Current issue: 54(2)
About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in Northern Finland are situated mainly in the state lands. The survey is based on silvicultural surveys made in the northernmost districts of the state forests. The quality of private lands of the area was deduced based on the adjacent state lands and specific observations. A map was drawn on the distribution of productive Norway spruce forest in the study area.
The continuous Norway spruce forest areas covered 1,112,000 hectares, of which 866,000 hectares were on the state lands. Especially in the northern parts of the area also more fragmented spruce forest could be found (130,000 hectares in the state lands). The estimated total volume of the wood in the forests in the state and private lands was 57.78 million m3 in the continuous spruce forest area. The spruce forests were often situated on hill and fell areas relatively high above the sea level. In the areas north of the 66th parallel, almost half of the forests were above 300 meters above the sea level. Because spruce forests of the state lands were concentrated near watershed areas, the wood harvesting was more expensive, and reduced the value of the state forests. The spruce forests grow usually on fresh mineral soil sites. However, towards north the species was found on drier sites. The stands were mostly pure spruce stands or mixed birch-spruce stands. The older age groups were the most common, but young stands were rare.
This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes different forest inventory methods.