Current issue: 54(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'regeneration chain'.

Category: Research article

article id 146, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Juho Rantala, Timo Saksa, Pertti Harstela. (2010). Effect of soil preparation method on economic result of Norway spruce regeneration chain. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 146. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.146
Economic result of forest regeneration chains, based either on spot mounding or on disc trenching and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings, were clarified and compared to each other. First, effects of soil preparation method on early development of Norway spruce stands were measured from field experiments. Second, the effects of soil preparation method on stand level management programs were modelled. The modelling was based on growth simulation and investment calculations. The soil preparation methods substantially affected early development of a stand. The density of the removed trees in early cleaning was 56% higher on the disc-trenched area compared to the spot-mounded area. The difference was especially high (120%), close by (< 25 cm) the remained spruce seedlings. There was also a difference between the methods in the growth of crop spruces; at biological age of 8 years, the mean height of spruce was 110 cm on the spot-mounded area and 68 cm on the disc-trenched area. The differences led to divergent management programs between the areas. The disc-trenched area needed three young stand management operations whereas two was enough at the spot-mounded area. Although disc trenching is a less expensive method than spot mounding, the total management costs were higher in disc trenching than in spot mounding. Furthermore, incomes from the first commercial thinning were higher when regeneration based on spot mounding. At the interest rate of 3%, the investment in spot mounding had 329 EUR ha–1 higher net present value than the investment in disc trenching.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karri.uotila@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 10172, category Review article
Ulf Sikström, Karin Hjelm, Kjersti Holt Hanssen, Timo Saksa, Kristina Wallertz. (2020). Influence of mechanical site preparation on regeneration success of planted conifers in clearcuts in Fennoscandia – a review. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 10172. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10172
Highlights: Mechanical site preparation (MSP) increases seedling survival rates by 15–20%; Survival rates of 80–90% ca. 10 years after MSP and planting conifers are possible; MSP can increase tree height 10–15 years after planting by 10–25%; The increase in growth rate associated with MSP may be temporary, but the height enhancement probably persists.

In the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Sweden, the most common regeneration method is planting after clearcutting and, often, mechanical site preparation (MSP). The main focus of this study is to review quantitative effects that have been reported for the five main MSP methods in terms of survival and growth of manually planted coniferous seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) in clearcuts in these three countries. Meta analyses are used to compare the effects of MSP methods to control areas where there was no MSP and identify any relationships with temperature sum and number of years after planting. In addition, the area of disturbed soil surface and the emergence of naturally regenerated seedlings are evaluated. The MSP methods considered are patch scarification, disc trenching, mounding, soil inversion and ploughing. Studies performed at sites with predominately mineral soils (with an organic topsoil no thicker than 0.30 m), in boreal, nemo-boreal and nemoral vegetation zones in the three Fenno-Scandinavian countries are included in the review. Data from 26 experimental and five survey studies in total were compiled and evaluated. The results show that survival rates of planted conifers at sites where seedlings are not strongly affected by pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) are generally 80–90% after MSP, and 15–20 percent units higher than after planting in non-prepared sites. The experimental data indicated that soil inversion and potentially ploughing (few studies) give marginally greater rates than the other methods in this respect. The effects of MSP on survival seem to be independent of the temperature sum. Below 800 degree days, however, the reported survival rates are more variable. MSP generally results in trees 10–25% taller 10–15 years after planting compared to no MSP. The strength of the growth effect appears to be inversely related to the temperature sum. The compiled data may assist in the design, evaluation and comparison of possible regeneration chains, i.e. analyses of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of multiple combinations of reforestation measures.

  • Sikström, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ulf.sikstrom@skogforsk.se
  • Hjelm, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.hjelm@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Holt Hanssen, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: kjersti.hanssen@nibio.no
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi
  • Wallertz, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Asa Forest Research Station, SE-360 30 Lammhult, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.wallertz@slu.se

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