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Articles containing the keyword 'secondary forest'.

Category: Research article

article id 10242, category Research article
Shisheng Long, Siqi Zeng, Falin Liu, Guangxing Wang. (2020). Influence of slope, aspect and competition index on the height-diameter relationship of Cyclobalanopsis glauca trees for improving prediction of height in mixed forests. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10242
Highlights: In this study, the effects of slope, aspect and competition index (CI) on the H-DBH relationship were explored and an improved CI was developed and included to improve predictions of Cyclobalanopsis glauca tree height; It was found that the effects were statistically significant and considering slope, aspect and CI for developing the H-DBH models significantly increased the H prediction accuracy.

Diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) of trees are two important variables used in forest management plans. However, collecting the measurements of H is time-consuming and costly. Instead, the H-DBH relationship is modeled and used to estimate H. But, ignoring the effects of slope, aspect and tree competition on the H-DBH relationship often impedes the improvement of H predictions. In this study, to improve predictions of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst. tree H in mixed forests, we compared eleven H-DBH models and examined the influence of slope and aspect on the H-DBH relationship using 426 trees. We then improved Hegyi competition index and explored its effect on the H predictions by including it in the selected models. Results showed 1) There were statistically significant effects of slope and aspect on the H-DBH relationship; 2) The log transformation and exponential model performed best for sunny- and shady-steep, respectively, and the Gompertz’s model was optimal for both sunny- and shady-gentle; 3) Compared with the whole dataset, the division of the data into the slope and aspect sub-datasets significantly reduced the RMSE of H predictions; 4) Compared with the selected models without competition index, adding the original Hegyi and improved Hegyi_I into the models improved the H predictions but only the models containing the improved Hegyi_I significantly increased the prediction accuracy at the significant level of 0.1. This study implied that modeling the H-DBH relationship under different slopes and aspects and including the improved Hegyi_I provided the great potential to improve the H predictions.

  • Long, Faculty of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China ORCID ID:E-mail: shisheng3604@21cn.com
  • Zeng, Faculty of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China ORCID ID:E-mail: zengsiqi@21cn.com
  • Liu, Faculty of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China ORCID ID:E-mail: liufl680@126.com
  • Wang, Research Center of Forestry Remote Sensing & Information Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China; Department of Geography and Environmental Resources, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: gxwang@siu.edu (email)
article id 7693, category Research article
Chunyu Zhu, Jiaojun Zhu, Xiao Zheng, Deliang Lu, Xiufen Li. (2017). Comparison of gap formation and distribution pattern induced by wind/snowstorm and flood in a temperate secondary forest ecosystem, Northeast China. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7693
Highlights: The canopy gaps induced by wind/snowstorm were aggregated in steep slope and high altitude areas, while the gaps formed by flood were gathered in steep slope and low altitude areas; The wind/snowstorm mainly driven the formation of medium gaps, while the flood mainly promoted the percentage of small gaps and vacant lands.

Canopy gap is the driving force of forest succession. Due to the uncontrollability, however, the influences of natural disturbances on gap formation and gap distribution pattern have been rarely understood in temperate secondary forest ecosystems. We monitored the gap formation and gap distribution pattern using high-resolution remote sensing images before and after two disturbances (wind/snowstorm in 2003 and flood in 2013). The results showed that after wind/snowstorm, the gap nearest neighbor index (GNNI) decreased, the vacant land area did not obviously change while the gap fraction and gaps density (especially medium size) increased. After the flood, GNNI decreased, the number of small gaps increased but larger gaps were in many cases extended to vacant land areas leading to a smaller total number of medium and large gaps but considerable increase in vacant land area. We also found that the gap densities increased with slope and altitude for wind/snowstorm-formed gaps, but they increased with increasing slope and decreasing altitude for flood-formed gaps. These results indicated that gaps were aggregated in steep slope and high altitude areas after wind/snowstorm, but in steep slope and low altitude areas after the flood. Medium gaps were mainly created by the wind/snowstorm due to the individual-level death of dominant tree with the continuous fall of surrounding trees. While, vacant lands were obviously created during the flood because of integral sweeping. Besides, smaller trees were easily damaged by runoff of flood, which induced small gaps. In summary, forest managers may pay more attention to use gaps to accelerate forest succession after wind/snowstorms and to restore vegetation in vacant lands after floods.

  • Zhu, ORCID ID:E-mail: Chunyuzhu123@126.com
  • Zhu, ORCID ID:E-mail: jiaojunzhu@iae.ac.cn (email)
  • Zheng, ORCID ID:E-mail: xiaozheng@iae.ac.cn
  • Lu, ORCID ID:E-mail: delianglu14@hotmail.com
  • Li, ORCID ID:E-mail: delianglu14@hotmail.com
article id 1492, category Research article
Li-Bin Liu, Yang-Yang Wu, Gang Hu, Zhong-Hua Zhang, An-Yun Cheng, Shi-Jie Wang, Jian Ni. (2016). Biomass of karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in central Guizhou province, southwestern China: a comprehensive inventory of a 2 ha plot. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1492
Highlights: Comprehensive inventory of the karst secondary forest based on a 2 ha large plot enhanced the reliability of biomass estimates; The biomass was 158.1 Mg ha−1, and the five dominant tree species accounted for 92.4% of aboveground tree biomass; The estimated necromass of woody debris and litter in the karst secondary forest was 17.6 Mg ha−1.

The biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest was comprehensively inventoried in a permanent 2 ha plot in southwestern China. Biomass models, sub-sampling, soil pit method, and published data were utilized to determine the biomass of all components. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest was 158.1 Mg ha−1; the total biomass included the major aboveground (137.7 Mg ha−1) and belowground (20.3 Mg ha−1) biomass components of vascular plants as well as the minor biomass components of bryophytes (0.078 Mg ha−1) and lichens (0.043 Mg ha−1). The necromass was 17.6 Mg ha−1 and included woody debris (9.0 Mg ha−1) and litter (8.6 Mg ha−1). The spatial pattern of the aboveground biomass was determined by the spatial distribution of dominant trees with large diameter, tall height, and dense wood. The belowground biomass differed in terms of root diameter and decreased with increasing soil depth. The belowground biomass in each soil pit in local habitats was not related to the spatial distribution of woody plants and soil pit depth. The karst forest presented lower biomass compared than the nonkarst forests in the subtropical zone. Biomass carbon in the karst terrains would increase substantially if degraded karst vegetation could be successfully restored to the forest. Comprehensive site-based biomass inventory of karst vegetation will contribute not only to provide data for benchmarking global and regional vegetation and carbon models but also for regional carbon inventory and vegetation restoration.

  • Liu, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail: liulibin@mail.gyig.ac.cn
  • Wu, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China ORCID ID:E-mail: wuyang2468@hotmail.com
  • Hu, School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China; Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Environment Change and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China ORCID ID:E-mail: ahhugang@gmail.com
  • Zhang, School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China; Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Environment Change and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Guangxi Teachers Education University, 530001 Nanning, China ORCID ID:E-mail: gxtczzh@gmail.com
  • Cheng, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: chenganyun@vip.skleg.cn
  • Wang, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: wangshijie@vip.skleg.cn
  • Ni, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lincheng West Road 99, 550081 Guiyang, China; Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 562100 Puding, China ORCID ID:E-mail: nijian@vip.skleg.cn (email)
article id 444, category Research article
Sovu, Mulualem Tigabu, Patrice Savadogo, Per Christer Odén. (2012). Facilitation of forest landscape restoration on abandoned swidden fallows in Laos using mixed-species planting and biochar application. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 444. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.444
The cessation of swidden cultivation and the increasing trend of abandonment of swidden fallows have created an opportunity for forest landscape restoration. However, ways need to be found to improve the poor soil fertility at these sites with affordable materials and to generate short-term socio-economic benefits for small-scale swidden fallow holders. This study assessed the feasibility of using mixed-planting of eight native species and application of rice husk biochar as soil amendment measure at a site in Laos. The effect of biochar application was compared against addition of inorganic (NPK) fertilizer and the control. The establishment and growth of the planted seedlings was then monitored for four years. The addition of rice husk biochar and NPK fertilizer did not significantly (p = 0.578) improve the survival rate of planted seedlings, which ranged from 72% to 91% (depending on the species) compared to the control. No significant growth responses to the soil amendments were observed for most of the species during the first year after planting compared to the control. The biochar effect was, however, more evident at the fourth year for diameter (p < 0.01) and height (p < 0.01) of sapling for all species; particularly its effect was more vivid on the diameter of slow-growing species. The results indicate that the species tested in the mixed-planting showed marked growth variation while application of rice husk biochar boosted their growth. Thus, planting mixed-species in swidden fallows has potential to provide continuous supplies of wood from different species to diversify the livelihood of swidden field owners, while maintaining ecosystem services.
  • -, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Savadogo, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 351, category Research article
Jiaojun Zhu, Xiufen Li, Zugen Liu, Wei Cao, Yutaka Gonda, Takeshi Matsuzaki. (2006). Factors affecting the snow and wind induced damage of a montane secondary forest in northeastern China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 351. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.351
In order to understand the processes of snow and wind induced damage in a natural montane, secondary forest in northeastern China, we examined the impacts of site conditions on the snow and wind damage; analyzed if the dominant tree species differed in their susceptibilities to the damage; and established the relationships between the characteristics of tree and stand and the damage. The results indicated that in regard to the topography factors, slope steepness and soil depth played a relatively important role for the damage. Damage ratios of all types combined were positively related with the composition of dominant tree species. The stand density was also important in determining resistance to the damage, i.e., the densely populated stand exhibited less overall damage ratios; however, the dominant tree species were commonly damaged easily by the snow and wind. Four damage modes found (uprooting, stem breakage, canopy damage and bending) were closely related to the stem taper (p < 0.05), and they could be ranked in following order: bending (92.0 ) > uprooting (85.3) > stem breakage (80.1) > canopy damage (65.0). In regard to differences in tree species’ susceptibilities to the damage, Betula costata exhibited the most uprooting, bending and overall damage ratios; while Quercus mongolica showed the highest breakage (both stem breakage and canopy damage) ratio, and Fraxinus mandshurica exhibited the least damage ratio (overall). The major six tree species could also be divided into two groups according to the overall damage ratios, i.e., more susceptible ones (B. costata, Ulmus laciniata and Q. mongolica), and less susceptible ones (F. mandshurica, Acer mono and Juglans mandshurica) to the snow and wind damage.
  • Zhu, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016, China ORCID ID:E-mail: zrms29@yahoo.com (email)
  • Li, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016, China; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19-A, Beijing, 100039, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liu, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016, China; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19-A, Beijing, 100039, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Cao, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gonda, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-8050, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Matsuzaki, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-8050, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:

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