Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'puunkuljetus'.

Category: Article

article id 7434, category Article
Jarl Lindfors. (1954). Sahatukkien kaukokuljetuksen eräitä piirteitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 22 article id 7434. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7434
English title: Long-distance transport of saw logs in Finland.

Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries decided in 1953 to begin collecting annual statistics of timber transportation of its members. The survey of members covers almost 97% of the timber transportations of the member companies, which have production over 1,000 cu ft. In all 79 companies answered the survey. Their total timber transportation was 166,4 million cu ft in 1952.

The long-distance transportation of saw logs by horse transport directly to the mill or other such location was 1,297 cu ft, by truck transport 42,644 cu ft, by rail transport 6,707 cu ft, and by water transport 115,789 cu ft. The average transportation distance was for horse transport 2.4 km, truck transport 27 km, rail transport 224 km and water transport 209 km.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7417, category Article
N. Stolpe. (1954). Uittoa, sen organisatiota ja tulevaisuutta koskevia näkemyksiä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 5 article id 7417. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7417
English title: Observations on floating, its organizations and future in Finland.

The costs of floating have increased by about 20-fold after the Second World War in Finland, which has raised concerns in the forest sector. At the same time, the costs of road transport have increased by 16% and costs of rail transport by 15%. Floating has been replaced mainly by road transport in transport of roundwood, especially near the factories. This development is likely to continue as new roads are built and the truck fleet develops.  

In spite of the changes in timber transportation, floating was still the most common way of transporting roundwood in 1952: 69% of saw logs, 53% of veneer timber, 42% of domestic pulp wood, 14% of exported pulp wood and mining timber and 14% of firewood was transported by a water route. There are several ways to improve the efficiency of floating and decrease its costs. This can be achieved in two ways. First, using modern technology, such as tugboats, bundlers and other equipment, and second, improving the operation and co-operation between different actors.  

The PDF includes a summary in German. 

  • Stolpe, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7415, category Article
W. E. Roitto. (1954). Eräitä näkökohtia Saimaan vesistöalueen puutavaran kaukokuljetuksen kehittymismahdollisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 3 article id 7415. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7415
English title: Development potential of transportation of roundwood in the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa in Finland.

About 17.5% of forest lands of Finland is situated around the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa. Furthermore, the growth of the forests  of the area correspond about 25% of the total growth of forests in Finland. The watersystem is one of the most important portages of roundwood in the country. It consists 11,000 km of floating channels, 2,000 km of which suit for floating in bundles. Annually 30-35 million cu ft of saw logs, 7 million cu ft of veneer timber and 2,5-3 million cu ft of pulp wood is floated in the area.

Even if the water system at present still suits well for floating, there are many opportunities for development, which would improve its competitiveness against other modes of transport. Several different sites where building of floating channels or improving the floatways are needed are described in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7401, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1950). Tutkimuksia pinopuutavaran proomuun lastauksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 7401. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7401
English title: Investigations on loading piled wood into barges.

In Finland, transportation of wood by vessels has decreased, but is still an important mode of transport especially for firewood. In 1941-1947, nearly 25% of the firewood procured by the State Fuel Board was transported by vessels. This investigation concentrates on loading of wood into barges, since the share of wages of total expenses is greatest in this phase. The loading work amounts to nearly 40% of the total wages.

Two methods of loading barges are used in Finland: loading from the shore and truck loading. This study concentrates on the more common method, loading from the shore. A time study was conducted on the different stages of loading and piling wood into barges, most of which is done by hand. Most time-consuming part of the work is transporting the logs to the barge with a wheelbarrow, comprising over 40% of the working time. Time required for loading firewood is almost twice as much as loading pulp wood. Recommendations for loading places and organization of work are given in the article to improve the efficiency of the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5130, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Mikroaaltotutka jään paksuuden mittaukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5130. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15187
English title: Radar measurement of ice thickness on ice roads and landing.

Light and economic FM-CW radar has been developed for controlling the bearing capacity of ice roads and landings on ice used for timber transportation and storage of timber in Finland. It was tested on natural ice and ice roads of three lakes in Southern Finland and one location on sea on the southren coast of Finland (a total of 166 observations). Ice thickness varied from 0 to 100 cm. Correlation coefficient between auger and radar measured ice thickness was r=0.99 and absolute error varied from -10 to +7 cm. The quality of ice had no influence, but by improving the interpretation of results, also the quality factors might be detected.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4830, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Optimaalisesta vinssausmatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4830. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14619
English title: The optimum winching distance.

The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model for determination of the optimal winching distance in different conditions as based on harvesting costs. In the thinned forest the strip roads are parallel and the winching routes perpendicularly to them. A directed felling of trees is used so that it is easy to make loads to be winched. The stems can also be prepared to timber assortments on the stump area and gathered to loads for skidding alongside the winching routes.

After winching the timber is transported using a forwarder mowing on the strip roads. If the stems have not been bucked in the forests, they are to be prepared to timber assortments before the following transportation, because the problem of turning whole stems in a thinned forest has not yet been solved.

In the mathematical model the formation of the costs was described using 18 variables of which 15 had an effect on the optimum winching distance. Some empirical values were estimated concerning these variables, and the corresponding optimum winching distance were computed. The optimum was mainly determined by the quantity of timber harvested per unit area, the size of the winching load, the regression coefficient of the times which were depended on the winching distance.

According to the model, the deviation from optimum winching distance does not cause a very great change in the analysed total costs. When the winching distance is longer, the increase of the costs is smaller than if it is shorter than optimum. In general, the increase of the costs was so small that in practice one obviously can be satisfied with rather approximate methods in determining the suitable winching distance.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4677, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Pölkyn koon vaikutus niputustulokseen ja sen huomioon ottaminen taksassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4677. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9123
English title: Effect of log size on the bundling result and how it is taken into account in bundling wage payments.

In Finland, the wage norms of forest wages have been defined by the government since 1935. However, no official tariffs have been drawn for mechanical bundling in water for floating in bundles. The aim of the investigation was to find out the correlation between the bundling result and the size of logs to be bundled, and how it affects the differences observed in earnings between the different types of devices used in the work. The aim is a more equal bundling tariff in cases where the log size is not the variable. The investigation was based mainly on diaries of bunders of Enso-Gutzeit Oy.

A tariff was formulated based on the results of the investigation. A unit tariff was obtained for bundling of timber differing in size by dividing the earnings of bundling an average timber by the unit number of logs differing in size from the average and bundled in a corresponding period. The tariff was not able to produce even earnings on all bunching machines, but a tariff that takes account log size may be recommended when the aim is an equal wage payment.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4623, category Article
Metsätalouskomitea. (1952). Puun maakuljetusolojen kehittäminen : vuoden 1949 metsätalouskomitean mietintö N:o 1. Silva Fennica no. 73 article id 4623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9095
English title: Development of land transportation of wood.

The government of Finland appointed in1949 a committee to draft a program to promote forestry and increase the production of forests in the immediate future. The committee regarded promotion of transportation of roundwood and fuel wood as the most urgent question of the assignment. A separate committee was assigned to give a report on floating.

The report gives a summary of timber transportation facilities. The importance of land transport, especially truck transport, has grown. This has influenced other means of long-distance transport, such as railways and floating. Building of truck roads can bring large areas of presently unaccessible forests accessible for forest industry.

The committee suggest improvements in road legislation. Improvements needed in the road system for better timber transport facilities are outlined. The committee gives a detailed list of roads, compiled by area. The total length of forest roads to be constructed is 5,584 km, and the estimated cost 6,702 million marks. Railroads would be built 1,453 km at the cost of 35,745 million marks.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Metsätalouskomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4616, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1951). Uusimpia saavutuksia puutavaran kuljetuksen alalla. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4616. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14012
English title: Recent achievements in timber transportation.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the development of forest haulage and long-distance transportation of timber. The article gives examples of improving the effectivity of horse hauling, use of tractors, loading of timber and floating, and gives examples of new equipment used in timber transport.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4605, category Article
Arvo Kivelä. (1951). Pohjois-Suomen uitot ja niiden tehoa haittaavat tekijät. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14001
English title: Floating in Northern Finland and factors reducing its efficiency.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Floating channels of Northern Finland have been unable to fulfill all the needs of wood transportation of the area. This presentation presents diferent ways to improve the efficiency of floating by improving working methods and the channels, and thus decreasing costs of wood transportation.

  • Kivelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4595, category Article
Lauri Silvàn. (1948). Metsäautoteiden rakentaminen. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13997
English title: Building of forest lorry roads.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation discusses cost-effectiveness of building forest lorry roads to expand the availability of timber in state forests, and gives examples of calculating costs of building a road.

  • Silvàn, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4555, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Puutavaran autokuljetuksesta ja sen merkityksestä valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13962
English title: Car transportation of roundwood and its significance to forestry in the state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history of road transport of timber in Finland and discusses its significance and potential to forestry in the state forests.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4476, category Article
P. J. Pelttari. (1935). Yksityismetsien työtarjonnasta. Silva Fennica no. 35 article id 4476. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9062
English title: Supply of work in private forests in Finland.

A review on the availability of forest work in the private forests in Finland was compiled on the request of the Unemployment Council. Private forests, and forests of municipalities and parishes covered 52.7% of the forest lands in Finland, according to the forest inventory made in 1922-1924. The proportion of private lands were estimated to increase in the future when state lands were parceled out to private land owners. Shifting cultivation, forest fires and selective fellings have influenced condition of the private forests. The interest to improve productivity of the forests has, however increased in 1920s and 1930s, which increases work opportunities.

The work opportunities in private forests is estimated to be 27.6 million man-days and 5.4 million horse-days annually.  Wood harvesting and hauling are the main source of employment with 20.3 million man-days. The workforce is estimated to be 75,920 men and 16,200 horses, but more intensive forest management could increase the numbers to 91,900 and 18,100, respectively. To improve the condition of private forests, it should be obligatory to mark the trees for cutting before the fellings. One means to improve forest management would be cooperation between the forest owners.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pelttari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive