Current issue: 53(1)

Under compilation: 53(2)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'recreation'.

Category: Article

article id 7366, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1942). Metsäretkeilystä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 13 article id 7366. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7366
English title: Hiking in forests.

Walking in forests, hiking, is considered to be necessary for healt in many countries. In United States national parks cover 1.8% of total forest area. In addition, 25% of the forests are so called national forests, which have paths, campsites, wells, beaches, cottages etc. for hikers. In Finland, 20% of the population lives in towns and cities. Also in Finland the people living in cities and towns would need areas that resemble national forests of United states for recreation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5492, category Article
Ismo Nousiainen, Timo Pukkala. (1992). Use of computer graphics for predicting the amenity of forest trails. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15653

Ten trails, one kilometre each, were evaluated by 15 persons for scenic beauty, recreational value and variety. All trails passed through commercially managed forests dominated by conifers. The trails were first evaluated by viewing computer simulations based on a series of graphical illustrations of forest landscapes, then from a slide show, and finally in the field. In the computer simulation and slide show, landscape pictures along the trail at an interval of 35–40 m were presented for 3–4 seconds. The ranks between slide show and field were slightly more similar than those between simulation and field. The mean correlation of 12 persons between the field ranking and assessment of either computer simulations or slide shows or graphics than scenic beauty or recreational value. Spearman’s rank correlations computed from median scores of a group of 12 peers were clearly better than the average of individual persons varying from 0.6 to 0.9.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Nousiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5093, category Article
Ismo Karhu, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Väestön mielipiteet metsänhoidon vaikutuksesta maisemakuvaan Puolangan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5093. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15034
English title: Effects of silvicultural practises on the forest landscape. A study on attitudes among inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland.

The landscape preferences and attitudes of inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland, to the effects of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape were studied by a postal inquiry. The effect of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape was mainly negative. Birch (Betula sp.) stands and mixed coniferous and deciduous tree species were the most preferred by the Puolanka inhabitants. The landscape preferences were related to socio-economic background of the inhabitants. The quality of the living environment also influenced the preferences, since uncommon features in the living environment were favoured most.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karhu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5027, category Article
Ossi Eskelinen. (1979). Pyynikin ulkoilualue. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5027. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14883
English title: The natural environmental welfare factors of forested outdoor recreation area Pyynikki.

The article examines the outdoor recreation area of Pyynikki in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland from the viewpoint of social sciences. It was demonstrated that sociological factors are connected with the physical environmental factors by the welfare factors.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Eskelinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5020, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1979). Valaistun hiihtoreitin käytön ajallinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5020. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14874
English title: Time patterns in the use of an urban skiing route.

Temporal variations in use of an illuminated skiing route located near a town was examined. Three time-patterns (monthly, daily, hourly) were determined on the basis of empirical data. Preliminary data about the participation rates on Sundays of population living near the route was given. More than four thousand people reside within 0.5 km of the route. It can be supposed that on the best Sunday about 18% of the population participated in skiing. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5020, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1979). Valaistun hiihtoreitin käytön ajallinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5020. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14874
English title: Time patterns in the use of an urban skiing route.

Temporal variations in use of an illuminated skiing route located near a town was examined. Three time-patterns (monthly, daily, hourly) were determined on the basis of empirical data. Preliminary data about the participation rates on Sundays of population living near the route was given. More than four thousand people reside within 0.5 km of the route. It can be supposed that on the best Sunday about 18% of the population participated in skiing. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4979, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Polut ulkoilun kanavoinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4979. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14833
English title: Trails in guiding recreational activity in Helsinki, Southern Finland.

The aim of the paper was to investigate the potentials offered by trails in guiding recreational activity. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires concerning recreationists using two recreation areas owned by the city of Helsinki in Southern Finland. According to the results, the recreationists visit terrain without trails every time they visit a recreation area. The main reason for this was obtaining varying recreational experiences. The recreationists used, however, the same route nearly every visit, which suggests that trails have a great potential in guiding reacreational activities. Special attention was paid to the role of trails in activities involving physical exercise. The correlation between the socio-economic background of recreationists and their preferences for trails was very low.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4979, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Polut ulkoilun kanavoinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4979. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14833
English title: Trails in guiding recreational activity in Helsinki, Southern Finland.

The aim of the paper was to investigate the potentials offered by trails in guiding recreational activity. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires concerning recreationists using two recreation areas owned by the city of Helsinki in Southern Finland. According to the results, the recreationists visit terrain without trails every time they visit a recreation area. The main reason for this was obtaining varying recreational experiences. The recreationists used, however, the same route nearly every visit, which suggests that trails have a great potential in guiding reacreational activities. Special attention was paid to the role of trails in activities involving physical exercise. The correlation between the socio-economic background of recreationists and their preferences for trails was very low.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4972, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Deterioration of forest ground cover during trampling. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14823

The aim of the present study was to investigate the trampling tolerance of forest ground cover of the Calluna, Vaccinium and Myrtillus type sites. Positive correlation was found between the site fertility and trampling tolerance of plant communities. Annual trampling at level of about 16,000 visits per hectare decreased the biomass of the ground cover to almost half of the original amount, and annual trampling of about 160,000 visits per hectare completely destroyed the forest ground cover irrespective of site fertility. Comparisons made between herb and grass dominated forest ground cover showed that herb and grass cover is in the long run the best alternative for the management of ground cover in intensively used recreation areas.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4961, category Article
Helmut Schmidt-Vogt. (1977). Keski-Euroopan metsänhoidon kehityssuuntia. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4961. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14812
English title: Trends in the forest management in Central Europe.

In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.

  • Schmidt-Vogt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hoogesteger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4916, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1975). Metsien "moninaiskäytöstä" vanhalla ajalla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4916. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14760
English title: The multiple use of forests in ancient times.

It is possible to show that many of the after-effects resulting from the disappearance of forest cover were well known already in ancient times. The invigorating effect of moving around freely in the forest and its artistic creative ability were also recognized as well as the healing effect of coniferous forest on people suffering from consumption. Hunting and the use of forests for cattle grazing is also an extremely old practice. The so-called by-products of the forest such as tree bark and leaves, as well as berries and fruits, have played an important role in the history of mankind from the very earliest beginnings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7617, category Article
Risto Savolainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Metsän maisemallinen arvostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 170 article id 7617. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7617
English title: Scenic value of forest landscape.

Two approaches were applied in measuring the scenic value of forest landscapes. In the field, the scenic value of forest lands representing clear cut areas, as well as young closed stands and mature stands with varying tree species composition, were assessed. In the laboratory, the scenic value of the same stands was measured with the help of photographs of the same stand. The same persons representing forest students (36 persons) and city dwellers (25 persons) made the evaluation.

Stands of moderate density containing individual tall trees and a coniferous undergrowth had the greatest scenic value, independently of the tree species composition. However, birch was preferred to Scots pine and Norway spruce. Measurements made in the field by means of interviews, and in the laboratory based on photographs, gave very similar results. Photographs seem to represent a reliable tool for estimating the scenic value of forest landscapes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Savolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7580, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1975). Forest stand preferences of recreationists. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 146 article id 7580. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7580

The environmental preferences of recreationists were studied at the forest stand level in this study. The hypothesis which has been drawn up on the basis of the literature has been studied by attempting to elucidate the environmental preferences of groups using two recreation areas owned by the City of Helsinki using interviews and questionnaires. The material consisted of 1,323 interviews supplemented by questionnaires.

The replies to the questionnaires showed that recreationists consider birch and Scots pine to be more beautiful than Norway spruce, and stands made up of several tree species to be more beautiful than stands of single tree species. They also consider mature stands to be more beautiful than young stands.

During the interviews, the attention of the recreationists was directed at the view formed by the interview stand. The scenic preferences for the stands were measured using adjectives which the interviewee was asked to use in describing his or her impression of the view which was pointed out. First of all, the results clearly indicated that from the point of view of the scenic value of the stand, the way in which the stand is organised to form a scenic aspect or a stand view is more important than its ecological structure. However, it is obvious that stands containing large sized trees in particular are in many ways more preferred than stands which are younger in their development stage. This should therefore be the case when changes in the stand view resulting from management measures are insignificant or difficult to see. The main tree species in the stand does not seem to have from the point of view of scenic preference as much significance as would have been expected judging by the questionnaire material.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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