Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'rural development'.

Category: Review article

article id 632, category Review article
William F. Hyde, Gunnar Köhlin. (2000). Social forestry reconsidered. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.632
This paper reviews the expectations for forestry’s contribution to rural development – and for its special contributions to the most disadvantaged, to women and the landless users of the forest commons. A growing literature challenges some of these expectations; in particular, certain expectations about cultural differences and physical stocks as explanatory factors for patterns of household behavior. This literature could also be used to support a call for sharper definitions of deforestation, improved indicators of the effects of forest resources on the rural poor, and improved design of forest policy interventions. Our paper reviews the literature, suggests some unifying themes, and identifies the critical issues that remain unanswered. The primary contention arising from this literature is that households follow systematic patterns of economic behavior in their consumption and production of forest resources, and that policy interventions in social forestry should be analyzed with regard to markets, policies, and institutions. Markets for forest resources generally exist in some form – although they may be thin. Successful forestry projects and policies require careful identification of the target populations and careful estimation of market and market-related effects on the household behavior of these populations. Institutional structures that assure secure rights for scarce forest resources are uniquely important in a forest enviornment often characterized by open access resources and weak government administration. Social and community forestry, improved stoves, improved strains of multi-purpose trees, and even private commercial forest operations can all improve local welfare, but only where scarcity is correctly identified and the appropriate institutions are in place. An increasing number of observations of afforestation from developing countries around the world is evidence that forestry activities do satisfy these conditions in selective important cases. The critical point for policy is to identify the characteristics of these successful cases that are predictive of other cases where new forestry activities can be welfare enhancing.
  • Hyde, Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail: wfhyde@aol.com (email)
  • Köhlin, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Forestry as an employer in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5036, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Päiviö Riihinen. (1979). Forestry and rural development. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14893

The development of a society often involves deep-going changes in its economic and social structure. According to the theory of cumulative growth, the economic changes attached to industrialization and modernisation of a society are characterized by the regional differentiation of economic activities. Expansive growth centres, areas with spreading effects, and back-wash areas will develop due to the dynamic forces of cumulative development.

The impact of industrialization and modernization on society as a whole usually manifests itself in an achievement of many of the welfare objectives considered desirable. There are, however, differences between the industries or other economic activities in respect to their effect on the economic or social life of a society or a region. The special feature of forestry and forest industry is that they are more concerned with rural districts than most other economic pursuits. The differentiation effect of forestry and forest industries is not as pronounced as that of certain other industries. Especially the back-wash effects remain rather weak.

In traditional, non-industrialized society the establishment of forestry activities may have an important role in the beginning of economic and social development which is rational from the point of view of the local communities as well as of the society as a whole. However, forestry may also have influences which one can see as socially undesirable. As far as traditional rural societies are concerned, one basic problem is that the establishment of forestry activities may advance the disintegration of ancient social institutions and structures. On the other hand, in a modern, industrialized society one primary function of forestry seems to be to maintain and strengthen the rural social structures and to equalize the regional differences caused by cumulative development. However, the role of forestry in rural development is likely to decrease when the industrialization and modernization progresses, for instance, because the increasing urban population will use forests for purposes other than forestry, such as recreation and nature conservation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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