of the growing stock and its increment is proportionally greatest in these forests.

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  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7656, category Article
Kari Leinonen, Matti Leikola, Antti Peltonen, Pentti Räsä­nen. (1989). Kuusen luontainen uudistaminen Pirkka-­Hämeen metsälautakunnassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 209 article id 7656. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7656
English title: Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-Häme Forestry Board District, Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and develop the use of natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in private forestry. The study was carried out using a line-plot survey with permanent circular sample plots. In total 40 regeneration sites were measured. The study includes results from three successive inventories: prior to the shelterwood cutting, in the summer after the cutting, and one year after the cutting. Regression and logistic regression analyses were used to construct models describing the effect of various factors on the restocking of the stands.

The standing volume prior to the shelterwood cutting was on average 236 m3/ha (ranging from 80 to 428 m3/ha) and after the cutting 120 m3/ha (39–220 m3/ha). The average number of stems per hectare decreased from 435 to 186. Prior to the shelterwood cutting 22% of the stands were satisfactorily restocked. After the cutting and one year later these percentages were 6 and 29%, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the number of acceptable seedlings was 1,440/ha, in the summer and year later 1,308/ha and 1,546/ha, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the characteristics of the mother stands did not correlate well with the number of seedlings. The change in the number of seedlings during the initial stage of shelterwood method depended on height of the seedling stand, amount of logging waste and number of germlings prior to the cutting. The risk to fail in regeneration was highest in the poorly restocked, sparse shelterwood stands, where a fast expansion of grass vegetation took place.

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  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsä­nen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7630, category Article
Esko Mikkonen. (1983). Eräiden matemaattisen ohjelmoinnin menetelmien käyttö puun korjuun ja kuljetuksen sekä tehdaskäsittelyn menetelmävalinnan apuvälineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 183 article id 7630. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7630
English title: The usefulness of some techniques of the mathematical programming as a tool for the choice of timber harvesting system.

The applicability of five mathematical programming methods, namely standard linear programming, parametric programming, goal programming, mixed integer programming and integer programming is discussed as a planning tool for the choice of wood procurement method.

Theoretically, the goal programming approach seems to be the best routine for mathematical handling of problems related to wood procurement. The parametric approach must include enough large post-optimality analysis routine. If the effect of the variables expressed with different measures is to be studied, interpretation of the economic information given by the approach becomes a problem. The other drawback is that the approach does not allow determination of the hierarchy of the goals objectively as they depend on the subjective preferences of the decision maker.

From the practical point of view, standard linear programming is the best method if the objective function can be formulated in economic terms, for instance. If there are several goals to be attained or satisfied the best method is goal programming.

According to the sub-studies, every method under consideration can be used as a solution routine for the minimization of wood procurement costs. In cost minimization the best methods are goal programming and standard linear programming. The best method for harvesting system evaluation purposes is parametric because it allows varied cost calculations within a certain cost range. The best method for harvesting equipment investment planning is mixed integer programming with binary decision variables.

The more complicated and restricted the problem environment is, the better the mathematical programming approach will be, also in harvesting related problems.

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  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 181 article id 7628. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7628
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

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  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7626, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Risto Ojansuu. (1982). Metsikön puutavaralajirakenteen, arvon ja arvokasvun arviointi. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 179 article id 7626. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7626
English title: Assessment of timber assortments, value and value increment of stands in Finland.

The paper is the final report of a study on the estimation of value increment and inherent variables of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. The main aim was to obtain improved criteria for decision-making concerning the priority of stands for regeneration.

The construction of various estimation models and their reliability are discussed in detail. The study, together with some previous papers, has resulted in a system which on the basis of a number of easily assessed stand variables gives for the stands concerned the volume of stems, percentages of timber assortments, stumpage value, volume increment and value increment.

The following examples are given with regard to the practical application of the results, in addition to the determination of the relative maturity of stands: 1) The study of various trends in stand development; the comparison between the volume and value variables. 2) The estimation of timber assortments needed for a cutting budget, trees marked for felling etc. 3) The calculation of the value of forests.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7591, category Article
Heikki Juslin. (1977). Yksityismetsänomistajien puunmyyntiasenteisiin vaikuttaminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 157 article id 7591. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7591
English title: Influencing private forest owners’ attitudes towards timber sales.

The purpose of the study was to produce information which is needed when planning the influencing the timber sales propensity of private forest owners. The study deals with the relations between communication behaviour and cutting behaviour as well as the attitudes and norms connected with them. On the basis of the results of this study, the choice of psychodynamic model can be recommended as a main strategy of influencing the timber sales propensity of forest owners. The paper gives the information basis for the choice of channels and messages of influencing.

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  • Juslin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7578, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo, Mikko Ilvessalo. (1975). Suomen metsätyypit metsiköiden luontaisen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyvyn valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 144 article id 7578. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7578
English title: The forest types of Finland in the light of natural development and yield capacity of forest stands.

The aim of the present study was to describe the forest types of Finnish mineral forest lands as a uniform whole in the light of stand development and wood production.

The study shows that it has been possible to work out uniform age-based development series for different stand characteristics for forest types on mineral forest lands in Finland. There is generally a clear difference in the development series of various stand characteristics and their average values between different forest types. The exceptions in a few places have been explained as depending on certain factors. The differences between adjacent forest types in order of their quality are of varying magnitude, thus differing from a schematic site quality classification obtained through calculation. Consequently, each forest type has its own development series with regard to the stand characteristics.

The number of forest types in the whole country is rather high. However, the different forest types are limited to different parts cf the country in such a way that there is no need for more than 5–6 forest types and 4 northerly sub-forms (-types) in each region, except in the border areas between the regions. In Finland the forest types have been the basis of forest site classification in forest research and practical forestry over a period of half a century. In pointing out the necessity of further study of forest types, Cajander has stressed the examination of differences in the compositions of vegetation between different classes of density of tree-stand and building up average descriptions of vegetation in such classes in young, middle-age and old stands. The same may be caused by some other factors which also are of essential influence to the composition of the vegetation.

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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4711, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Suomen sisävesien aluskanta. Puutavaraliikenteen aluksia koskeva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4711. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14269
  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7544, category Article
Yrjö Vuokila. (1970). Harsintaperiaate kasvatushakkuissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 110 article id 7544. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7544
English title: Selection from above in Intermediate cuttings.

This study is concerned with silvicultural selection from above. The material consists of 18 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots in the southern half of Finland in experimental forests. The method is motivated by the great difference between the stumpage prices of saw timber and pulpwood. The method suggested includes the removal of individuals belonging to the predominating canopy, to achieve high levels of income from the stand at an early stage. The method is applied at when the growing stock is attaining saw-timber size. Before that the stand is treated with thinnings from below. It is supposed that the volume of growing stock is maintained at a level as high as that in below-thinned stands, and that rotation is of normal length.

On the average, the increment in basal area, as well as volume increment, is greater in stands selectively cut from above than in those treated with low thinnings of the same degree. Initially, selection from above seems to exert a negative effect upon the development of dominant height; later, the dominant height reassumes the same rate of increment as in the below-thinned stands. Selection from above also means an increase in saw-timber production, although it involves a reduction in the mean size of saw timber. The investigation includes growth and yield tables for pine stands treated with silvicultural selection from above.

The results of the investigation prove that silvicultural selection from above is at least as profitable as low thinning. This provides freedom for stand treatment, and contributes to the application of a method most suitable for the owner in each individual case. It is further stressed that the maintenance of a high wood capital in the stand is far more important than the method of thinning applied.

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  • Vuokila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1960). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

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  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

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  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4701, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1960). Tutkimuksia koivuhalkojen painosta ja kosteudesta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4701. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9136
English title: Studies on the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood.

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood and to calculate its heat values. The weight was measured of 255 truck loads in six different locations during the winter 1959–1960. Moisture analysis was made of sample specimens collected from the loads.

The dry matter weight of the birch fuel wood was in an average 333 kg/m3 piled measure. The lowest measured weight was 319 and the highest 341 kg/m3 piled measure. The moisture content in the different parts of the pile varies distinctly. Driest wood is found in the middle of the pile. Wood in the top and bottom of the pile have about similar moisture content.

The manner of storage influences the drying process. The moisture content of open piles is 20.5%, of paper-covered piles 19.9% and roofed multiple-piles of split fuel wood 19.3%. The 2-year-old piles were dryer than 1-year-old ones. Higher percentages (25% and 20 %, respectively) than those measured in the study, are recommended for practical use. The heat value of the wood stored in a pile was in average 1,435 Mcal/m3 piled measure, and 1,455 Mcal/m3 piled measure sampled from a truck load.

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  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

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  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

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  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4452, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Ehdotus puun käyttöä osottavan jatkuvan tilaston järjestämisestä Suomeen. Silva Fennica no. 11 article id 4452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8985
English title: A proposal to introduce permanent statistics of wood consumption in Finland.

The Forest Research Institute made an investigation on the wood consumption in Finland in 1927. This work brought up a need to organize continuous collection of statistics of wood consumption. Three kinds of existing statistics can be used: statistics of wood consumption, statistic of the fellings, and statistics of transport of wood.

Statistics on wood consumption, such as the fuel used by the industry and State railways are collected annually. The fellings in state forests are published annually, and also the wood manufacturing companies publish statistics of their forests. Furthermore, all fellings on sale, and use of own wood in wood manufacturing industry have to be reported to the forestry committees. These statistics are published annually. Railroads and floating are the main means of long distance transport of wood. These statistics give additional information of wood consumption. Further studies are needed to combine and standardize the statistics collected from different sources.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

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  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4732, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1966). Sateen jakaantuminen erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14290
English title: Distribution of rainfall in different types of forest stands.

Stand precipitation and stemflow studies became necessary in connection with hydrologic studies, for instance, to explain the deviations resulting from rains in the ratios between the water content of peat and the groundwater level, throughfall during rains of variable heaviness, and effect of stand treatment on soil moisture level. In this project the distribution of rainfall in stands differing in species composition and density was studied in Central Finland in 1963–1965 in fifteen stand precipitation sample plots. In addition, rain gauges were situated under individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) trees.

The average precipitation in the open was 4.8 mm, the corresponding precipitation in the stand was 77% for birch, 71% for pine and 62% for spruce. Measurements of stemflow from individual sample trees showed that less than ¼ mm (about 1.5%) during a 15 mm rain in a pine stand. In the spruce stands stemflow is negligible. A part of the sample plots was in drained peatlands with a dense vegetation of small shrubs. The shrub layer retention was about 10% even during heavy rain. In a small forest clearing, the bordering effect of the forest was seen up to the distance of 5 metres from the edge of the forest. During the period of study, on an average 3% more precipitation was recorded in the clearing than in the open, the difference being probably due to the stronger wind effect in the open.

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  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4730, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Kokeita selluloosan hajaantumisnopeudesta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4730. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14288
English title: Experiments on the decomposition rate of cellulose in different stands.

The aim of this project was to investigate the cellulose decomposition rate in the soil on the ecological conditions created by different tree species, particularly birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Therefore, comparable sample plots were established in adjoining birch and spruce stands. Data on the stands, the vegetation, and the soil in the sample plots were collected. The experiment was carried out in the Ruotsinkylä Experimental Forest near Helsinki in Southern Finland.

Five pieces (3x5x0.15 cm) of cellulose (bleached sulphite pulp) were dried, weighed, and fastened in a row into a nylon bag. The bags were placed into the soil at a slant so that the upmost piece of cellulose was in the depth of 0–1.5 cm and the bottom one 6–7.5 cm. The weight losses of the pieces were measured after periods ranging from 6 to 12 months.

The results show that even within the same forest type, decomposition is much more rapid in birch stands than in spruce stands. In all the stands the decomposition rate decreased rapidly with increasing depth. The difference between birch and spruce stand, as well as the decrease with increasing depth, was probably mainly due to different thermal conditions.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4729, category Article
Puutavaranmittauskomitea. (1966). Puutavaranmittauskomitean mietintö : Osamietintö I. Silva Fennica no. 118 article id 4729. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14287
English title: Report of timber scaling committee.

A Timber Scaling Committee was appointed by the Government of Finland in 1959, commissioned with the regulations concerning the scaling of timber and to draw a proposal for their amendments. The commission suggest revision of the regulations in their entire extent. The largest alterations sho