Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'stand volume'.

Category: Research article

article id 1408, category Research article
Anna Katharina Franke, Pasi Aatsinki, Ville Hallikainen, Esa Huhta, Mikko Hyppönen, Vesa Juntunen, Kari Mikkola, Seppo Neuvonen, Pasi Rautio. (2015). Quantifying changes of the coniferous forest line in Finnish Lapland during 1983–2009. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1408. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1408
Highlights: Volume of the growing stock of spruce and pine has increased in forests and in timber lines during the past 26 years; Spruce stem numbers increased on average, while pine stem numbers remained stable and location-specific variation was observed; Presuming that the ongoing trend of increasing temperature will remain, the enhanced forest regeneration and growth may result in extension of forests in the future.

The boreal timber- and tree-line forests grow in harsh environmental conditions in their outermost distribution limit. Here even small environmental changes may cause dramatic changes in the distribution of tree species. We examined changes of the forest lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finnish Lapland five times during 1983–2009. We monitored the number of stems and the volume of the growing stock in thirteen different locations in forest-line areas. The linear temporal trends and the variations of these response variables were used as indicators of a possible change during the study period. Spruce showed a significant increase both in the volume of the growing stock (up to 40% increase) and in the total stem number (up to 100% increase). A significant increase in the volume of the growing stock was observed in the pine data as well (up to 70% increase), whereas the stem number stagnated or even decreased. The results suggest that spruce needs favourable conditions to have an abundant regeneration, but after the establishment the seedlings seem to be more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances than pine seedlings. The increasing stand volume might result in a climate-related northward and upward extension of forests in the future. However, our results show that responses in the boreal forest line are species and location specific and a more favourable climate does not necessarily lead to an advance of the coniferous forest line.

  • Franke, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.franke@fau.de (email)
  • Aatsinki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.aatsinki@luke.fi
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Huhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: esa.huhta@luke.fi
  • Hyppönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@luke.fi
  • Juntunen, The Sámi Education Institute, Menesjärventie 4, P.O. Box 50, FI-99871 Inari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@sogsakk.fi
  • Mikkola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@luke.fi
  • Neuvonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.neuvonen@luke.fi
  • Rautio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@luke.fi

Category: Article

article id 5001, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Recreational potential of a forest stand. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14855

The aim of the paper was to investigate the recreational potential of successional stand based on the suitability of the stands for different recreational activities and the trampling tolerance of ground cover. The relationship between selected recreational activities and the volume of the stands under study has been determined. These functions have been utilized in determining the potential of the successional stand for different recreational activities. Combining this information with trampling tolerance gave criteria for determining the recreational potential of a stand. The results emphasize the importance of varying the distribution of development stages in a recreational area and in its management.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7614, category Article
Leo. Heikurainen. (1980). Kuivatuksen tila ja puusto 20 vuotta vanhoilla ojitusalueilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 167 article id 7614. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7614
English title: Drainage condition and tree stands on peatlands drained 20 years ago in Finland.

The aim of this investigation was to examine the dependence of stand volume and increment on different growth factors on drained peatlands drained 20 years ago. Measurements were made in 1977-79 on 35 sample plots in Central Finland on relatively poor pine bogs with a thick peat layer.

It became evident that the stand volume, increment and radial growth and growth development are primarily functions of groundwater depth. Groundwater depth is dependent, in the first place, on ditch depth and ditch condition. With regard to the variation in ditch spacing (ca. 35-70 m) under examination, the effect of ditch spacing on the stand was insignificant. As a practical recommendation it was concluded that ditches should be kept deep enough (> 70 cm) in order to maintain undisturbed stand development.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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