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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'shoot growth'.

Category: Research article

article id 7813, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen. (2018). Autumn versus spring planting: the initiation of root growth and subsequent field performance of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7813
Highlights: Conifer seedlings planted after mid-September generally have poor rooting, which causes poor root egress during the following spring; Although Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings planted in late autumn may have a slightly reduced growth, it is possible to plant them if weather conditions are favorable in late-autumn, without increased mortality.

There is a need to extend the planting season of conifer regeneration into periods where the soil remains unfrozen due to a lack of available labor and the mechanization of planting. This study investigated how the summer- (August) and autumn-, especially late autumn (mid-September to mid-October) plantings affect the field performance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) container seedlings. This study examined the timing of root growth just after planting, shoot flush and the start of root growth the following spring, and subsequent field performance. Seedlings of both species were planted in a nursery field trial, and in a clearcut reforestation site from August to October and the following May. The root growth of planted seedlings declined in September and ceased after mid-September. In the following spring, seedlings which were planted in early-autumn started their root growth faster than late-autumn-planted seedlings in both species. There was no difference in the timing of shoot flush for various planting dates. During the initial two years after planting, the shoot growth of spring-planted seedlings was lower, compared to autumn-planted seedlings. In conclusion, it is possible to plant conifer seedlings in the boreal forest zone up to October under non-limiting field conditions.

  • Luoranen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@luke.fi (email)
article id 696, category Research article
Jukka Lippu. (1998). Redistribution of 14C-labelled reserve carbon in Pinus sylvestris seedlings during shoot elongation. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.696
This study examined the later use of 14C reserves formed in previous autumn in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. The seedlings were allowed to photosynthesise 14CO2 in early September when shoot and needle growth was over. The following spring the seedlings were harvested in five samplings during the shoot growth period. The distribution and concentration of 14C were determined and the results were compared with the growth data. It was observed that reserves were not used markedly for the new growth. Most of the 14C was found in one-year-old needles (30–40%) and in the root system (40–50%) which was due to both their high activity as a storage sink and their large sink size. The high initial 14C-activity in the finest roots decreased indicating respiration of reserves. Only a small percent of the reserve carbon was found in the new shoots which indicated that reserves are of minor importance in building a new shoot. An allocation of about 15% of the autumn storage to the stem suggested that in seedlings the stem is of minor importance as a storage organ.
  • Lippu, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jukka.lippu@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5529, category Article
Jukka Lippu. (1994). Patterns of dry matter partitioning and 14C-photosynthate allocation in 1.5-year-old Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9169

Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5430, category Article
Winai Sirikul, Markku Kanninen. (1990). Shoot growth and its clonal variation in Pinus kesiya. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5430. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15584

Shoot elongation of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon was studied using 2-year old grafts in a clonal seed orchard of the Pine Improvement Centre, located at the Huey Bong Experimental Station near Chiangmai, Thailand (19° 17’ N, 99° 15’ E, 900 m a.s.l.).

The seed orchard had a completely randomized block design with 30 blocks and 80 single-tree plots (clones) in each block. Eleven clones in four blocks were selected out of the total of 80 grafts (clones). From each graft, three lateral branches at the height of 1.6 m from the ground level were selected. Thus, total of 109 branches were measured. Shoot length of branches was measured between July 3, 1983 and March 11, 1984 at approximately bi-weekly intervals. Method of classical growth analysis were used in describing the shoot growth.

The annual shoot growth pattern of P. kesiya exhibited two consecutive sigmoid growth curves, i.e. it consisted of two flushes of shoot elongation, both formed by free growth. Thus, the pattern of shoot growth resembled the caribaea pattern. However, the annual shoot was composed of summer and winter shoots. These could be distinguished from each other by the reproductive organs, which always occur on winter shoot. The shoot contributed 61% of the total annual shoot length.

There were significant differences in the pattern of shoot elongation between the studied clones, which may reflect differences in the adaptation to different environmental conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Sirikul, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15517
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5137, category Article
V. C. Runeckles, K. T. Palmer, H. Trabelsi. (1981). Effects of field exposures to SO2 on Douglas fir, Agropyron spicatum and Lolium perenne. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5137. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15364

Grasses Agropyron spicatum Pursh, Lolium perenne L. (S23) and 2-year old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were exposed to low SO2 concentrations under field conditions for approximately eleven weeks. SO2 was released continuously via manifold delivery systems, and provided treatment mean concentrations of 0.007 (ambient air), 0.042, 0.106 and 0.198 ppm. The concentrations in each treatment were approximately log-normally distributed, with standard geometric deviations ranging from 2.58 to 3.24. In both grass species, 0.198 ppm SO2 caused substantial reduction of total growth. In L. perenne, this was largely the result of impaired root growth, whereas both shoot and root growth of A. spicatum were reduced. 0.106 ppm SO2 had no significant effect on A. spicatum growth, but reduced root growth of L. perenne. Growth of Douglas fir was reduced in each of the tree highest concentrations, with root growth being markedly diminished, particularly on trees which showed chlorotic and necrotic injury. However, in these trees the shoot and total leaf weights tended to increase at the highest SO2 concentrations, suggesting that in these plants injury to leaves stimulated further shoot growth at the expense of root development.

  • Runeckles, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Trabelsi, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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