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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'quality class'.

Category: Article

article id 7193, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1926). The theory of forest types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 7193. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7193

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7012, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1916). Mäntymetsikköjen valtapuitten kasvusta mustikka- ja kanervatyyppien kankailla Salmin kruununpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 7012. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7012
English title: The growth of the dominant trees in Scots pine forests of Myrtillus and Calluna typesailla Salmin kruununpuistossa.

Tree growth is one of the factors that have been used to determine the site quality. The aim of the study was to show that growth of single trees growing on a same forest site class are similar, but differ from trees growing on a different site type. To compare the tree growth, a stem analysis was performed to dominant trees in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, measured in 15 Myrtillus type sample plots and in 15 Calluna type sample plots in state forests in Salmi, situated in north side of Lake Ladoga. The height growth when the tree was young was higher in the trees growing in the Myrtillus type than in the Calluna type. Also, the trees of same age are higher in Myrtillus type stand than in the Calluna type. In Calluna type, the height growth, however, evens out later in age than in the Myrtillus type. The volume growth of the trees begins to increase earlier in Myrtillus type, and is higher than in Calluna type. Similarly, the diameter growth in breast height is higher in the Myrtillus type.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4613, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laatuarvioinnin tarkkuudesta. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4613. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14009
English title: Accuracy of quality grading of Scots pine saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses accuracy of the quality grading of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs suggested by professor Ilmari Vuoristo based on a data collected by Valtiala. According to the study, greatest inaccuracies in the grading by visual inspection was caused by differences between the evaluators.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4611, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelulla saavutettavista eduista. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14007
English title: Benefits of qualitative classification of saw logs.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes benefits of the qualitative classification of saw logs to forest owners and forest industry.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4610, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Sahatukkien laatuluokittelutavat. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4610. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14006
English title: Methods of saw log classification according to quality.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the uses and principles of different kinds of grading of saw logs.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4446, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). Methods for preparing yield tables. Silva Fennica no. 5 article id 4446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8394

The article is a review on methods used in Central Europe and in Finland to construct growth and yield tables, and on their defects and advantages. One of the main defects of growth and yield tables prepared previously in Central Europe is that the site quality classes for different tree species have been formed independently and using different principles. Thus, the yields of different tree species on a similar site can’t be compared. In addition, the quality classes of this kind of growth and yield tables and growth series are artificial.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) started to prepare new yield tables for the most important tree species in Finland in 1916. The new yield tables aimed to improve the yield tables made in Central Europe in two aspects. Firstly, the quality of the site of each sample plot was assessed on the spot and independently from the standing crop. Thus the sample plots of each site class in setting up the growth series can be treated as independent groups. Consequently, the quality classes are be the same for all tree species. Secondly, mathematical-statistical methods were used to determine which of the stands that belong to the same quality class belong also to the same growth series.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4441, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). Preparation of growth and yield tables. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4441. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8389

One of the difficulties in constructing growth and yield tables has been to determine which of the sample plots growing the same tree species and belonging to the same forest site type, with reference to the quality of stands, have to be included in the same growth series.

New growth and yield tables for the most important tree species were constructed in Finland in 1916–1919, using new principles that aim at avoiding some of the common weaknesses. There were two main differences to the earlier work. First, the site quality class (forest site type) was determined for each sample plot when the sample plot was measured, independently of the stand occupying the site. In this way it was possible to treat the sample plots of each site as an independent group from the beginning, and so that the quality classes were the same for all the tree species. Second, mathematic-statistical methods were used to deduct the so-called stem frequency distribution series, when studying which of the sample plots of the same quality class belong to the same growth series. They represent the average number of stems of the different diameter classes. A more detailed description of the method used to create the growth and yield tables is published in Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 15.

In the PDF is included a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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