Current issue: 54(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'rehabilitation'.

Category: Research article

article id 10088, category Research article
Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Kira Ryhti, Tomi Kaakkurivaara, Jori Uusitalo, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari. (2019). Leaching of heavy metals and barium from forest roads reinforced with fly ash. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10088.
Highlights: Heavy metal concentrations were generally low in percolation and ditch water samples of ash roads, but elevated concentrations were found in some parts of ash roads; Risk for heavy metal leaching is negligible if road parts producing high concentrations are rare.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of leaching of heavy metals (Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mo) and earth-alkaline metal, barium (Ba), on the percolation and ditch water quality from the forest roads that contained ash in the road structures. Water quality was studied in the immediate vicinity below the ash layers as well as deeper in the road structure. Water quality was also determined in the drainage water in ditches that crossed the forest roads. A mixture of wood and peat based fly ash was used in the road structures. The treatments were: 1) no ash, 2) a 15 cm layer of ash/gravel mixture, 3) a 20 cm layer of ash/gravel mixture, 4) a 25 cm layer of ash, and 5) a 50 cm layer of ash. Large variation in the concentrations of Cr, As, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mo and Ba in the percolation water, even within the same treatment, caused difficulties to generalize the results. The concentrations of Cr, As, Ni, Pb, Mo and Ba in water samples were high in some treatment plot lysimeters containing ash compared to the control (no ash). On the other hand, many lysimeters had low and similar concentrations in water samples in the treatment plots containing ash compared to concentrations in the control plots. The ash in the roads did not affect the concentrations in the ditches. The leaching is uneven and seems to take place only from some parts of the ash layer. Risk for leaching is minimal if such parts are not widely spread.

  • Lindroos, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Ryhti, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaakkurivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Helmisaari, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 170, category Research article
Ryoichi Doi, Senaratne L. Ranamukhaarachchi. (2009). Community-level physiological profiling in monitoring rehabilitative effects of Acacia auriculiformis plantation on degraded land in Sakaerat, Thailand. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 170.
This study was conducted to investigate the rehabilitative effects of planting Acacia auriculiformis trees on degraded land by observing variations in soil bacterial community profiles provided by community-level physiological profiling. Soil bacterial and physicochemical comparisons between an original evergreen forest and the Acacia plantation plot, established on an area severely degraded as a result of deforestation, showed that most soil characteristics were rehabilitated 18 to 19 years after the plantation of Acacia according to single variables, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices based on the community-level physiological profiles, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis. However, a more strict statistical comparison, discriminant analysis, completely discriminated between the Acacia plantation and the evergreen forest soils when the community-level physiological profiles were compared. Thus, the Acacia plantation soil was shown to still be in the process to full recovery. Here, we discuss the relevance of planting A. auriculiformis in land rehabilitation schemes in savanna regions.
  • Doi, AFE Building, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Ranamukhaarachchi, AFE Building, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 685, category Research article
S. P. Sah, I. C. Dutta, M. S. Haque. (1998). Nursery and field response of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo) to Rhizobium inoculation. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 685.
The present research work aims to demonstrate the rehabilitation of a degraded forest land by afforestation of sissoo plants (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria sp. In this study, effects of the three different Rhizobium isolates from three localities such as i. Kotre-isolate, ii. Pokhara-isolate and iii. Syangaza-isolate were assessed both in nursery and in the field. It was noted that the growth and biomass increment of seedlings in nursery as well as in the field after rhizobial inoculation were significantly high compared to control one. Among these 3-isolates, Kotre-isolate was found to be superior to others. Soil improvement around the root of inoculated seedlings was remarkable high. Nitrogen content of the soil increased in the range of 20–40% compared to control (only 10–20%). Kotre-isolate, in general, caused more soil improvement than the other isolates. The nutrient content in the green foliage, particularly nitrogen, increased in the range of 30–50%, compared to control one. The considerable increase in nutrients content of soil as well as in the foliage indicates the improvement in the quality of site.
  • Sah, Department of Biology, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Dutta, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haque, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 74, category Review article
Philip J. Burton, S. Ellen Macdonald. (2011). The restorative imperative: challenges, objectives and approaches to restoring naturalness in forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 74.
Many of the world’s forests are not primeval; forest restoration aims to reverse alterations caused by human use. Forest restoration (including reforestation and forest rehabilitation) is widely researched and practiced around the globe. A review of recent literature reveals some common themes concerning forest restoration motivations and methods. In some parts of the world, forest restoration aims mainly to re-establish trees required for timber or fuelwood; such work emphasizes the propagation, establishment and growth of trees, and equates with the traditional discipline of silviculture. Elsewhere, a recent focus on biocentric values adopts the goal of supporting full complements of indigenous trees and other species. Such ecosystem-based restoration approaches consider natural templates and a wide array of attributes and processes, but there remains an emphasis on trees and plant species composition. Efforts to restore natural processes such as nutrient cycling, succession, and natural disturbances seem limited, except for the use of fire, which has seen widespread adoption in some regions. The inherent challenges in restoring “naturalness” include high temporal and spatial heterogeneity in forest conditions and natural disturbances, the long history of human influence on forests in many regions of the world, and uncertainty about future climate and disturbance regimes. Although fixed templates may be inappropriate, we still have a reasonably clear idea of the incremental steps required to make forests more natural. Because most locations can support many alternative configurations of natural vegetation, the restoration of forest naturalness necessarily involves the setting of priorities and strategic directions in the context of human values and objectives, as informed by our best understanding of ecosystem structure and function now and in the future.
  • Burton, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Macdonald, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7515, category Article
Vesa Kaarakka. (1996). Management of bushland vegetation using rainwater harvesting in eastern Kenya. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 253 article id 7515.

Microcatchment water harvesting (MCWH) improved the survival and growth of planted trees on heavy soils in eastern Kenya five to six years after planting. In the best method, the cross-tied furrow microcatchment, the mean annual increment (MAI; based on the average biomass of living trees multiplied by tree density and survival) of the total and usable biomass of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. were 2,787 and 1,610 kg ha-1 a-1 respectively, when the initial tree density was 500 to 1,667 trees per hectare. Based on survival, the indigenous Acacia horrida Span., A. mellifera (Vahl) Benth. and A. zanzibarica (S. Moore) Taub. were the most suitable species for planting using MCWH. When both survival and the yield were considered, a local seed source of P. Juliflora was superior to all other species. The MAI in MCWH was at best distinctly higher than that in the natural vegetation (163–307 and 66–111 kg ha-1 a-1 for total and usable biomass respectively); this cannot satisfy the fuelwood demand of concentrated populations, such as towns or irrigation schemes.

The density of seeds of woody species in the topsoil was 40.1 seeds/m2 in the Acacia-Commiphora bushland and 12.6 seeds/m2 in the zone between the bushland and the Tana riverine forest. Rehabilitation of woody vegetation using the soil seed bank alone proved difficult due to the lack of seeds of desirable species.

The regeneration and dynamics of woody vegetation were also studied both in cleared and undisturbed bushland. A sub-type of Acacia-Commiphora bushland was identified as Acacia reficiens bushland, in which the dominant Commiphora species is C. campestris. Most of the woody species did not have even-aged population but cohort structures that were skewed towards young individuals. The woody vegetation and the status of soil nutrients were estimated to recover in 15–20 years on Vertic Natrargid soils after total removal of above-ground vegetation.

  • Kaarakka, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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