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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'stand growth'.

Category: Research article

article id 1301, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Jyrki Hytönen, Hannu Hökkä, Anssi Ahtikoski. (2015). Fertilization increased growth of Scots pine and financial performance of forest management in a drained peatland in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1301. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1301
Highlights: All fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium improved the P and K status and the stem growth of Scots pine still 26 years from application; Wood ash, containing more nutrients than other fertilizers, gave the strongest stand growth response and the highest net present value; Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments and control in net present value, regardless of the applied discount rate, 3%, 4% or 5%.

The long-term effects of fertilization on the needle nutrient concentrations, growth and financial performance of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was examined in a thick-peated drained peatland forest located in Central Finland. At the trial establishment in 1985, the trees were suffering from P and K deficiencies, but their N status was good. The fertilizer treatments were Control, PK (rock phosphate + potassium chloride), ApaBio (apatite phosphorus + biotite) and wood ash, applied both with and without N and replicated six times. All treatments containing phosphorus and potassium increased foliar P and K concentrations above the deficiency limits up to the end of the study period of 26 years. The effect of the fertilization on stand volume growth of Scots pine was strong and continued still at the end of the study period. The trees on ApaBio and PK plots grew nearly two-fold and those on Ash plots over two-fold compared with the control plots. In a thinning made at the end of the study period the total logging removal on fertilized plots was 1.5–2.2 times greater and included more saw logs than on the control plots. Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments as well as the control. With a 5% discounted equivalent annual income (EAI) of Ash fertilizer treatment was statistically significantly (p=0.009) almost three times higher than that of control. As a conclusion, fertilization (either using PK fertilizers or Ash) in N-rich drained peatlands is a financially feasible method of management.

  • Moilanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@luke.fi (email)
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Silmäjärventie 2, FI-69100 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi
  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
article id 106, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Heli Hyttinen, Hannu Marttila, Juha Jämsen, Bjørn Kløve. (2011). Effect of peak runoff control method on growth of Scots pine stands on drained peatlands in central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 106. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.106
In drained peatland forests ditch networks need regular maintenance operations in order to sustain their drainage capacity. These operations however have a significant impact on the quality of the runoff water from the ditched areas. Peak runoff control (PRC) method has been proposed as a possible method to diminish the load to water courses through retention of the runoff temporarily in the ditch network during maximum runoff events using dams with a plastic control pipe. However, blocking water into the ditched area for periods of varying length during the growing season may have a negative impact on the growth of the tree stands. In this study past stand growth was investigated in Central Finland in altogether 10 sample Scots pine thinning stands in which the PRC method has been applied 5 growing seasons earlier. In each stand, a pair of sample plots was established: one plot next to the dam within the influence of periodic flooding and the other one outside the effect of periodic flooding. For determining stand growth, field measurements were made in August 2009. Stand growth near the dam was on average 0.54 m3 ha-1 a-1 lower than farther away from the dam but the analysis of covariance showed that the dam effect was not significant. The results of this study suggest that the PCR method does not decrease Scots pine stand growth during the first five year growth period after ditch cleaning.
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@metla.fi (email)
  • Hyttinen, Metsänhoitoyhdistys Keski-Suomi, Viitasaari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Marttila, University of Oulu, Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Lab, Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jämsen, Forestry Centre Keski-Suomi, Pihtipudas, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kløve, University of Oulu, Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Lab, Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 656, category Research article
Klaus Silfverberg, Markus Hartman. (1999). Effects of different phosphorus fertilisers on the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine stands on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.656
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of phosphorus fertilisers of different solubility and different phosphorus doses. The material was collected from 8 field experiments situated on drained peatlands in southern and central Finland (60°–65°N). The sites were drained, oligotrophic pine fens and pine bogs, which had been fertilised between 1961 and 1977 with different combinations of N, K and P. In 1991–94 stand measurements and foliar and peat sampling were carried out on 162 sample plots. Apatite, rock phosphate and superphosphate affected basal area growth to a rather similar extent. However, apatite slightly surpassed superphosphate and rock phosphate at the end of the study period in two hollow-rich S. fuscum bogs. Higher doses of phosphorus did not significantly increase the basal area growth. The foliar phosphorus concentrations clearly reflected the effect of the P fertilisation. Especially on the pine bogs basic fertilisation with 66 kg P/ha maintained the needle phosphorus concentrations at a satisfactory level for more than 25 years after fertilisation. The amount of phosphorus in the 0–20 cm peat layer was not significantly increased either by basic fertilisation or refertilisation. The phosphorus reserves in the peat in the individual experiments were between 88 and 327 kg/ha. There was a strong correlation between the amounts of phosphorus and iron in the peat. Large amounts of iron in peat may reduce the solubility and availability of phosphorus. According to the foliar phosphorus concentrations in the basic-fertilised plots, the need for refertilisation seems to be unnecessary during the 25-year postfertilisation period at least. None of the basic fertilisation treatments seriously retarded the basal area growth compared to the refertilised treatments. There seems to be a greater shortage of potassium than of phosphorus, because the foliar potassium concentrations and the amounts of potassium in the 0–20 cm peat layer were very low in several of the experiments.
  • Silfverberg, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: klaus.silfverberg@metla.fi (email)
  • Hartman, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 249, category Review article
Rimvydas Vasaitis, Jan Stenlid, Iben M. Thomsen, Pia Barklund, Anders Dahlberg. (2008). Stump removal to control root rot in forest stands. A literature study. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.249
Tree stumps are expected to be increasingly used for energy production in Fennoscandia, thus environmental consequences of stump removal from forest land must be assessed. Aim of this work was to compile available data on the efficacy of stump removal in eradication of root rot fungi (Heterobasidion, Armillaria, and Phellinus), and to review its potential impacts on establishment and productivity of next forest generation. Site disturbance and some technical and economical aspects are discussed, and needs for future research outlined in northern European context. The review demonstrates that stump removal from clear-felled forest areas in most cases results in, a) reduction of root rot in the next forest generation, b) improved seedling establishment, and c) increased tree growth and stand productivity. Observed disturbances caused to a site by stumping operations are normally acceptable. The available data strongly suggests that possibly many (if achievable, all) rot-containing stumps must be removed during harvesting of stumps. Provided equal availability, the priority should be given for stump removal from root rot-infested forest areas, instead of healthy ones. As most studies were done in North America and Britain, several questions must be yet answered under Fennoscandian conditions: a) if and to which extent the conventional stump removal for biofuel on clear-felled sites could reduce the occurrence of Heterobasidion and Armillaria in the next forest generation, b) what impact is it likely to have on survival of replanted tree seedlings, and c) what consequences will there be for growth and productivity of next forest generation.
  • Vasaitis, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: rimvys.vasaitis@mykopat.slu.se (email)
  • Stenlid, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Thomsen, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Barklund, Department of Forest Mycology & Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dahlberg, Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 4886, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1973). Metsälannoituksen edullisuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4886. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14723
English title: Variations in the profitability of forest fertilization.

About one million hectares of forests are fertilized annually in Finland. The goal of the present study was to find out, by means of calculations, how the profitability of forest fertilization varies with variations in the stage of development of tree crops, the quality of the site and its geographical location. Calculations concerned bot fertilization of forests in mineral soil sites and in drained peatlands. The study is a part of a larger project concerning the order of profitability of different forest improvement measures in different conditions. The problems dealt with in this study were approached from the point of view of national economy.

On the basis of two empirical materials it is shown that there is a high correlation between the stand growth percentages before and after the fertilization. Applying the results to existing yield tables the authors calculate benefit/cost ratios showing the stage of development of the stand, the quality of the site and its geographical location. According to the results, fertilization is more profitable in sites of medium fertility than on poor sites. Profitability decreases rather fast from south to north and with decreasing timber prices. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4441, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1927). Preparation of growth and yield tables. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4441. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8389

One of the difficulties in constructing growth and yield tables has been to determine which of the sample plots growing the same tree species and belonging to the same forest site type, with reference to the quality of stands, have to be included in the same growth series.

New growth and yield tables for the most important tree species were constructed in Finland in 1916–1919, using new principles that aim at avoiding some of the common weaknesses. There were two main differences to the earlier work. First, the site quality class (forest site type) was determined for each sample plot when the sample plot was measured, independently of the stand occupying the site. In this way it was possible to treat the sample plots of each site as an independent group from the beginning, and so that the quality classes were the same for all the tree species. Second, mathematic-statistical methods were used to deduct the so-called stem frequency distribution series, when studying which of the sample plots of the same quality class belong to the same growth series. They represent the average number of stems of the different diameter classes. A more detailed description of the method used to create the growth and yield tables is published in Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 15.

In the PDF is included a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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