Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'settlement'.

Category: Article

article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7436, category Article
E. Salo. (1954). Puiden teknillinen vikaisuus ja sen vaikutus puuston arvoon. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 24 article id 7436. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7436
English title: Technical defects of trees and their effect upon timber value.

In acquiring land for the population displaced by the Second World War, the forest had to be priced, according to the Land Reclamation Act of 1945, separately for land and timber. Technical defects in the growing stock were to be taken account in the form of a total reduction in the value of the stock. Generally, it was to be 5-15% of the total value. The present investigation aims at checking the reduction percentages.

When the reduction in the felling value of the growing stock caused by the defects is estimated, the reduction is defined for each timber assortment, and the total reduction is calculated from these values. The timber assortments have big variation in prices, therefore defects in the most valuable assortments can have big effect on the total value of the growing stock. According to the study, the decree implementing the Land Reclamation Act did not in some cases allow for price reductions for defects on a sufficiently small scale to correspond to real conditions.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7348, category Article
E. E. Metsäpelto. (1940). Suomen yhteismetsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 7348. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7348
English title: Jointly owned forests in Finland.

The shared forests of the villages were generally parceled out to farms in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Finland, that begun in 1775. The state established also jointly owned forests, mostly in the beginning of 2000th century when land was donated for landless population. Some have been established voluntarily. Act on Jointly Owned Forests was enacted in 1925 to ensure proper management of the forests. It contains instructions of administration of the forests.

A survey was conducted to study the conditions of the jointly owned forests. The forests, a total of 37,843 ha, are distributed evenly over the country. Average size of settlement jointly owned forests in Southern Finland are 314 ha, initial jointly owned forests in Southern Finland 1,726 ha, settlement joined forests in the county of Oulu in Northern Finland 592 ha, and initial joined forests in Northern Finland 1,268 ha. The forest lands are poorer than in other private forests. The most common age class is 41-80 years in Southern Finland and 61-120 years in the north. The forests resources were larger in the initial joined forests than in the settlement joined forests when the joined forests were established. In settlement joined forests fellings were smaller than the increment, while in initial joined forests fellings were slightly larger than the increment. Joined forests have given the owners rather good and regular income, which has probably been larger than if the forests had been managed as farm forests. Joined forests have, therefore, met their objectives.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Metsäpelto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5340, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1988). Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15497

A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of fabric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radiogram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7054, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista. Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7054. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7054
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Peräpohjola.
Original keywords: maatalous; pääoma; asutus
English keywords: agriculture; capital; settlement

The agriculture in the Northern Finland differs markedly from the rest of the land. The farms are small and pioneer farming is common. The article is a survey about the economic situation of the agriculture in the Northern Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. The lands are predominantly owned by the state, which has annually assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The survey shows values of different categories of capital, namely stock, equipment; land, domestic animals, and gives an overview on the types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4666, category Article
Eero Nieminen. (1957). Matkalaskut, päivärahat ja palkkiot asutustoimikuntatöissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4666. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14067
English title: Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Finnish Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation decribes how the personnel of settlement commissions are to arrange travelling on settlement business, how travel claims should be written, and how daily allowances and fees should be paid and accounted for.

  • Nieminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4665, category Article
Pentti K. Leino. (1957). Asutustoimikuntatoimistot, niiden toimihenkilöt ja kenttätöiden järjestely. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14066
English title: Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the administration and work of four settlement board offices, established in 1956 in Oulu, Kajaani, Rovaniemi and Kittilä in Northern Finland. The new offices were established to dissolve the waiting list of petitions, due to Second World War and increasing settlement activities.

  • Leino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4665, category Article
Pentti K. Leino. (1957). Asutustoimikuntatoimistot, niiden toimihenkilöt ja kenttätöiden järjestely. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14066
English title: Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the administration and work of four settlement board offices, established in 1956 in Oulu, Kajaani, Rovaniemi and Kittilä in Northern Finland. The new offices were established to dissolve the waiting list of petitions, due to Second World War and increasing settlement activities.

  • Leino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4665, category Article
Pentti K. Leino. (1957). Asutustoimikuntatoimistot, niiden toimihenkilöt ja kenttätöiden järjestely. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14066
English title: Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the administration and work of four settlement board offices, established in 1956 in Oulu, Kajaani, Rovaniemi and Kittilä in Northern Finland. The new offices were established to dissolve the waiting list of petitions, due to Second World War and increasing settlement activities.

  • Leino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4664, category Article
Veli-Kustavi Klemetti. (1957). Puuston arviointi tilan hinnoittelussa ja hinnan muodostus tilakokonaisuutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14065
English title: Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm.

 

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses different ways to determine the price of growing forest stock in settlement farms. The Settlement Act describes the main principles for the evaluation of forests. The growing stock of forest land has been devided into valueable and small timber. Construction timber and valuable trees are marked separately, and small timber is estimated by line survey. According to the act, the total price of a farm should be only what a sensible buyer would pay for it. Therefore, the value must be reduced to a reasonable price if the added value of the different parts is too high considering, for instance, the location of the farm and construction and clearing costs.

  • Klemetti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4664, category Article
Veli-Kustavi Klemetti. (1957). Puuston arviointi tilan hinnoittelussa ja hinnan muodostus tilakokonaisuutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14065
English title: Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm.

 

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses different ways to determine the price of growing forest stock in settlement farms. The Settlement Act describes the main principles for the evaluation of forests. The growing stock of forest land has been devided into valueable and small timber. Construction timber and valuable trees are marked separately, and small timber is estimated by line survey. According to the act, the total price of a farm should be only what a sensible buyer would pay for it. Therefore, the value must be reduced to a reasonable price if the added value of the different parts is too high considering, for instance, the location of the farm and construction and clearing costs.

  • Klemetti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4663, category Article
E. Johansson. (1957). Tilan hinnoittelussa huomioonotettavista näkökohdista. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14064
English title: Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the directions of Ministry of Agriculture in Finland, issued in 1947, concerning evaluation of settlement farms and supplementary lots. The new direction differs from the old ones especially in the evaluation of small timber. Arable land has to be valued at a price corresponding to its forest yield value. As it is a prequisite for the profitability of a new farm, the writer points out that such land should be valued at higher price than a corresponding forest land. A way to count out the price is presented.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4663, category Article
E. Johansson. (1957). Tilan hinnoittelussa huomioonotettavista näkökohdista. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14064
English title: Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the directions of Ministry of Agriculture in Finland, issued in 1947, concerning evaluation of settlement farms and supplementary lots. The new direction differs from the old ones especially in the evaluation of small timber. Arable land has to be valued at a price corresponding to its forest yield value. As it is a prequisite for the profitability of a new farm, the writer points out that such land should be valued at higher price than a corresponding forest land. A way to count out the price is presented.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4661, category Article
Urho Karisto. (1957). Tilan tai lisämaan perustaminen, teknilliset ja kannattavaisuusnäkökohdat. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14062
English title: Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation addresses the prerequisites and planning of a settlement farm or supplementary land lot. The basic requirements are that the area has enough arable or cultivated land and a suitable place for the farm buildings, necessary forest land, and that the area is close to roads or that it is possible to build a road at a reasonable cost.

  • Karisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4661, category Article
Urho Karisto. (1957). Tilan tai lisämaan perustaminen, teknilliset ja kannattavaisuusnäkökohdat. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4661. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14062
English title: Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation addresses the prerequisites and planning of a settlement farm or supplementary land lot. The basic requirements are that the area has enough arable or cultivated land and a suitable place for the farm buildings, necessary forest land, and that the area is close to roads or that it is possible to build a road at a reasonable cost.

  • Karisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4660, category Article
A. Kotiaho. (1957). Viljelyskelpoisuustutkimukset, niiden suoritus ja tulosten tiedoittaminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14061
English title: Arability research, its execution and information of the results.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1925-1944 the Finnish Swamp Cultivation Association (now Finnish Peatland Society, Suoseura) carried out research on the arability of peatlands, mostly on state lands that were the main object of settlement work and the arability of which had been little explored. Later the work has been transferred to the Settlement Department of the Ministry of Agriculture (ASO) and some other authorities. ASO has prepared arability maps based on the nutrient analysis of the lands.

  • Kotiaho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4659, category Article
P. Piepponen. (1957). Arvo- ja rakennuspuiden merkitseminen asutustilojen metsissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14060
English title: Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Fellings of valuable timber in the forests to be surrendered for settlement farms have been discussed widely in Finland. This presentation describes the effects of the new section in the Land Settlement Decree and new directions given by Central Forestry Association Tapio based on the decree. According to the directions, the fellings have to follow legislation concerning other fellings in private forests. The felling of all large, valuable timber, as has previously been the custom in settlement farm forests, does not follow this principle.

  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4659, category Article
P. Piepponen. (1957). Arvo- ja rakennuspuiden merkitseminen asutustilojen metsissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14060
English title: Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Fellings of valuable timber in the forests to be surrendered for settlement farms have been discussed widely in Finland. This presentation describes the effects of the new section in the Land Settlement Decree and new directions given by Central Forestry Association Tapio based on the decree. According to the directions, the fellings have to follow legislation concerning other fellings in private forests. The felling of all large, valuable timber, as has previously been the custom in settlement farm forests, does not follow this principle.

  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4659, category Article
P. Piepponen. (1957). Arvo- ja rakennuspuiden merkitseminen asutustilojen metsissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14060
English title: Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Fellings of valuable timber in the forests to be surrendered for settlement farms have been discussed widely in Finland. This presentation describes the effects of the new section in the Land Settlement Decree and new directions given by Central Forestry Association Tapio based on the decree. According to the directions, the fellings have to follow legislation concerning other fellings in private forests. The felling of all large, valuable timber, as has previously been the custom in settlement farm forests, does not follow this principle.

  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4658, category Article
Olavi Hyttinen. (1957). Asutustilojen arvopuukysymyksestä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4658. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14059
English title: Valuable timber trees on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

When resettlement plots have been established in Finland, a so-called household wood principle used to be used: in addition to fields, the new farm has been given forest land enough to supply it household timber. Trees larger than needed for construction of the farm were considered unnecessary, and the valuable timber trees over certain diameter could be harvested by the surrenderer of the land. This has led to fellings at minimum diameter in contrary to rational forest management. The presentation describes new legislation and directions that aim at correcting the situation.

  • Hyttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4654, category Article
T. Marjanen. (1957). Tilojen ja lisämaiden perustaminen valtion maille. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4654. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14055
English title: Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The Land Settlement Act gives the landless population of Finland right to apply resettlement farms or supplementary state lands from Forest Service that manages state lands. After the Second World War the settlement work intensified markedly. This presentation describes guidelines for establishing holdings and supplementary lots on state lands.

  • Marjanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4654, category Article
T. Marjanen. (1957). Tilojen ja lisämaiden perustaminen valtion maille. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4654. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14055
English title: Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The Land Settlement Act gives the landless population of Finland right to apply resettlement farms or supplementary state lands from Forest Service that manages state lands. After the Second World War the settlement work intensified markedly. This presentation describes guidelines for establishing holdings and supplementary lots on state lands.

  • Marjanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4653, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1957). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1956. 8. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4653. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13981
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1956.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Marjanen, T.  Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land

Lifländer, A. Centralized fellings in North Finland and the settlement question

Väisänen, P.O. Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland

Lilja, V. Forestry on settlement farms

Hyttinen, O. Valuable timber trees on settlement farms

Piepponen, P.  Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms

Kotiaho, A. Arability research, its execution and information on the result

Karisto, U. Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot

Linnamies, O. Calculation of yield value of forest land

Johansson, E. Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms

Klemetti, V-K. Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm

Leino, P.K. Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work

Nieminen, E. Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work

 

The issue includes short English summaries of the presentations.

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4645, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1955). Metsätyömieskylät : ehdotus vakinaisten metsätyömiesperheiden asuntokysymyksen järjestelyksi. Silva Fennica no. 86 article id 4645. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9107
English title: Forest worker villages: Permanent accommodation of forest worker’s families.

The remote areas of Eastern and Northern Finland are mostly owned by the state. Forestry in these areas has been mainly managed by arranging temporary lodgings for the forest workers. A report on the suitability of forest worker villages as a more permanent solution to the accommodation problem was commissioned from forest officer Oiva Suominen.

Seasonal work, arduousness of the work and distance from home have decreased the attractivity of forest work as a profession. On the other hand, forestry has provided rural population work during winter, when there is little work in agriculture. To be able to increase permanent labour in state forestry, it is necessary to arrange permanent lodging to the workers and their families. Permanent workforce is needed to arrange wood harvesting and manage the state forests effectively. The article includes a suggestion of how to establish the forest worker villages. It suggests the locations and sizes for villages for the districts of Eastern Finland, Ostrobothnia and Perä-Pohjola.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4594, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1948). Maanhankintalaki ja sen metsäkysymykset. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13996
English title: Forest related issues of land acquisition act.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes execution of land acquisition act that came into effect in 1945. The act gave principles of transfer of state forest land for settlement.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4531, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1938). Asutuslain mukaisesta asutustyöstä valtion mailla ja metsänhoitajan tehtävistä tässä asutustyössä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13940
English title: Execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in state lands and role of a forest officer in managing the work.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands, and the role of a forest officer in managing the settlement. 

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4511, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön toteuttamisesta valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14089
English title: Implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands in Finland.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4511, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön toteuttamisesta valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14089
English title: Implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands in Finland.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4507, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön ja erittäinkin valtion metsämaiden asuttamista koskevien säännöksien pääkohdat. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4507. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14085
English title: Main points of the new legislation concerning settlement policy and land settlement in state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes legislation concerning settlement policy in the state lands.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4507, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön ja erittäinkin valtion metsämaiden asuttamista koskevien säännöksien pääkohdat. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4507. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14085
English title: Main points of the new legislation concerning settlement policy and land settlement in state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes legislation concerning settlement policy in the state lands.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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