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Articles containing the keyword 'seedling stands'.

Category: Research article

article id 1410, category Research article
Seppo Nevalainen, Juho Matala, Kari T. Korhonen, Antti Ihalainen, Ari Nikula. (2016). Moose damage in National Forest Inventories (1986–2008) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1410. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1410
Highlights: Almost 100 000 stands were studied; The proportion of damage doubled during the study period; Tree species mixture had a clear effect on the damage frequency; The damage was more common in mineral soils than in peatlands, in artificially than in naturally regenerated stands and in stands that needed thinning or clearing or in which soil preparation was used.

The occurrence of moose damage was studied using data from three National Forest Inventories (NFIs) accomplished between 1986 and 2008 in Finland. The combined data included a total of 97 390 young stands. The proportion of moose damage increased from 3.6% to 8.6% between the 8th NFI (1986–1994) and the 10th NFI (2004–2008). The majority (75%) of the damage occurred in Scots pine-dominated stands. The proportion of damage was higher in aspen-dominated stands than in stands dominated by any other tree species. The tree species mixture also had a clear effect on the occurrence of damage. Pure Scots pine stands had less damage than mixed Scots pine stands, and moose damage decreased linearly with the increasing proportion of Scots pine. Stands on mineral soil had more frequent moose damage than stands on peatlands. The fertility class of the site had no straightforward effect on the damage frequency. Artificially regenerated stands had more damage than naturally regenerated stands. Accomplished soil preparation measures and the need for thinning or clearing operations increased moose damage. High proportions of moose damage in young stands were found around the country. In the 10th NFI, the largest concentration of damage was found in southwestern Finland. Our study shows the temporal and spatial changes in the occurrence of moose damage and pinpoints some important silvicultural factors affecting the relative risk of young stands over a large geographical area.

  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@luke.fi (email)
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
  • Korhonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.t.korhonen@luke.fi
  • Ihalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.ihalainen@luke.fi
  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi

Category: Article

article id 7351, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1940). Tuloksia Pohjankankaan ja Hämeenkankaan metsänviljelyksistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 7351. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7351
English title: Studies on artificial regeneration in Pohjankangas and Hämeenkangas in Southern Finland.

The regeneration of forests in Hämeenkangas area in Southern Finland has been difficult due to various damages from the middle of the 1800s. Few seed trees were left in the area, and artificial regeneration has been used since 1880s. The area became an experimental area of the Forest Research Institute in 1924. The aim of the study was to survey the area before it was transferred to the Finnish Defense Forces.

The original Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest of the esker area suffered from many forest fires. The total area is 13,000-14,000 ha, of which the experimental forests of Forest Research Institute cover 6,000 ha. The area is dry upland forest, and drought affects the survival of germlings. Soil frost is a major cause of loss of young seedlings. Sowing method affects the early development of the seedlings. Band sowing proved to be the best method regarding the soil frost. A total of 39 different harmful insect species, 8 pathogen species and 7 other causes of damages have been detected in the area.

The development of seedling stands follow a certain pattern, reported also in other studies. Many of the pine seedling stands develop well until they reach a certain height. After that seedlings begin to suffer from damages, but after reaching another stage develop normally. The damages affect the height growth of the seedlings. Some common damages are caused by Pissoides weevils, needle damages caused by certain beetles, shoot damages by Evetria resinella, and pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum).

The PDF includes a summary in German
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7336, category Article
R. Sarvas. (1937). Kuloalojen luontaisesta metsittymisestä : Pohjois-Suomen kuivilla kankailla suoritettu metsäbiologinen tutkielma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 7336. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7336
English title: Natural regeneration of burned areas. Forest biological study in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Natural regeneration has been common in Northern Finland, where forest fires have been usual, and the large areas make artificial regeneration expensive. The regeneration, and for instance tree species composition and density of the stand, cannot been controlled. In Northern Finland there is little demand for Betula sp. which is often abundant in the burnt areas. The unburned forests are generally Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated mixed forests with single Betula sp. trees.

The fire destroys birch for the most part in the Vaccinium site type, but the surviving trees produce enough seeds to regenerate the areas. The largest trees of Scots pine usually survive the fires. Pine has good seed years in the north only every 8th or 10th year. Spruce is totally destroyed in the forest fire and the seedlings grow poorly as primary species. The seedling stands are usually dominated by Scots pine and birch, but birch seedlings grow in batches, and do not hinder growth of pine. The drier Calluna site type stands are dominated by Scots pine. Birch seedlings may be abundant in the beginning, but most of them do not survive. Abundant emergent pine trees prevent the growth of seedlings especially in the dry site types, and they should be thinned to guarantee regeneration. Sowing results are better few years after the fire. The birch seedling should be removed from the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5545, category Article
Jouni Siipilehto, Olavi Lyly. (1995). Weed control trials with fibre mulch, glyphosate and terbuthylazine in Scots pine plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9196

The following treatments were compared in three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reforestation areas on a scarified moist mineral-soil site in southern Finland, planted with 1+1 bareroot stock in spring 1987: (a) no weed control treatment; (b) mulching with a fibre slurry produced by mixing wastepaper with water and applied 1 cm deep to an area of 60 cm in diameter around the seedling soon after planting; (c) glyphosate (at 2 kg ha-1) sprayed on a 1 m2 spot around the seedling in early August 1987; (d) terbuthylazine (at 10 kg ha-1) applied as (c). Monitoring of the trials over a 4-year period between 1987–90 showed that none of the treatments reduced surface vegetation to an extent that would have benefited pine. The percentage cover development of the vegetation, dominated by Agrostis capillaris, Calamagrostis arundinaceae, Deschampsia flexuosa, Festuca ovina, Epilobioum angustifolium and Pteridium aquillinum, followed much the same pattern in all treatments, with (c) slightly favouring forbs. Survival of pine at the end of the study period was about 90%, with non-significant differences between treatments. Mulching and terbuthylazine treatment slightly reduced seedling height growth in the second year. Growth was better in glyphosate treatment than in terbuthylazine treatment in the lowest (<30%) and the highest (>60%) pre-treatment weed cover classes, and in the latter also better than in untreated control. Mulching gave variable results; at its best it provided also good control of weeds for several years, without, however, improving the initial development of pine in these trials.

  • Siipilehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lyly, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5478, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Marja Kolström. (1992). Computations on the management of seedling stands of Scots pine under the influence of changing climate in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15639

Model computations on the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the seedling stage showed that a rising temperature due to the suggested climate change could increase the competition capacity of birch species (Betula pendula) more than Scots pine, whose growth could even decline during the course of a rise in temperature. A temperature rise could, thus, bring the time of removal of birches forward when aiming at Scots pine timber stands composed of these tree species. The increasing proportion of birches makes the removal of birches even more urgent and emphasizes the need for careful management of Scots pine stands under rising temperatures. The first thinning of Scots pine is generally brought forward; this is particularly the case when wide spacing is applied in planting. A furthrer rise in temperature magnifies the above patterns by reducing further the competitive capacity of Scots pine in relation to birches.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5249, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1985). Istuttamalla perustetun nuoren männikön, kuusikon, siperianlehtikuusikon ja rauduskoivikon kasvu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15428
English title: Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siberian larch and silver birch plantations.

Early growth of four different tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix sibirica Ledeb and Betula pendula Roth) 16–23 years after planting were compared in a field experiment of 16 square plots established on a stony, grove-like upland (Oxalis-Myrtillus forest type) in Southern Finland. This study gives additional results to the publication Folia Forestalia 386/1979.

At this early stage, the growth of the spruce stand was clearly slower than that of the other species for all parameters to be measured (height, diameter, and volume growth). Height growth was most rapid in the silver birch stand and diameter growth in the larch stand. No clear differences were found in the mean volume of the 100 thickest trees in the stand between the larch and silver birch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5176, category Article
J. Lappi, A. Kotisaari, H. Smolander. (1983). Height relascope for regeneration surveys. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5176. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15091

The choice of sampling method is of prime importance when seeking relevant information about the height distribution and spatial arrangement of seedlings in the regeneration surveys. It is suggested that the size of sampling plots should depend on the height of the seedlings. Tall seedlings should be sampled from a larger area than short ones since tall seedlings are more important for the future development of the stand. We suggest principles for a technical development task to construct a device which is easy to use in practical regeneration surveys and by which sampling can be made proportional to plant height or any desired function of height.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kotisaari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5163, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1982). Ojitusalueiden taimistojen kehityksestä vuosina 1964-68 toimeenpannun suometsäkilpailun koealojen valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5163. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15078
English title: Development of seedling stands on drained peatlands in Southern Finland.

The aim of the paper was to describe the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedling stands on drained peatlands and to find out the principal factors influencing their growth. The material under survey consists of 180 sample plots distributed from southern coast of Finland to the Polar Circle.

The most important growth factors have been the accumulated temperature sum, site quality, drainage intensity and silvicultural condition, such as the density of the stand, the proportion of birch in the stand, and the amount of possible shelterwoods. The influence of these factors, and to some extent the influence of fertilizing, and the disturbing effects of some forest damages, such as frost, growth disturbances and elk damages were investigated. Comparisons of the development in the seedling stands on drained peatlands with the known development of seedling stands in mineral soils were made.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5086, category Article
Jussi Meriluoto. (1980). MCPA- ja 2,4,5-T-herbisidien käyttökelpoisuus taimiston hoidossa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5086. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15027
English title: Applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides in sapling stand management.

The applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides for use in the management of sapling stands and the possibilities of carrying out foliar spraying at an earlier date than at precent with smaller doses of the active ingredient were examined in this study. The results were obtained from foliage spraying experiments carried out in Central Finland in summer 1976. MCPA and 2,4,5-T were as effective as each other against deciduous tree species. However, MCPA was slightly more effective against aspen (Populus tremula L.) than 2,4,5-T. The spraying date had no effect on the mortality rate of aspen or birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) There were only very slight differences between the results for different dosage levels. The damage caused to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was very slight. The temperature conditions prevailing during spraying affected spraying effectiveness in such way that the mortality rate decreased during cold period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meriluoto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ouni, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7659, category Article
Ari Lääperi. (1990). Hoidettujen talvilaitumien vaikutus hirvituhoihin mäntytaimikoissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 212 article id 7659. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7659
English title: Effect of winter feeding on moose damage to young Scots pine stands.

The establishment of moose (Alces alces L.) winter feeding sites, their utilization and their effect on damage to young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations was studied in Ruokolahti-Imatra area in Eastern Finland in 1987–89. During the period, the density in the area was about 3–5 moose/ 1,000 ha.

Six feeding sites were established by fertilization, offering mineral lics and the tops of aspen and Scot pine and by salting the tops of pine. The moose preferred the feeding site to control areas during both summer and winter. In winter browsing was very heavy, especially in those areas located in or close to traditional wintering areas. In winter no moose were seen in the summer habitats.

The extent of, and fluctuations in moose damage were studied in 47 Scots pine plantations in the immediate surroundings of the feeding sites (29 plantations), control areas (18 plantations) and also 68 randomly selected pine plantations. Before the experiment began in 1987 four plantations had been seriously damaged. During the study period only one plantation was seriously damaged. However, it could not be conclusively proved that damage to the pine plantations had been reduced as a result of the feeding sites. The results of the study can be put into practice elsewhere to create better living conditions for moose in their winter habitats. However, the food offered at the feeding site should be in the right proportion to the number of animals wintering in the area, so that the risk of damage to nearby plantations would be kept as small as possible.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lääperi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 181 article id 7628. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7628
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 181 article id 7628. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7628
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4648, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Männyn kylvötaimistojen hirvivahingoista Pohjanmaalla. Silva Fennica no. 88 article id 4648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9111
English title: Elk damage in seedling stands of Scots pine in Ostrobothnia.

The article reviews the occurrence of damage causes by elk (Alces alces L.) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands established by direct seeding in the Ostrobothia region in Finland. The data was collected by random sampling, and consists of 110 sample plots in pine stands, established in 1930-1944.

Signs of elk damages could be observed in 20% of the stands. In more than half of the damaged stands pine seedlings were damaged by elk, on the rest of the stands the damage was targeted to hardwood saplings only. With the present density of elk population, the damage has an insignificant bearing upon the development of pine seedling stands in Ostrobothnia. The weaknesses of silvicultural state of the stands have been caused by other factors than elk.

Silviculturally weak stands were more liable to elk damage than strong ones. The occurrence of elk damage was more usual in stands with hardwood mixture than in pure pine stands. Especially goat willow, mountain ash and aspen, but also to some decree birch, seem to attract elk. Those factors that promote hardwood growth: fertility of the site, swampiness and the presence of seeding hardwoods in the area, increase the stand’s liability to elk damage.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4536, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Metsän uudistumisen tarkkailusta kovilla metsämailla ja ojitetuilla soilla sekä ojien tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13945
English title: Inspection of regeneration of forests in mineral soil forests and drained peatlands and checking of ditches.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches. 

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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