Current issue: 53(2)

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Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'sawmill'.

Category: Research article

article id 1006, category Research article
Jörn Rathke, Maria A. Huka, Manfred Gronalt. (2013). The box assignment problem in log yards. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1006
Highlights: Logistic approach for the optimization of log yard in terms of arrangement of storage boxes and ejection boxes reduced transportation time by 16 percent compared with the original solution.
This paper presents an optimization approach to minimizing log yard round wood transportation time for a medium sized hardwood sawmill. The log yard, which has to ensure a smooth raw material supply to the entire production process, is the first processing step in a sawmill. The log yard also serves as an internal round wood sorting and storing capacity. Thus, an optimal assignment of ejection boxes, storage boxes and feeding carriages is required to minimize transportation time at a log yard. The main contribution of this paper is to present an integrated approach which simultaneously takes into account log transportation time, storage capacity and yard crane deployment. The approach is based on two steps: a) defining storage spaces per batch and calculating distances and b) determining optimum box assignments in the log yard in order to minimize overall transportation distance. The solution in step b) is compared with the results obtained by random box assignment as well as a spreadsheet based planning method. We have been able to show that our approach is much more flexible and results are more than 16 percent better than the corresponding real life solution.
  • Rathke, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: joern.rathke@boku.ac.at
  • Huka, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.huka@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 623, category Research article
Anders Roos, Matti Flinkman, Armas Jäppinen, Mats Warensjö. (2000). Adoption of value-adding processes in Swedish sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.623
Adding value to lumber by processing it after sawing and standard drying is one means for the sawmilling industry to increase market shares in competition with other materials, e.g. glass, steel, concrete, aluminium, and plastics. In this study the adoption patterns of value-adding processes used in Swedish softwood sawmills were analysed based on production data from 1995. About 90% of the sawmills applied a value-adding process after initial sawing and drying, and 72% of the sawmills applied two or more processes. The total share of processed sawnwood was about 40%. Important dimensions of value-adding processes are: extra drying and production of blanks for doors/windows and for furniture; surface-treatment, mainly planing, which is sometimes associated with preservation and painting; length trimming and pallet production; extra drying and production of edge-glued panels and laminated beams; and stress grading and production of building components. The association of different value-adding dimensions with location, ownership and production characteristics were investigated. The total share of value-added production were higher for private sawmills than for mills owned by forest companies or by forest owners’ associations, and it was higher for mills in southern Sweden than for sawmills in other parts of the country. Value-added share does not clearly correlate with mill size or with the dominating tree species being sawn.
  • Roos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.roos@sh.slu.se (email)
  • Flinkman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jäppinen, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Warensjö, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7141, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 1. Aineiston hankinta ja käsittely sekä tulosten luotettavuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 1 article id 7141. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7141
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland I. Collection and treatment of the material and reliability of the results.

The purpose of this paper is 1) to establish the possible seasonal variation of the different phases of work in the sawmill industry in Finland, 2) to study the internal and external factors influencing the seasonal character of the sawmill industry, 3) to study ha time lags between the work phases of the sawmill industry, 4) to analyse the seasonal nature of the industry’s money transactions, and 5) to give information concerning the factors influencing employment. The investigation is based on questionnaires of a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. This paper concentrates on the methods of the study, the results are reported in a separate paper in the Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 vol 1.

It was concluded that if seasonal variation in the sawmill industry is to be analysed on the scale it has been in the present work, sampling is the cheapest and most practicable method of collecting the material. If seasonal fluctuation of the industry is to be calculated by size classes, the sample must be allocated into strata by measuring the heterogeneity of the classes with a parameter illustrating seasonal variation. It might be useful to apply these parameters already when the total size of the sample is determined. For the smallest sawmills, for which practically all data have to be collected from primary documents, the most practical method is perhaps to send collectors to the spots. To the larger sawmills the questionnaire can perhaps be sent by mail. A moving index should be obtained for calculation of a seasonal index, but this demands long time series. The collection of the data is described in detail.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7265, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1931). Suomen puunjalostusteollisuuden raaka-aineen käyttö vuosina 1911-29. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 7265. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7265
English title: Wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in Finland in 1911‒1929.

The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.

The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7202, category Article
I. Lassila. (1926). Piirteitä sahan ja saharaamin alkukehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 7202. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7202
English title: Features in the early development of saws and saw frames.
Original keywords: saha; saharaami; sahalaitteisto; kehäsaha

The article describes the evolution of sawmills, focusing on four parts: the frame and sliding devices, the fastening of the blade into the frame, appliances for fastening the timber, and feeding devices. The earlier equipment had adaptability that has been lost in the more developed equipment, because the raw materials have been too expensive and hard to acquire, among other things. It is remarked that many inventions of the sawmills have not been adopted in the actual equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5547, category Article
Tiina Tolvanen-Sikanen, Pertti Harstela, Lauri Sikanen. (1995). A game theoretic simulation model for quality oriented timber supply to sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5547. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9198

The first aim of this study was to develop a simulation model describing the flow of different timber qualities to different firms. The second aim was to study preliminary the factors which affect timber distributions. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that in a small sawmill firm the traditional way of organizing timber procurement does not direct effectively good quality logs to the special production. The game theoretic approaching and the principles of Monte-Carlo simulation were applied in development of the simulation model. The most important factors of the model were tried to find for further studies with sensitive analysis. Empirical validation brought forth promising results in the area of one municipality. The buyer’s awareness of a marked stand, the seller’s willingness to sell a marked stand, the buyer’s ability to pay for wood and the proportion of first quality pine logs in a marked stand affected the distribution of pine logs. The results also supported the hypothesis that the traditional system, in which sawmills or their own forest departments procure themselves all timber needed, is not the most effective way to direct enough good quality timber to the special production.

  • Tolvanen-Sikanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sikanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5192, category Article
Kauko Koljonen. (1983). Inter-industry linkages of forestry and forest industry sectors in the Tanzanian economy. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15175

Sawmilling and Carpentry, Forestry and Hunting, and Food Grains are the economic sectors compared in this study by means of the total input-output coefficient. The coefficient measures the value of direct and indirect demand in the economy caused by a demand worth one monetary unit on the sector in focus. Forestry sector has the weakest linkage to other sectors. The derived coefficients are 1.693 for Sawmilling and Carpentry, 1.183 for Food Grain and 1.167 for Forestry and Hunting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koljonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7518, category Article
Timo Hartikainen. (1997). Late-industrial sawmill customers. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 257 article id 7518. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7518

The methods of secondary wood processing are assumed to evolve over time and to affect the requirements set for the wood material and its suppliers. The study aims at analysing the industrial operating modes applied by joinery and furniture manufacturers as sawn wood users. Industrial operating mode was defined as a pattern of important decisions and actions taken by a company which describes the company’s level of adjustment in the late-industrial transition.

A non-probabilistic sample of 127 companies was interviewed, including companies from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland. Fifty-two of the firms were furniture manufacturers and the other 75 were producing windows and doors. Variables related to business philosophy, production operations, and suppliers’ choice criteria were measured and used as a basis for a customer typology; variables related to wood usage and perceived sawmill performance were measured to be used to profile the customer types.

Factor analysis was used to determine the latent dimensions of industrial operating mode. Canonical correlation analysis was applied in developing the final base for classifying the observations. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to build a five-group typology of secondary wood processing firms; these ranged from traditional mass producers to late-industrial flexible manufacturers. There was a clear connection between the amounts of late-industrial elements in a company and the share of special and customised sawn wood uses. Those joinery or furniture manufacturers that were late-industrial also were likely to use more component-type wood material and to appreciate customer-oriented sawn wood materials and late-industrial supplier relationships.

  • Hartikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7674, category Article
J. Ashley Selby, Leena Petäjistö. (1992). Small sawmills as enterprises: a behavioural investigation of development potential. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 228 article id 7674. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7674

The investigation examines the development potential of small sawmills in rural Finland. Development is defined with qualitative bias, given small sawmills’ limited possibilities for large-scale investments. Potential is defined in terms of the behavioural limitations to development. The investigation assumes that small sawmill entrepreneurial behaviour is essentially satisficing, and that the concept of bounded rationality is applicable. The empirical material concerns a random sample of 399 sawmills from all regions in Finland collected in connection with the 1990 small sawmill inventory.

Three sets of enterprise/entrepreneurial attributes are constructed using principal component analyses: i) entrepreneurial skills & organization, ii) small sawmill outlets, and iii) information attributes. Development potential is measured by employing discriminant analyses to test these attributes against four a priori sawmill classifications: i) sawmill production structure, ii) entrepreneurial development intentions, ii) sawmill operating environments, and iv) sawmilling as a livelihood. Each of these analyses contributes to an understanding of the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic.

Based on the use of Pred’s behavioural matrix, small sawmill entrepreneurs’ quantity & quality of information and their ability to use information are examined with respect to sawmill typologies. In this way, the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic is given a third dimension, that of the entrepreneurs’ partial space. The analysis is therefore able to examine development potential from the standpoint of an entrepreneur-enterprise-environment (partial space) trialectic.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Petäjistö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7672, category Article
Herman Hakala. (1992). Mäntytukkien sahauksen järeyden mukainen taloudellinen tulos ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 226 article id 7672. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7672
English title: Financial result of sawing Scots pine logs as influenced by top diameter and other associated factors.

The influence of log properties (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages, consumption of electric power and thereby on the financial result of sawing was examined. In addition, the significance of various revenues and costs were studied from the point of view of the financial result of sawing. The revenues from sawing are composed of revenues obtained from sawn goods, chips, sawdust and bark. The costs in sawing are made of raw material, capital, labour, energy and other costs. The results were calculated per diameter class and applying the basic principle of targeting all returns and costs on the different diameter classes.

The results are based on test sawings of a total of 1,606 Scots pine logs representing eight diameter classes,  using conventional frame saw sawing patterns. In addition, a sawing simulator was used. Log top diameter had a significant influence on the financial result obtained when calculations were made per log volume. The financial result obtained for the biggest diameter class exceeded that of the smallest diameter class by FIM 99.1/m3. Sawing revenues accounted for FIM 66.0/m3 and sawing costs for FIM 33.1/m3 of this difference. In addition to being influenced by the top diameter, the yield and sawing efficacy were observed to have a clear influence on the financial result. The influence of stoppages was smaller.

The only means of gaining significant improvement in the annual result obtained from sawing were improvements in the revenues from sawn goods or reductions in the cost of raw material. Increase of the minimum diameter led to a significant improvement in the annual result obtainable from sawing only if the production time remained unchanged; i.e., when correspondingly more logs from the other diameter classes were sawn. If the production time was reduced by an amount corresponding to the increase in minimum diameter, then the annual result fell dramatically except in the case of minimum diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7672, category Article
Herman Hakala. (1992). Mäntytukkien sahauksen järeyden mukainen taloudellinen tulos ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 226 article id 7672. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7672
English title: Financial result of sawing Scots pine logs as influenced by top diameter and other associated factors.

The influence of log properties (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages, consumption of electric power and thereby on the financial result of sawing was examined. In addition, the significance of various revenues and costs were studied from the point of view of the financial result of sawing. The revenues from sawing are composed of revenues obtained from sawn goods, chips, sawdust and bark. The costs in sawing are made of raw material, capital, labour, energy and other costs. The results were calculated per diameter class and applying the basic principle of targeting all returns and costs on the different diameter classes.

The results are based on test sawings of a total of 1,606 Scots pine logs representing eight diameter classes,  using conventional frame saw sawing patterns. In addition, a sawing simulator was used. Log top diameter had a significant influence on the financial result obtained when calculations were made per log volume. The financial result obtained for the biggest diameter class exceeded that of the smallest diameter class by FIM 99.1/m3. Sawing revenues accounted for FIM 66.0/m3 and sawing costs for FIM 33.1/m3 of this difference. In addition to being influenced by the top diameter, the yield and sawing efficacy were observed to have a clear influence on the financial result. The influence of stoppages was smaller.

The only means of gaining significant improvement in the annual result obtained from sawing were improvements in the revenues from sawn goods or reductions in the cost of raw material. Increase of the minimum diameter led to a significant improvement in the annual result obtainable from sawing only if the production time remained unchanged; i.e., when correspondingly more logs from the other diameter classes were sawn. If the production time was reduced by an amount corresponding to the increase in minimum diameter, then the annual result fell dramatically except in the case of minimum diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7627, category Article
Markku Simula. (1983). Productivity differentials in the Finnish forest industries. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 180 article id 7627. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7627

Improvement of Finnish forest industries’ competitiveness in the world markets through productivity increase as branch and plant level requires the search for appropriate comprehensive productivity indicators and the analysis of factors underlying productivity variations. These were the main objectives of the study. The data was based on the information on individual plants in 1974, obtained from the files of Industrial Statistics in the Central Statistical Office in Finland.

The study uses neoclassical average production functions as the starting point and the theory is expanded to cover factors underlying productivity variation when measured with regard to labour, capital, material input, and total factor input. For the measurement of the latter an index formula is suggested which would not necessarily incorporate neoclassical assumptions as they cannot be assumed valid in the Finnish forest industries. The estimation results of average production functions suggest increasing rate of returns in sawmilling but in pulp and paper production evidence remains inconclusive. The elasticity of substitution is unlikely to be constant and the non-homotheticity assumption cannot be rejected.

The productivity variation is, in general, best explained by a relatively simple model with capital-labour ratio, plant size and output quality as explanatory factors. Further trials with input quality, input price ratio, process characteristics, and the rate of capacity utilization improved the models only marginally in most cases, which may have been partly due to the failure to measure the variables successfully.

The cross-section results are compared with those of an earlier time-series study. The estimation results of average production functions yield somewhat different information in the long and short run. Both cross-section and time-series productivity models illustrate the importance of output level in total productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7186, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1968). Sahaustuloksen määrä ja laatu havutukkien kenttäpyörösahauksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 86 article id 7186. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7186
English title: The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in sawing coniferous logs with circular saw.

The aim of the study was to find out the ratio of raw wood consumption and the quantity and quality of the sawing yield using circular saws. The unit of study was one single log, the Norway spruce logs were divided into two grades and Scots pine logs in three grades. The principal material of the study was collected in 1950-51 using four types of saws of type EKA-50. The data consisted of 1,690 logs.

On the basis of the material, the efficiency of centre-piece sawing was 63.9% of the technical volume. On the average, 32.1% was unsorted goods, 11.5% fifths, 19.1% sixths and 1.2% culls. For spruce, the efficiency was superior to pine, which means that the consumption of raw wood for preparation of one standard of sawn goods is smaller in spruce than in pine. The volume of side boards trimmed reached about 2% of the total log volume. The efficiency of sawing and the ratio of raw-wood consumption were calculated both on the basis of the estimated and actual volume of trimmed goods. The raw-wood consumption is particularly good in logs of small and large top-diameter.

Goods sawn with circular saw have a characteristic shape. They are thinner at the ends than in the middle parts, and the deviation from the correct measure is larger in the first than in the last end of the pieces. They are also wedge-shaped because of the first piece sawn is thinner than the second one. The deviation from the correct measure exceeded the allowance for shrinking in seasoning. The goods are often under sized even if surplus measure occurs. In goods sawn using frame saws, however, it was difficult to discover any deviation from the correct measure.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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