Current issue: 55(1)

Under compilation: 55(2)

Scopus CiteScore 2019: 3.1
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 6th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'puulaji'.

Category: Article

article id 7178, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Pekka Tiililä. (1968). Koivun ja kuusen istutuksen keskinäinen edullisuusjärjestys käenkaali-mustikkatyypin metsämailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7178
English title: The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) when planting Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest land.

The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.

The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7143, category Article
O. Meurman. (1963). Puutarhantutkimuslaitoksella Piikkiössä kokeilluista koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 3 article id 7143. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7143
English title: Notes on ornamental trees and shrubs at the Department of horticulture (Piikkiö, Finland).

Trees and shrubs of foreign origin have been grown in Finland at least from the 1700th century. At the State Horticultural Institute in the neighbourhood of the town Turku in southwestern coast of the country, a number of ornamental trees and shrubs have been planted since 1927. During the first decade, weather conditions were quite favourable, but the winters in 1939–1940 were so severe, that only the hardiest plants survived.

It would be important to study hardiness and suitability of the various woody plants cultivated in the different parts of the country. This paper includes notes of the survival of the tree species and shrubs so far planted at the Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meurman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7325, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1936). Kuusi männyn kilpailijana kasvupaikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 8 article id 7325. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7325
English title: Norway spruce as competitor in the sites typical for Scots pine.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is a species that becomes in Finland over time the dominant species in the sites that are suitable for it. The reason that it covers only a quarter of the forest areas in Finland depends mainly on forest fires. The aim of this review was to discuss the biological factors that affect competition between Scots pine and Norway spruce.

Especially important is the ability to regenerate and grow past seedling stage. There does not seem to be significant differences in the number of good seed and seedling years of the species. Spruce regenerates better on moss covered forest floor than pine. On the other hand, pine seedlings grow faster than spruce seedlings, and tolerate better dry conditions. Consequently, one of the defining biological differences is that Norway spruce needs more humid conditions than Scots pine. Spruce is shown to have greater transpiration than pine. Spruce also has higher site requirements, however, growing as undergrowth, it seems to be better able to compete of the nutrients with the larger trees than pine. It also tolerates shading better. Spruce is less frost tolerant than pine.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7303, category Article
J. Keränen. (1934). Lämpöoloista puiden ja eräiden pensaiden kasvupaikkojen pohjoisilla rajoilla Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 26 article id 7303. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7303
English title: Thermal conditions in the northern limits of some tree species and bushes in Finland.

The article discusses the thermal conditions in the northern limits of trees and some bushes in Finland. Temperature is the most important limiting factor for distribution of plant species. Precipitation variations, however, are small in Finland. The article lists the main features of thermal conditions during the different seasons in different parts of Finland. The northern limits and the thermal condition of the area are described for the following species: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), mezereon, buckthorn, common alder, linden, elm, maple, hazel, ash, oak, hybrid mountain ash, yew and Swedish whitebeam.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keränen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7295, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1934). Lounais-Suomen metsien puulajihistoriasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 18 article id 7295. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7295
English title: The history of tree species in southwest Finland.

Pollen analysis has given information on development of the tree species composition after the ice age, but this kind of studies have not been published in Finland. In this study, pollen analysis was performed in five peatlands in the southwest Finland. According to the analysis, the forests of the area have had similar tree species composition for many thousands of years. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been the dominant species as long as there has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the area. Norway spruce seems to have arrived about 4,500 years ago. It increased slowly in the beginning, and after reaching a maximum has been slowly decreasing. Before spruce arrived, Betula sp. was more abundant, and seemed to be the dominant tree species in some places. Traces of fire in the peat layers indicate that forest fires have been common before people arrived in the area, and may have beneficial to birch. Like Betula sp., also Alnus sp. were more common before spruce arrived. Also pollen of other broadleaved species, for example, Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Corylus could be found. However, Quercus pollen was not found. The paludification of the peatlands had begun at different times which indicates that there has not been a common cause for the development of the peatlands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7257, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1929). Ulkomaisten puulajien kasvu- ja menestymissuhteista eräässä Kulosaaren yksityispuistikossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 7257. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7257
English title: Growth and success of exotic tree species in a private garden in Kulosaari, Finland.
English keywords: climate; provenance

The growth of 35 exotic tree species in garden established in 1912 is discussed in the article. The site is located in Kulosaari, Helsinki in the Southern coast of Finland. The species represented the Chamaecyparis, Abies, Tsuga, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Juglans, Populus, Salix, Tilia, Acer, Prunus, Crataegus and Amelanchier families. All the tree species from northern continental climate and most of the species of temperate regions grew well or moderately well. Species form northern oceanic climate succeeded moderately well. The species from southern continental or oceanic climate did not endure the climate in Kulosaari. Definite conclusions were not possible to make, because the precise origin of the seedlings was not known, and there was usually only one tree from each species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7075, category Article
A. F. Tigerstedt. (1922). Mustilan kotikunnas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 7075. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7075
English title: The Mustila arboretum.

The article describes experiences in exotic tree and shrub species in Mustila arboretum in 1901-1921, situated in Southern Finland. Mustila is the first arboretum of the country, established in 1901. The tree species have mostly been planted as small stands or groups of trees. The objective has been to find species that suit the Finnish climate. The article describes experiences of cultivation trials of coniferous tree species from the genus of Taxus, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Thyopsis, Thuya, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus, in total 100 different species. The climate of Finland ranges from maritime to semi-maritime and semi-continental, becoming more continental towards the eastern parts of the country. According to the experiments, in Mustila area most promising are the Western American species from regions that are suitable distance from the Pacific Ocean. The exact origin of the seeds in the America is important for the survival of the species in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7075, category Article
A. F. Tigerstedt. (1922). Mustilan kotikunnas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 7075. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7075
English title: The Mustila arboretum.

The article describes experiences in exotic tree and shrub species in Mustila arboretum in 1901-1921, situated in Southern Finland. Mustila is the first arboretum of the country, established in 1901. The tree species have mostly been planted as small stands or groups of trees. The objective has been to find species that suit the Finnish climate. The article describes experiences of cultivation trials of coniferous tree species from the genus of Taxus, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Thyopsis, Thuya, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus, in total 100 different species. The climate of Finland ranges from maritime to semi-maritime and semi-continental, becoming more continental towards the eastern parts of the country. According to the experiments, in Mustila area most promising are the Western American species from regions that are suitable distance from the Pacific Ocean. The exact origin of the seeds in the America is important for the survival of the species in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5404, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1990). Suomen metsittyminen jääkauden jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5404. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15556
English title: The history of forests in Finland after the last ice age.

Based on literature this paper describes the natural afforestation of Finland that took place after the last ice age and the changes which have taken place during the last 10,000 years. The origin and development of the vegetation and trees are related to the changes in the edaphic and climatic factors. The first tree species to arrive in Finland were the primary colonizing species, birch and Scots pine. The appearance of Norway spruce dates back to about 5000 B.P. There have been great changes in the species composition of Finnish forests during the last several thousands of years but some 2,000–3,000 years ago the various species reached their present balance. The epoch of naural forests, which had lasted some 9,500 years, came to a conclusion, however, when man started to have a marked effect on the forest’s development 300–400 years ago.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7050, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1920). Ulkomaalaisten puulajien viljelymahdollisuudet Suomen oloja silmälläpitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 7050. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7050
English title: Prospects of cultivating exotic tree species in Finland.

The article includes a dendrological review on the effect of climate to the success of cultivation of exotic tree species, based on literature and analysis of the existing Finnish field tests. The cultivation of an exotic tree species succeeds only if the seed has been procured from an area, which climate is similar to the place of cultivation. Climate is even more important than site quality.

Finnish climate is boreal and continental, and thus tree species of similar climate suit here best. In favorable site conditions it is possible to grow also species from boreal marine, and temperate climates. Finnish summers are not warm enough for species from temperate continental climate to get prepared for the winter, and the shoots can get frost damages. This may be compensated with a warm and sheltered site. If the species tolerates shading, it can be planted under sheltering trees. For species from maritime boreal climate, the Finnish summer tends to be too short, and the winters too cold. A suitable site is rich, warm and sheltered, and has preferably a protective sparse tree cover. Species from southern maritime climate cannot be grown in Finland. The provenance of the seeds is also very important. An important source of seeds are the successful plantations in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5114, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Haapa- ja poppelilajien (Populus) käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5114. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15055
English title: Utilization of aspen and poplars (genus Populus).
Original keywords: haapa; poppelit; viljely; puulajit; käyttö

The aim of this study was to establish from the literature the purposes and for which aspen (Populus tremula L.) and related poplar species are used and can be used.  According to the literature, numerous Populus species can be utilized in the industry with success instead of light softwood species in addition to them. The main emphasis is in the growing of large-sized timber, and there is no clear trend to changing to the short-rotation forestry of poplar. However, the utilization of the good sprouting properties of Populus species will probably increase as this regeneration method is cheap.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7020
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7534, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Kaskiviljelyksen vaikutus Suomen metsiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 7534. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7534
English title: The effect of shifting cultivation on forests in Finland.

The article is a review on shifting cultivation, its methods and use in Finland, and its effect on the condition of forests. Shifting cultivation decreases forest reserves not only by burning large amounts of wood. Of the area used for shifting cultivation, 10-50% can be open land. The older age classes of forests are often missing, and range of tree species shift towards deciduous trees. This causes lack of large timber. The shorter the rotation, the less well the most valuable trees survive on the area. One reason is lack of seed trees. Of the coniferous trees, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is able to survive in the burnt-over lands better than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), because it can produce seeds at a relatively young age. Betula sp. and especially grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) regenerate well on burnt-over lands. Also the frequency of good seed years determine which tree species become the dominant species on a burnt-over site.

When shifting cultivation is abandoned, deciduous trees keep their advantage over coniferous trees, because the wood of coniferous trees is used more in the surrounding villages. Pine and spruce spread to the burnt-over areas from the poorer sites that often had remained unburned. In densely populated areas in some counties in Savo in eastern Finland, where shifting cultivation was practiced intensively, Norway spruce became rare. Dominant tree species in the burnt-over areas became birch and pine.

The article is divided in two parts. A German summary is included in a separate PDF
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4744, category Article
Pekka Tiililä. (1967). Tutkimuksia eräiden ulkomaisten puulajien siemensadon laadusta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4744. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14454
English title: Studies on the quality of seed yields in some foreign tree species in Finland.

The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.

The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.

Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.

The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.

According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1960). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4732, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1966). Sateen jakaantuminen erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14290
English title: Distribution of rainfall in different types of forest stands.

Stand precipitation and stemflow studies became necessary in connection with hydrologic studies, for instance, to explain the deviations resulting from rains in the ratios between the water content of peat and the groundwater level, throughfall during rains of variable heaviness, and effect of stand treatment on soil moisture level. In this project the distribution of rainfall in stands differing in species composition and density was studied in Central Finland in 1963–1965 in fifteen stand precipitation sample plots. In addition, rain gauges were situated under individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) trees.

The average precipitation in the open was 4.8 mm, the corresponding precipitation in the stand was 77% for birch, 71% for pine and 62% for spruce. Measurements of stemflow from individual sample trees showed that less than ¼ mm (about 1.5%) during a 15 mm rain in a pine stand. In the spruce stands stemflow is negligible. A part of the sample plots was in drained peatlands with a dense vegetation of small shrubs. The shrub layer retention was about 10% even during heavy rain. In a small forest clearing, the bordering effect of the forest was seen up to the distance of 5 metres from the edge of the forest. During the period of study, on an average 3% more precipitation was recorded in the clearing than in the open, the difference being probably due to the stronger wind effect in the open.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4730, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Kokeita selluloosan hajaantumisnopeudesta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4730. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14288
English title: Experiments on the decomposition rate of cellulose in different stands.

The aim of this project was to investigate the cellulose decomposition rate in the soil on the ecological conditions created by different tree species, particularly birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Therefore, comparable sample plots were established in adjoining birch and spruce stands. Data on the stands, the vegetation, and the soil in the sample plots were collected. The experiment was carried out in the Ruotsinkylä Experimental Forest near Helsinki in Southern Finland.

Five pieces (3x5x0.15 cm) of cellulose (bleached sulphite pulp) were dried, weighed, and fastened in a row into a nylon bag. The bags were placed into the soil at a slant so that the upmost piece of cellulose was in the depth of 0–1.5 cm and the bottom one 6–7.5 cm. The weight losses of the pieces were measured after periods ranging from 6 to 12 months.

The results show that even within the same forest type, decomposition is much more rapid in birch stands than in spruce stands. In all the stands the decomposition rate decreased rapidly with increasing depth. The difference between birch and spruce stand, as well as the decrease with increasing depth, was probably mainly due to different thermal conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive