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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'sawmill industry'.

Category: Article

article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7141, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 1. Aineiston hankinta ja käsittely sekä tulosten luotettavuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 1 article id 7141. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7141
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland I. Collection and treatment of the material and reliability of the results.

The purpose of this paper is 1) to establish the possible seasonal variation of the different phases of work in the sawmill industry in Finland, 2) to study the internal and external factors influencing the seasonal character of the sawmill industry, 3) to study ha time lags between the work phases of the sawmill industry, 4) to analyse the seasonal nature of the industry’s money transactions, and 5) to give information concerning the factors influencing employment. The investigation is based on questionnaires of a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. This paper concentrates on the methods of the study, the results are reported in a separate paper in the Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 vol 1.

It was concluded that if seasonal variation in the sawmill industry is to be analysed on the scale it has been in the present work, sampling is the cheapest and most practicable method of collecting the material. If seasonal fluctuation of the industry is to be calculated by size classes, the sample must be allocated into strata by measuring the heterogeneity of the classes with a parameter illustrating seasonal variation. It might be useful to apply these parameters already when the total size of the sample is determined. For the smallest sawmills, for which practically all data have to be collected from primary documents, the most practical method is perhaps to send collectors to the spots. To the larger sawmills the questionnaire can perhaps be sent by mail. A moving index should be obtained for calculation of a seasonal index, but this demands long time series. The collection of the data is described in detail.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5192, category Article
Kauko Koljonen. (1983). Inter-industry linkages of forestry and forest industry sectors in the Tanzanian economy. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15175

Sawmilling and Carpentry, Forestry and Hunting, and Food Grains are the economic sectors compared in this study by means of the total input-output coefficient. The coefficient measures the value of direct and indirect demand in the economy caused by a demand worth one monetary unit on the sector in focus. Forestry sector has the weakest linkage to other sectors. The derived coefficients are 1.693 for Sawmilling and Carpentry, 1.183 for Food Grain and 1.167 for Forestry and Hunting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koljonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7672, category Article
Herman Hakala. (1992). Mäntytukkien sahauksen järeyden mukainen taloudellinen tulos ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 226 article id 7672. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7672
English title: Financial result of sawing Scots pine logs as influenced by top diameter and other associated factors.

The influence of log properties (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages, consumption of electric power and thereby on the financial result of sawing was examined. In addition, the significance of various revenues and costs were studied from the point of view of the financial result of sawing. The revenues from sawing are composed of revenues obtained from sawn goods, chips, sawdust and bark. The costs in sawing are made of raw material, capital, labour, energy and other costs. The results were calculated per diameter class and applying the basic principle of targeting all returns and costs on the different diameter classes.

The results are based on test sawings of a total of 1,606 Scots pine logs representing eight diameter classes,  using conventional frame saw sawing patterns. In addition, a sawing simulator was used. Log top diameter had a significant influence on the financial result obtained when calculations were made per log volume. The financial result obtained for the biggest diameter class exceeded that of the smallest diameter class by FIM 99.1/m3. Sawing revenues accounted for FIM 66.0/m3 and sawing costs for FIM 33.1/m3 of this difference. In addition to being influenced by the top diameter, the yield and sawing efficacy were observed to have a clear influence on the financial result. The influence of stoppages was smaller.

The only means of gaining significant improvement in the annual result obtained from sawing were improvements in the revenues from sawn goods or reductions in the cost of raw material. Increase of the minimum diameter led to a significant improvement in the annual result obtainable from sawing only if the production time remained unchanged; i.e., when correspondingly more logs from the other diameter classes were sawn. If the production time was reduced by an amount corresponding to the increase in minimum diameter, then the annual result fell dramatically except in the case of minimum diameter.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7627, category Article
Markku Simula. (1983). Productivity differentials in the Finnish forest industries. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 180 article id 7627. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7627

Improvement of Finnish forest industries’ competitiveness in the world markets through productivity increase as branch and plant level requires the search for appropriate comprehensive productivity indicators and the analysis of factors underlying productivity variations. These were the main objectives of the study. The data was based on the information on individual plants in 1974, obtained from the files of Industrial Statistics in the Central Statistical Office in Finland.

The study uses neoclassical average production functions as the starting point and the theory is expanded to cover factors underlying productivity variation when measured with regard to labour, capital, material input, and total factor input. For the measurement of the latter an index formula is suggested which would not necessarily incorporate neoclassical assumptions as they cannot be assumed valid in the Finnish forest industries. The estimation results of average production functions suggest increasing rate of returns in sawmilling but in pulp and paper production evidence remains inconclusive. The elasticity of substitution is unlikely to be constant and the non-homotheticity assumption cannot be rejected.

The productivity variation is, in general, best explained by a relatively simple model with capital-labour ratio, plant size and output quality as explanatory factors. Further trials with input quality, input price ratio, process characteristics, and the rate of capacity utilization improved the models only marginally in most cases, which may have been partly due to the failure to measure the variables successfully.

The cross-section results are compared with those of an earlier time-series study. The estimation results of average production functions yield somewhat different information in the long and short run. Both cross-section and time-series productivity models illustrate the importance of output level in total productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7574, category Article
Olavi Isomäki. (1974). Sahateollisuuden kuorintajätteiden käyttömahdollisuudet. Erityisesti käyttö maanparannusaineena ja kasvualustana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 140 article id 7574. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7574
English title: Using possibilities of barking waste in sawmill industry specially using as a soil improver and substrate for plants.

Residue of the wood is good raw material for pulp and board industries, but the question of the use of barking waste still remains to a great extent unsolved. This research deals with the possibilities to utilize the barking waste of sawmill industry in general and, in particular, its use as a soil improver and substrate for plants. It also explains the industrial manufacturing method of composted bark, bark humus, developed by the author as well as the properties of bark humus and the economy of bark humus and the economy of manufacturing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Isomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4718, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden jätepuu. Jätepuun käyttöä ja sen edullisuutta koskeva tutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14277
English title: Waste wood of the Finnish sawmill industry. A study of the use of waste wood and its profitability.

The purpose of this investigation was to construct a procedure for measuring the profitability of the use of waste wood. The average price a sawmill gets from the waste wood depends, on the amount of use compared with the waste wood output, and on the composition of waste wood. Production of different kinds of waste wood presupposes investments, therefore, the size of a sawmill, in addition to its location, affects the composition. The data was collected by mailing a questionnaire through the central organizations of the sawmill industry in 1959.

The amount of waste wood per standard of sawn wood increases with the size of the sawmill. Because small sawmills cannot generally use or sell their waste wood, they strive at using the raw material effectively. In addition, they produce much rough-edged sawn wood, and sorting is not as strict as at large sawmills. They also leave their sawn wood untrimmed.

Finland’s pulp industry has expanded significantly since 1958. This has increased the need of raw wood, and the demand of sawmill waste. An additional data collected showed that in 1958 there was about 150 and in 1963 about 200 sawmills delivering waste wood to the forest industry. The amount of waste wood used as raw material compared with the total waste wood utilization had increased about 10% during the period. The production of cellulose chips became profitable when the annual output of sawn wood of a sawmill exceeded 1,000-2,000 stds. The size structure of the sawmills affects the regional usage of the waste wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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