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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'state'.

Category: Research article

article id 1406, category Research article
Tatiana V. Stankova. (2016). A dynamic whole-stand growth model, derived from allometric relationships. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1406. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1406
Highlights: A dynamic whole-stand model was derived from simple allometries and biological rationale; The state-space modelling approach was applied, suggesting several novelties to overcome scarcity of longitudinal data; The model consists of a three-dimensional state vector, defined by dominant stand height, stand density and mean stem volume, and three transition functions; It was tested with data from Scots pine plantations.

Growth and yield tables are constrained by a standard production regime and the stand-level dynamic models are an attractive alternative for the even-aged monospecific stands. The objective of this study is to derive a parsimonious and biologically sound whole-stand dynamic growth model and to validate its consistency and relevance for prediction of stand growth and yield. The state-space modelling approach was employed, introducing several novelties in comparison with its current usage. The model consists of a three-dimensional state vector, defined by dominant stand height, number of trees per hectare and mean stem volume, and three transition functions. A site index model was incorporated for height growth projection and transition functions for stand density and mean stem volume with respect to dominant height increase were derived from simple allometries and biological rationale. The model was examined with data from 79 permanent sample plots in Scots pine plantations. Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regression was used to account for cross-equation correlations, and the Base-Height-Invariant dummy variable method was employed to estimate dynamic-form equations. Model consistency was validated in terms of accuracy of predictions and applicability to both thinned and unthinned stands. The new dynamic growth model is a parsimonious biometric whole-stand model that simulates the expected stand development for a broad spectrum of potential management alternatives and can be incorporated in a computer program for further use. It may be especially useful for application when a scarcity of longitudinal data prevents the use of more complicated modelling approaches.

  • Stankova, Forest Research Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics, Physiology and Plantations, 132 “St. Kliment Ohridski” Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9932-7286 E-mail: tatianastankova@yahoo.com (email)

Category: Review article

article id 1095, category Review article
Jonas Fridman, Sören Holm, Mats Nilsson, Per Nilsson, Anna Hedström Ringvall, Göran Ståhl. (2014). Adapting National Forest Inventories to changing requirements – the case of the Swedish National Forest Inventory at the turn of the 20th century. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1095. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1095
Highlights: National Forest Inventories supply invaluable long term time series of forest state. Recent developments and international harmonization of modern NFIs widen the scope to even include ecosystem goods, e.g. biodiversity and carbon sequestration. The combination of NFI field data with remote sensing techniques can give good estimates for areas smaller than national and regional level.
National Forest Inventories (NFIs) are becoming increasingly important worldwide in order to provide information about the multiple functions of forests, e.g. their provision of raw materials to industry, biodiversity and their capacity to store carbon for mitigating climate change. In several countries the history of NFIs is very long. For these countries a specific challenge is to keep the inventories up-to-date without sacrificing the advantages associated with long time series. At the turn of the 20th century European NFIs faced some major challenges. In this article we describe the history and the recent developments of the Swedish NFI as an example from which general observations are made and discussed. The Swedish NFI started in 1923 and has evolved from an inventory with a narrow focus on wood resources to an inventory today which aims to provide information about all major forest ecosystem services. It can be concluded that the traditional approaches of most European NFIs, e.g. to collect data through sample plot field inventories, has proved to be applicable even for a wide range of new information requirements. Specifically, detailed data about land use, trees, vegetation, and soils has found new important uses in connection with biodiversity assessments and the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions. Though time-consuming and difficult, making NFI information comparable across countries through harmonization appears to be a useful approach. The European National Forest Inventory Network (ENFIN) was formed in 2003 and has been successful in pan-European NFI harmonization.
  • Fridman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jonas.fridman@slu.se (email)
  • Holm, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: soren.holm@slu.se
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.nilsson@slu.se
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.nilsson@slu.se
  • Ringvall, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Anna.Ringvall@slu.se
  • Ståhl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.stahl@slu.se

Category: Article

article id 7147, category Article
S. A. Wilde, J. G. Iyer. (1963). Effect of natural subirrigation on the uptake of nutrients by forest plantations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 7 article id 7147. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7147

Result of a survey of soils supporting forest plantations in Wisconsin in the United States indicated a close correlation between the levels of fertility of non-phreatic, coarse-textured soils and the growth of red pine (Pinus resinosa Roezl) stands aged from 15 to 32. This relationship, however was not observed in plantations established on deep-gley soils, underlain at a depth of 3–9 fl by ground water.

The survey encountered 20 red pine plantations on soils underlain by a deep ground water table accessible to tree roots thorough their contact with gley horizon or with extended capillary fringe. The average growth of the stands was 80 cubic feet/acre (5.6 m3/ha) at the age of 22 years. Thus, mensuration analysis suggested that the soils are the choice grounds for forestry enterprise. However, the analysis of soil samples showed that in many instances the soils are extremely low in mineral colloids, organic matter and nutrients. Many of the sites would be regarded as critically deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

The following hypothesis are suggested to explain this discrepancy:

a) The moisture content of coarse-textured non-phreatic soils remain near the wilting point during a large apart of the growing season with subsequent reduction of transpiration and uptake of nutrients. If a capillary fringe provides a supply of water for the root system, trees may derive an adequate supply of salts and exchangeable ions from comparatively infertile substrata.

b) The suitably located ground water provides adequate aeration of the surface soil layers which is not impeded by capillary fringe, increasing activity of mycorrhiza, and a mycotrophic uptake of nutrients from unweathered minerals.

c) The above effects of natural subirrigation should change the concept of soil fertility based on mere chemical analysis. The time during which the roots are engaged in active absorption appears to be of equal importance as the concentration of nutrients in available form.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Iyer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7424, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1954). Metsäpalot vuosina 1952-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 12 article id 7424. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7424
English title: Forest fires in 1952-1953 in Finland.

The statistics of forest fires in Finland expanded in 1952 to include uninsured forests, when previously the statistics included only fires in state forests and insured forest holdings. For private forests the material is collected by central forestry associations with the aid of district forestry boards, and for state forests by the Forest Service which also prepares the overall statistics on forest fires in the country. Forest fire statistics for 1952 and 1953 have been prepared on the basis of regional grouping by counties.

In 1952 a total of 299 forest fires were discovered, affecting a burnt area of 764 ha. Of these 20 were in state forests, burning 139 ha, and 279 in private forests, burning 625 ha. The average devastated area was 2.6 ha (in state forests 6.9 ha). This year was the easiest from the point of view of forest fires in the period between 1946-1953. The year 1953, on the other hand, was the worst of the period. The number of fires was only 216, but the burnt area was 8,955 ha. In state forests 87 fires devastated 8,624 ha. In private forests 129 fires burned 331 ha. The average area destroyed was 4.2 ha (in state forests 99.1 ha, and in private forests 2.6 ha). The largest fires on state forests were in the northernmost districts of the country.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7423, category Article
Hardy L. Shirley. (1954). Education of foresters in America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 11 article id 7423. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7423

Forestry has developed at an extremely rapid pace in the United States during the past eight years. This has created job opportunities for foresters educated in the schools of forestry. From 1946 to 1953 American schools of forestry graduated 9,719 foresters.

The schools of forestry are gradually being emancipated from the control by colleges of agriculture and mechanical art. Professional demands are growing at a rapid pace, and the schools are expanding their programs to meet these changes. Faculties have responded to these new needs by adding new courses and curriculums. Colleges can perform their task best through improving the faculty and organizing courses in which the student becomes an active learner rather than a passive recipient of information.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

  • Shirley, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7387, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1946). Trade in forest products between Finland and the United States of America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 7387. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7387

The purpose of the analysis presented in the article was to form an estimate as to future Finnish-American trade in forest products. The Finnish-American trade, that had its beginning in 1919, has been steadily growing and at the outbreak of the Second World War occupied third place in Finland’s total foreign trade. Over 90% of the Finnish exports consisted of forest industry products, pulp and newsprint being the most important items. The sales associations of the pulp and paper industries made it possible for the industries to gain a footing in the American market.

The production of pulp and most kinds of paper has increased in the USA up to 1942, but production of newsprint has tended to decrease. The timber resources of the country are large, but there is a considerable timber deficit in the northeastern states, therefore, these regions must be the principal aim for a campaign to build up the future market. According to the survey of future need of imports to the USA, more than two million tons of pulp and 2-3 million tons of paper products are needed in the immediate post-war period. The Canadian and Swedish competition will remain at about the same level, but one Finnish advantage, the quality, has disappeared on account of the progress made by research in the USA during the war.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7373, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1942). Metsä- ja kielipolitiikkaa puolisen vuosisataa sitten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 20 article id 7373. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7373
English title: Forest and language policy in Finland in the turn of 1800th and 1900th century .

The article is an overview of forest policy in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s in Finland. This is a period of time, when public opinion towards forest officers and forestry in the state forests was very critical. In 1870-1890 the discussion was also accelerated by language dispute between supporters of Finnish and Swedish in Finland. The root of the problem was in the middle of 1800s when management of state forests were gradually transferred to districts administered by forestry offices. At the same time, landless people had been settling in state-owned lands and establishing farms, mostly without permission. The questions concerning settling in state forests was often addressed to foresters in the forest offices. Several commissions discussed the situation, rights of the settlers and forestry in the state forests. The general opinion supported the settlers, and they were allowed to keep their farms. Towards the end of the century the value of state forests increased, which brought more emphasis on forestry in the state lands and restrictions to settlement. 

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7327, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1934). Metsähallitus 1859-1934. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 7327. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7327
English title: Forest Sercvice of Finland in 1859‒1934.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; valtion metsät
English keywords: Forest Service; state forest

The article is a history of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) compiled on the organizations 75th anniversary. In 1859 a declaration was signed on the founding of a forest management institution in The Grand Duchy of Finland, then an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. The article follows the changes in the organization, administration and policies concerning the state forests. The development of forest resources and the use of state forests is discussed. In the early stages of the organization, the main concern in Finnish forests was forest devastation, and one task of the officers was to prevent unauthorized use of forests. in a decree, Metsähallitus was designated a central agency under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and was given the task of “managing, monitoring and promoting Finnish forestry”.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7252, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1929). Notes on some forest (site) types in North America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 39 article id 7252. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7252

The article includes observations on forest site types in Canada and the United States, with special emphasis on forests of lodgepole pine (Pinus murrayana, now Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) which the author considers a species that can become a favourite exotic tree species in Finland. Some notes are made also about Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The author was not able to make a systematic forest type investigation, because the journey was made on another purpose. The article describes the vegetation and climate of the visited areas, and divides the forest site types in three groups: Dry forest site types, moist forest site types and grass-herb site types. The vegetation and plant species on several subtypes are described in detail.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7248, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1929). Valtion metsätulot kunnallisverotuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 35 article id 7248. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7248
English title: Forestry income in the municipal taxation.

In 1926 the state of Finland payed taxes to the local municipalities from a half of the net returns the state forest and state owned wood manufacturing industry produced. The taxes payed by the forest administration to the municipalities totaled 4.75 million Finnish marks. The state forests are located mostly in Northern Finland, thus the relative amount of municipalities that get taxes from the state forestry were higher in the north. The municipalities that benefited most from the tax revenues from the state were Savukoski, Pudasjärvi, Suojärvi, Rovaniemi, Taivalkoski, Kuhmoniemi, Turtola, Pielisjärvi, Ilomantsi, Korpiselkä and Suistamo. About half of the municipalities (264) got tax revenues from state forestry. However, if this tax revenue was removed, it would raise local tax rate in relatively few municipalities. it has been proposed that state should pay taxes from the state forests on the same principles as the private forests. To move to area based taxation in the state forests would, however, increase the taxation of the state five-fold. The taxes from the state forests are not appropriate way to support the poorest municipalities. Better suited would be, for instance, state subsidies. Therefore, the taxes payed from the state forestry to municipalities should be abandoned.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5597, category Article
John C. Brissette. (1996). Effects of intensity and frequency of harvesting on abundance, stocking and composition of natural regeneration in the Acadian forest of eastern North America. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9242

In a silviculture experiment in east-central Maine, USA, natural regeneration was sampled to measure the effects of: (1) a range of partial harvest intensities, and (2) repeated partial harvest at one intensity. Under the first objective, five treatments were compared with residual basal areas ranging from 15 to 24 m2 ha-1 for trees ≥1.3 cm diameter at breast height. For the second objective, regeneration was evaluated after four harvests at 5-year intervals. Prior to harvests, the overstory of all the treated stands was dominated by Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr., Picea spp. A Dietr., and Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Eleven species or species groups were identified among the regeneration: A. balsamea, T. canadensis, Picea spp., Thuja occidentalis L., Pinus spp. L., Betula papyrifera Marsh., Acer rubrum L., Betula populifolia Marsh., Populus spp. L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. Regeneration abundance was measured as counts of seedlings or sprouts taller than 15 cm but with diameters less than 1.3 cm at breast height (1.37 m). Regardless of harvest treatment, total regeneration was profuse, ranging from over 25,000 to nearly 80,000 trees ha-1. Regeneration was dominated by conifers with a total angiosperm component of 10 to 52 percent approximately 5 years after harvest and 11 to 33 percent after 10 years. Consequently, in forests of similar species composition, tree regeneration following partial harvests should be sufficiently abundant with an array of species to meet a variety of future management objectives.

  • Brissette, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5358, category Article
Lauri Kärenlampi, Andrew J. Friedland. (1988). Cytopathological and external observations on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles damaged in winter in Vermont. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5358. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15515

The red spruce (Picea rubens sarg.) population in the Green Mountains in Vermont has showed foliar deterioration that has not been fully explained. The most characteristic needle injuries of the sensitive trees appear in late winter when the first-year needles turn brown. The cytopathological and external observations on the symptoms support the interpretation that winter stress triggers the damage. It is possible that some anthropogenic stress factors (components of acid deposition or ozone) and/or natural factors predispose the trees to the damage.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Friedland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5324, category Article
Jussi Raumolin. (1987). Metsän suojassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5324. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15481
English title: Under the shelter of forests: some thoughts about political anthropology and the geopolitics of forests.

Only a few studies exist concerning the political anthropology and geopolitics of forests. The role of forests in European geopolitics and their role in restraining concentration of power and promoting guerrilla warfare is examined. The shelter of forest cover has been a fundamental factor for the formation of the Finnish people and it has also played an important role in the defence of independent Finland. Clearcuttings, forest roads and modern reconnaissance technology have recently diminished the protective shelter of forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raumolin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5298, category Article
Frederick W. Cubbage, Donald G. Hodges. (1986). Public and private technical assistance programs for non-industrial private forest landowners in the southern United States. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5298. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27754

Non-industrial private landowners hold about two-thirds of the forest land in the southern United States. The types of public (state) and private (consulting and industrial) assistance offered to these owners is reviewed. In total, about 1,600 foresters in the South provide management assistance to non-industrial private forest owners. They assist at least 72,000 owners annually, including provision of management plans for about 10 million acres and supervision of over 4 million acres of leased lands.

  • Cubbage, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hodges, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5296, category Article
Russell K. Henly, Paus V. Ellefson. (1986). Cost and effectiveness of legal mandates for the practice of forestry on private land. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5296. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27752

Comprehensive state laws regulating the practice of forest management on private lands are in effect in seven of the United States. Established to protect a wide range of non-timber forest resources and to ensure reforestation after harvest, these laws may impose significant administrative costs on states and significant compliance costs on landowners and timber operators. Total state administration costs for 1984 are estimated at $10.1 and total private sector compliance costs are estimated at $120.5 million, for a total regulation cost of $130.6 million.

The resource protection effectiveness of state forest practice regulation is difficult to quantify. However, agreement is strong that regulation has led to significant improvements in forest resource conditions and has helped to increase reforestation.

  • Henly, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ellefson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5291, category Article
David J. Brooks. (1986). Evaluating the regional and distributional impacts of forestry cost-share payments. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5291. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27747

Standard methods of welfare economics are used in a market simulating framework to evaluate policy measures designed to increase future timber supplies. Forest management cost-share programs are examined using this methodology. The differential regional impact of cost-share payments is considered, as is the distribution of these benefits between stumpage producers (owners of forest land) and stumpage consumers (producers of forest products). Previous estimates of the welfare gains that would result from a higher level of forest management cost-share payments in the southern United States are revised to account for the loss of public revenue resulting from lower future prices. A methodology for comparing alternative policy instruments is discussed, and a preliminary, qualitative comparison is made between the use of cost-share payments and alternative policy measures.

  • Brooks, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5288, category Article
Christopher D. Risbrudt. (1986). Policy evaluations for U.S. federal timber sale accounting system development. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5288. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27744

Development of timber sale accounting system for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ordered by the U.S. Congress, has entailed numerous evaluations and research projects. Critics of the current process claims administrative costs are not recovered by the prices paid for Federal timber. However, management of multiple resources for multiple uses makes traditional accounting difficult; i.e., keeping track of cash flows. A further complication involves allocating costs to the various resources (joint cost allocation), for which no nonarbitrary method currently exists. A concurrent issue involves the building of roads for timber harvest into areas released from wilderness consideration. Environmentalists see the road building program of the Federal land management agencies as an additional reason Federal management costs are not recovered from timber-generated revenues. The heart of the issue is which lands are economically suited for timber management, and what nonmarket benefits and costs accrue from the timber management.

  • Risbrudt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5250, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1985). Comparison of methodologies to evaluate aid programs to nonindustrial private forests. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5250. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15429

A methodology to evaluate forestry programs aimed at increasing timber supply from nonindustrial private forests is presented that aggregates the marginal social cost and marginal social benefit of a sample program participants and compares them in a benefit-cost efficiency ratio. The paper exposes a methodology followed to evaluate several forestry programs in Massachusetts, USA, and discusses its advantages and inconveniences compared to the other methodologies that have been used for the same purpose. The marginal analysis is based on detailed property and landowner behaviour surveys which are costly but represent a good standard to compare the performance of other approaches. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harou, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7053, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Valtion metsätalous liikeyrityksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 7053. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7053
English title: State forestry as a business.

The income of forestry in the state lands was 136 million Finnish marks, expenditure 65 million Finnish marks and the result 71 million Finnish marks in 1920. Both the income and expenditure had steadily increased during the 1900s. The forests in state lands are poorer than the forests in the country in average, which affects the profitability of forestry. However, ways to improve the profitability could be found. These include better transport connections, especially floating in Northern Finland. The growth of the forest could be increased by forest improvement, for instance peatland draining. The local demand of wood could be improved by selling rights to harvest household wood.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7051, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1920). Tutkimuksia kruununmetsätorppien taloudesta Kurun, Parkanon ja Ikaalisten pitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 7051. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7051
English title: Studies on the economic situation of tenants in the state lands in counties of Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen.
English keywords: tenants; state lands; farm; state forests

This study was conducted for the request of state forest committee. The aim was to study the economic situation of tenants of state lands in Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen, situated in Central Finland. The chosen 30 farms were located in relatively remote parts of the state forests in the area. Half of the farms were established already in 1800-1860 for shifting cultivation or fishing, and the land was not always suited for farming. The state forests were in general on the poorest lands of the areas. They were relatively small; third of them had less than 2 hectares of agricultural land. Household timber harvesting required a permission from a local forest officer of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The legal rights of the tenants were fairly secured, but many wished to get right to purchase the farm land. Due to the poor lands and insufficient fertilizing, the crops were lower than in small farms in average. The forests around the farms were mixed forests of poor quality, due to the wood utilization of the tenants.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7051, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1920). Tutkimuksia kruununmetsätorppien taloudesta Kurun, Parkanon ja Ikaalisten pitäjissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 7051. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7051
English title: Studies on the economic situation of tenants in the state lands in counties of Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen.
English keywords: tenants; state lands; farm; state forests

This study was conducted for the request of state forest committee. The aim was to study the economic situation of tenants of state lands in Kuru, Parkano and Ikaalinen, situated in Central Finland. The chosen 30 farms were located in relatively remote parts of the state forests in the area. Half of the farms were established already in 1800-1860 for shifting cultivation or fishing, and the land was not always suited for farming. The state forests were in general on the poorest lands of the areas. They were relatively small; third of them had less than 2 hectares of agricultural land. Household timber harvesting required a permission from a local forest officer of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The legal rights of the tenants were fairly secured, but many wished to get right to purchase the farm land. Due to the poor lands and insufficient fertilizing, the crops were lower than in small farms in average. The forests around the farms were mixed forests of poor quality, due to the wood utilization of the tenants.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7039, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1920). Pohjois-Suomen kuusimetsien esiintyminen, laajuus ja puuvarastot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 7039. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7039
English title: The distribution and volume of Norway spruce forests in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in Northern Finland are situated mainly in the state lands. The survey is based on silvicultural surveys made in the northernmost districts of the state forests. The quality of private lands of the area was deduced based on the adjacent state lands and specific observations. A map was drawn on the distribution of productive Norway spruce forest in the study area.

The continuous Norway spruce forest areas covered 1,112,000 hectares, of which 866,000 hectares were on the state lands. Especially in the northern parts of the area also more fragmented spruce forest could be found (130,000 hectares in the state lands). The estimated total volume of the wood in the forests in the state and private lands was 57.78 million m3 in the continuous spruce forest area. The spruce forests were often situated on hill and fell areas relatively high above the sea level. In the areas north of the 66th parallel, almost half of the forests were above 300 meters above the sea level. Because spruce forests of the state lands were concentrated near watershed areas, the wood harvesting was more expensive, and reduced the value of the state forests. The spruce forests grow usually on fresh mineral soil sites. However, towards north the species was found on drier sites. The stands were mostly pure spruce stands or mixed birch-spruce stands. The older age groups were the most common, but young stands were rare.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5014, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1979). Punapuiden suojeluongelmia Kaliforniassa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5014. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14868
English title: Preservation problems of redwoods in California.

The paper deals with the problems of the preservation of the redwood groves (Sequioia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) J. Buchholz) in California. The activity to protect these groves from flood and fire may finally lead to dying of these long-lived trees. A program to use prescribed burning as a tool for the management of natural ecosystem has been started.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7030, category Article
Eino Saari. (1919). Itä-Suomen lahjoitusmailla noudatetusta metsäpolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 7030. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7030
English title: Forest policy associated to donated lands in Eastern Finland.

The article is a review on the lands that were donated to the Russian aristocracy in Eastern and Southeastern Finland in 1700s. The farmers in the area used to be tenants of state lands or independent land owners. The insufficient and diverse stipulation of the ownership of the lands in the donation documents caused later disputes between the landlords and the farmers. One of the issues was who had right to use the forests. For the farmers this meant significant reductions in their right to harvest timber and household wood, or practice shifting cultivation. There were attempts to improve the situation of the tenants, but the final solution came in the end of 1800s, when the parliament began to promote farmers’ right to purchase the lands. In the land reform, the state raised a loan to purchase the donated lands, and give them to the farmers, who would then pay back their share of the loan. Part of the forests remained state lands in the reform. Several jointly owned forests were also established using the state forests to give access to household wood for farms that had little own forests. The private forests on donated lands had larger standing crop than the private forests in general. Together with increasing demand of wood for the developing manufacturing industry, this gave possibility for abusive practices in timber trade. The timber prices were low, and farmers exchanged felling rights to loan.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7028, category Article
A. L. Backman. (1919). Torvmarksundersökningar i mellersta Österbotten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 7028. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7028
English title: Peatland studies in central Ostrobothnia in Finland.

The studies were conducted in 1913-1916 in state forests of Finland as a part of a large survey of peatlands by the Forest Service’s districts in Ostrobothnia in the Western Finland. The area and type of peatlands were estimated based on data of National Land Survey of Finland. In the 36 counties of Ostrobothnia, the total area of peatlands was approximately 1.4 million hectares. 30% of the peatlands are treeless bogs, 45% pine swamps, 5% spruce swamps, 15% areas resembling pine swamps and 5% areas resembling spruce swamps. The article describes in detail different peatland types and their vegetation within these classes. The peatlands were divided into five classes by their suitability for drainage and forestry or agriculture. In addition, the depth of peat, height growth of the peat and formation of peatlands in the area are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Backman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4913, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1975). Metsäammattimiesten ja luottamushenkilöiden mielipiteet julkisesta metsähallinnosta ja sen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14757
English title: Forestry expert’s and appointed representatives’ opinions about official forest administration and its development in Finland.

The task of the study was to describe the opinions of the forestry experts engaged in the State forestry organization and the organization for promotion of private forestry, and of the appointed representatives in the organization for the promotion of private forestry concerning the official forestry administration and its development. The study material was based on two samples, one of 240 forestry experts and the other of 290 appointed representatives. The data was compiled by mail inquiry.

Forestry experts were found to rate the success of the official forestry administration in its tasks lower than did the appointed representatives. Both the forestry experts and appointed representatives were of the opinion that the official forestry administration has been most successful in accomplishing timber production and least successful in the tasks concerning multiple use of forests. The results also indicate that 44% of the forestry experts were of the opinion that the most suitable organization model would be a uniform state organization for both the State, and private owned forests. About a third of the forestry experts considered that the best model would be two different state organizations, one for the State forests and the other for the private forests. 62% of the appointed representatives were of the opinion that the best solution would be to retain the official forestry administration such as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4434, category Article
Kaarlo Linkola. (1926). Suunnitelma luonnonsuojelualueiden erottamiseksi Pohjois-Suomen valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 1 article id 4434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8382
English title: Plan for establishment of protected areas in state-owned lands of Northern Finland.

The article gives a proposal for areas that would be suitable for protected areas, situated in state-owned lands in Northern Finland. Eight areas are described in the article, namely Oulankajoki area in Northern Kuusamo, Kutsajoki area in Kuolajärvi, Pyhätunturi in Kemijärvi, Pisavaara in Rovaniemi, Pallastunturi and Ounastunturi area, Malla fells in Kilpisjärvi, Pääskyspahta area in Petsamo and Heinäsaari in Petsamo.

Each of the areas possess special features in Finnish nature, samples of which should be reserved in pristine state. Furthermore, costs of the protection are small. The resident population is, however, in general against protection. The protection should therefore be organized in a way that minimizes the disadvantages caused by limitations to land use, for example grazing, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting.

According to Finnish Nature Conservation Act, all wildlife in the conservation areas should be protected. Protection of wolverine and wolf is, however, difficult because of the damages they cause for domestic animals. Protection of bear is regarded to be possible in most of the proposed protected areas.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4699, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1961). A century of Finnish state forestry 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4699. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14230

This paper is a short presentation in English of the activities of the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State Forests of Finland, during its first century. The article gives a short history of the Forest Service and description of the forest property, development of the Forest Service, forest conservation work and business activity of the organization.

A complete presentation of the history and activities of the organization since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time is published in Finnish in Silva Fennica No. 107.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4666, category Article
Eero Nieminen. (1957). Matkalaskut, päivärahat ja palkkiot asutustoimikuntatöissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4666. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14067
English title: Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Finnish Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation decribes how the personnel of settlement commissions are to arrange travelling on settlement business, how travel claims should be written, and how daily allowances and fees should be paid and accounted for.

  • Nieminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4665, category Article
Pentti K. Leino. (1957). Asutustoimikuntatoimistot, niiden toimihenkilöt ja kenttätöiden järjestely. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14066
English title: Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the administration and work of four settlement board offices, established in 1956 in Oulu, Kajaani, Rovaniemi and Kittilä in Northern Finland. The new offices were established to dissolve the waiting list of petitions, due to Second World War and increasing settlement activities.

  • Leino, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4664, category Article
Veli-Kustavi Klemetti. (1957). Puuston arviointi tilan hinnoittelussa ja hinnan muodostus tilakokonaisuutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4664. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14065
English title: Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm.

 

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses different ways to determine the price of growing forest stock in settlement farms. The Settlement Act describes the main principles for the evaluation of forests. The growing stock of forest land has been devided into valueable and small timber. Construction timber and valuable trees are marked separately, and small timber is estimated by line survey. According to the act, the total price of a farm should be only what a sensible buyer would pay for it. Therefore, the value must be reduced to a reasonable price if the added value of the different parts is too high considering, for instance, the location of the farm and construction and clearing costs.

  • Klemetti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4662, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1957). Metsämaan tuottoarvon laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4662. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14063
English title: Calculation of yield in terms of value of forest land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation concerns the evaluation of forest land to be surrendered for a settlement farm. According to the Settlement Act, state land surrendered for settlement purposes should fetch the price that any sensible buyer would pay in buying the land. The prices used in evaluation are, however, still the prices of 1944. A new method for calculating the yield in terms of value of forest land has been developed by professor Yrjö Ilvessalo, based on the König-Faustman formula. This method is described in Tapio Forestry Manual.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4654, category Article
T. Marjanen. (1957). Tilojen ja lisämaiden perustaminen valtion maille. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4654. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14055
English title: Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The Land Settlement Act gives the landless population of Finland right to apply resettlement farms or supplementary state lands from Forest Service that manages state lands. After the Second World War the settlement work intensified markedly. This presentation describes guidelines for establishing holdings and supplementary lots on state lands.

  • Marjanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4653, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1957). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1956. 8. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4653. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13981
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1956.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Marjanen, T.  Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land

Lifländer, A. Centralized fellings in North Finland and the settlement question

Väisänen, P.O. Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland

Lilja, V. Forestry on settlement farms

Hyttinen, O. Valuable timber trees on settlement farms

Piepponen, P.  Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms

Kotiaho, A. Arability research, its execution and information on the result

Karisto, U. Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot

Linnamies, O. Calculation of yield value of forest land

Johansson, E. Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms

Klemetti, V-K. Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm

Leino, P.K. Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work

Nieminen, E. Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work

 

The issue includes short English summaries of the presentations.

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4645, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1955). Metsätyömieskylät : ehdotus vakinaisten metsätyömiesperheiden asuntokysymyksen järjestelyksi. Silva Fennica no. 86 article id 4645. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9107
English title: Forest worker villages: Permanent accommodation of forest worker’s families.

The remote areas of Eastern and Northern Finland are mostly owned by the state. Forestry in these areas has been mainly managed by arranging temporary lodgings for the forest workers. A report on the suitability of forest worker villages as a more permanent solution to the accommodation problem was commissioned from forest officer Oiva Suominen.

Seasonal work, arduousness of the work and distance from home have decreased the attractivity of forest work as a profession. On the other hand, forestry has provided rural population work during winter, when there is little work in agriculture. To be able to increase permanent labour in state forestry, it is necessary to arrange permanent lodging to the workers and their families. Permanent workforce is needed to arrange wood harvesting and manage the state forests effectively. The article includes a suggestion of how to establish the forest worker villages. It suggests the locations and sizes for villages for the districts of Eastern Finland, Ostrobothnia and Perä-Pohjola.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4634, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1953). Valtion metsien nykyiset metsänhoitotyöt. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4634. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14049
English title: Forest management in state forests of Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes history of wood harvesting and logging methods used in the state forests in Finland. The article discusses  the problems caused by, for instance, of light sellection fellings to the silvicultural state of the forests. The silvicultural state of the forest could be improved by introducing silvicultural logging methods, and selection of seed trees to improve the genetic quality of seeds used in regeneration.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4633, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1953). Syrjäisten metsien hoito-ongelmia. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4633. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14048
English title: Forest management of remote forest areas.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes problems specific to forest management of remote forests areas. The growth of the forests in these areas are often low due to, for instance, northern location.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4629, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1953). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1952. 7. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4629. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13980
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1952.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the seventh professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

Effects of business cycles on forestry

Forestry related legal cases for forest officers

Practical training of applicants of forest schools in the districts of Forest Service

Forest management of remote forest areas

Forest management in the state forests

Forest management of peatland forests

Mechanization of ground preparation

Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding

Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding

 

The article includes an English summary.

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4639, category Article
Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea. (1953). Uusien luonnon- ja kansallispuistojen perustaminen valtion maille : luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 79 article id 4639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9101
English title: Establishment of new nature parks and national parks on the state-owned lands in Finland.

The article is report of the Nature Park and National Park Committee appointed by the Government of Finland in 1950. It contains a proposal for establishment of new nature parks and natural parks on state-owned lands in Finland. The article also includes a draft of act and decree for establishment of the new nature parks and national parks.

In order to replace the nature reserves lost through the 1944 Armistice with new areas and to create a comprehensive network of nature and national parks, including Southern Finland, the committee proposes new protected areas. The proposal includes the following nature parks: Jussaari, Vaskijärvi, Vesijako, Sinivuori, Häädetkeidas, Salamajärvi, Ulvinsalo, Paljakka, Runkaus, Maltio, Sompio, and Kevo. National parks include Liesjärvi, Linnansaari, Petkeljärvi, Pyhähäkki, Rokua, Oulanka-Juuma, and Lemmenjoki. The total area of the suggested new 23 nature reserves is 1,425 km2. The committee suggets that the administration of the new nature parks and national parks should remain in the responsibility of Forest Service and Forest Research Institute.

The article contains a summary in English

  • Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4628, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1952). Havaintoja Peräpohjolan valtion mailla vuosina 1948-50 suoritetuista männyn kylvöistä. Silva Fennica no. 78 article id 4628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9100
English title: Observations on stands of Scots pine sown in state forests in Peräpohjola in northern Finland in 1948-50.

The most common way to artificially regenerate cutting areas in Northern Finland has been sowing, which has, however, often given poor results. The aim of the study was to assess the success rate of sowing and study the causes of poor regeneration.

An inventory was made of 28 areas on Empetrum-Myrtillus and Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type sites sown with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds in 1948-1950. In addition, to study the effect of substrata, a sowing experiment was established. According to the inventory, regeneration failed completely in 8 and partially in 6 of the 28 sown areas. Factors that explained the poor regeneration included unfavourable weather conditions in 1948-1952, insufficient clearing of sowing spot especially when the humus layer was thick, and insect damage by Otiorynchus dubius weevil.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4622, category Article
O. O. Tirkkonen. (1952). Suomen metsäojitus 1900-luvun alkupuoliskolla. Silva Fennica no. 72 article id 4622. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9094
English title: Peatland drainage in Finland in the first half of 20h century.

According to the second National Forest Survey, peatlands covered before the World War II 11,156,000 hectares, 32% of the land area of Finland. The early drainage of peatlands in 1700th century had aimed at preventing frost and increasing area of agricultural land. The experiences proved that drainage of wet forests was lucrative also in the point of view of forestry. The drainage of state-owned forest lands was promoted by the Crown Forest Committee in its report in 1900. The systematic drainage work in state lands begun in 1909. In the end of 1920s 500-700 km of ditches was dug annually.

The drainage of private lands begun after 1928, when forestry promotion work in private forests begun. By the end of 1950, 4,815 forest drainage projects had been approved by the Forest Service in the private lands. In addition, 286,000 ha of peatlands was drained on work organized by the central forest associations in 1930-1950, and 239,272 ha by timber companies in 1902-1950. The drained area totalled 755,892 ha. The area of drainable and drained peatland was estimated to be 4.4 million ha.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Tirkkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4621, category Article
Metsähallintakomitea. (1951). Metsähallintoa koskevat säännökset : metsähallintokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 71 article id 4621. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9093
English title: Statutes of Forest Service.

The government of Finland appointed in 1949 a committee to compose new legislation for Forest Service. The article includes proposals for a Forest and Park Service Act and a Forest and Park Service Decree. The proposals are based on the previous decree on forest administration. The committee proposes changes in the sections of Forest Service. The management of peatlands and forests of the state will be in a same section, and all issues concerning the private forests in one section. State forests would be divided in three districts instead of the present four districts.

The committee will make a separate report on necessary reforms in the administration of Forest Service to ensure that the state forests of Finland will be managed effectively.

  • Metsähallintakomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4618, category Article
Lauri Olenius. (1951). Ilmakuvien käyttö valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14014
English title: Use of aerial mapping in state forestry.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Forest Service begun the aerial mapping of the state forests in northern Finland in 1948. This presentation describes the state of the work, practices and methods of the work.

  • Olenius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4607, category Article
U. Metsänheimo. (1951). Metsäojitustoiminnasta Perä-Pohjolan valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4607. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14003
English title: Forest drainage in state forests in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history and present stage of forest drainage in Northern Finland. The first peatlands were drained in the area in 1909. About 6% of the 600,000 hectares of peatlands suitable for drainage was drained at the time in Perä-Pohjola. The areas to be drained are characteristically very large.

  • Metsänheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4606, category Article
Antti A. Aho. (1951). Metsähallituksen osuus Pohjois-Suomen jälleenrakennuksessa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4606. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14002
English title: Contribution of Forest Service to the reconstruction of Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.

  • Aho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4603, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1951). Suurten mittasuhteiden työmaita. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13999
English title: Large scale worksites.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest resources and felling potential of the state forests in different parts of the country, and how centralized fellings could be arranged. Most potential for increasing fellings is in Northern Finland.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4601, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1951). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1948-50. 6. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4601. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13979
English title: Professional development courses for foresters 1948-1950.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Opening words of the course

Large scale worksite

Use of machines in construction of roads and floating channels

Floating in northern Finland and its challenges

The role of Forest Service in the reconstruction of Northern Finland

Draining operations in the state forests of Perä-Pohjola in Northen Finland

General qualitative requirements for roundwood

Qualitative classification of saw logs based on the use of sawn wood, sorting and test sawing

Classification of saw logs

Benefits of qualitative classification of saw logs

Value grading of Scots pine saw logs

Accuracy of qualitative classification of saw logs

Modern management of personnel

The present stage of rationalization

Accomplishments in timber transportation

Aerial mapping

Use of aerial photographs in state forestry

Use of statistics in forestry

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4598, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1949). Piirteitä valtion metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 66 article id 4598. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9088
English title: Forestry in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a review on state forests of Finland. The aim of the review is to describe the state and management of the state forests. Low revenue of the stat forests has been criticised, and misunderstandings have led to economic policy that has had negative impacts on state forestry.

The history of forest ownership of the state begins from 1400th century when Finland was part of Sweden. The article describes in detail the different stages in ownership of state forests and development of forest administration.

Forest Service was established in 1859. In 1949 it had two departments, a private forest department and a state forest department, and four local conservancies, Peräpohjola, Ostrobothnia, Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The forests were managed according to a business plan, which was based on a forest survey and a long term silvicultural working plan. The business plan gave a basis for annual working plans.

The state forests are mainly situated far from sites of forest industry and large human settlements. This affects demand and prices of wood. Especially demand of small diameter timber has been low. Floating is the main means of transport of the timber. The article describes in detail the forest resources of state forests, forest management practices and changes in state forestry. Suggestions to improve the profitability of state forestry are given. These include, for instance improving transport infrastructure and the productivity of forestry.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4594, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1948). Maanhankintalaki ja sen metsäkysymykset. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13996
English title: Forest related issues of land acquisition act.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes execution of land acquisition act that came into effect in 1945. The act gave principles of transfer of state forest land for settlement.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4592, category Article
Einari Wuori. (1948). Lupakirjakauppa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4592. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13994
English title: Licence sales of timber in state forests.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes the principles of licence sales of timber in state forests. In this type of timber sales, a local forest officer has granted a licence for sale of wood or other wood products. The article gives a suggestion to improve the practices of the licence sales.

  • Wuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4590, category Article
E. A. Sopanen. (1948). Hankintatöiden paikallinen organisointi. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13992
English title: Organizing delivery loggings locally.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the history of timber sales at delivered price made in state forests, and describes good practices to arrange timber harvesting locally.

  • Sopanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4589, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1948). Eräitä näkökohtia metsähallituksen pysty- ja hankintamyynneistä. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4589. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13991
English title: Aspects of sales at delivered price and stumpage sales made by Forest Service.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation compares timber sales by delivered price and stumpage sale in the state forest. The buyers of wood have criticised sales bu delivered price from the state forests. The article discusses which of the type of sales is more profitable for the state.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4587, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1948). Metsänhoitotyöt sotavuosien hakkuiden jäljillä. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4587. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13989
English title: Forest management after loggings during the years of World War II.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the state of state forests after the World War II. The area of the forests had decreased and the loggings to cover the needs of war years had influenced the silvicultural state of the forests. The article lists the forest management work that needs to be done in the state forests in the coming years.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4583, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1948). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1947. 5. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13977
English title: Professional development courses for foresters 1947.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications.


The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Forest management and centralized loggings

Ecological forest management

Forest tree breeding

Forest management after loggings during the years of World War II

Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland

Aspects of sales at delivered price and stumpage sales made by Forest Service

Organizing delivery loggings locally

Estimation of costs of delivery loggings

Licence sales of timber in state forests

Application of labour legislation in forest work

Forest related issues of land acquisition act

Building of forest lorry roads

Planning of new national parks and nature reserves. The presentation is published as a report of nature conservation commission in the annals of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation

Long distance transport of wood in the economy of districts. The presentation is included in the article Studies on factors influencing intensity of loggings published as Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55.


The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4596, category Article
Valtion metsäkauppakomitea. (1948). Valtion metsien pysty- ja hankintamyynneistä : valtion metsäkauppakomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 63 article id 4596. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9087
English title: On stumpage sales and sales at delivered price in state forests.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to study which method of selling wood, sale at delivered price or stumpage sale, is more profitable method for wood sales from state forests.

According to the committee, in normal conditions, when supply and demand determine the price of timber and forest work wages are dependent on the supply and demand of labour, returns from the sale at delivered price has proved more favourable than stumpage sale. During the World War II the case was, however, the opposite. Sale at delivered price can have also other advantages. The state has by means of logging a hold in the labour market and can use loggings, for instance, to ward off unemployment. Also, loggings can be more easily used in rational silviculture. They keep the supervising staff of forest districts employed throughout the year and provide better professional training for the foresters. In addition, the number of buyers from state forests has increased. The stumpage sale may, however, be good method in certain conditions. The committee states that the State forestry officials are best able to decide on the most favourable method of selling.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Valtion metsäkauppakomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4567, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1939). Ojituksien kunnossapidosta sekä ojitettujen soiden metsien käsittelystä ja metsittämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4567. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13974
English title: Forest management of forests in drained peatlands and maintenance of ditch network.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest management practices of drained peatlands and the allocation of responsibilities in draining of peatlands between district forest officers and forest officers responsible of drainage work. Problems has occured in those cases, when the process of draining had lasted so long that at the time of final assessment of the project the first ditches have already needed maintenance.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4566, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1939). Näkökohtia tie- ja polkuverkostosta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4566. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13973
English title: Views on road and path network.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the development of road and path network in state lands in Finland. The speaker wants to stress the need for systematic expansion of the road network, which would serve several demands in forestry.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4565, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Asutustoiminnan yhteydessä valtiolle pidätettävät arvopuut ja niiden hakkaaminen. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13972
English title: Reservation of valuable timber-trees in connection to settlement activities.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the conditions according to which the state can reclaim valuable timber-trees on forest land which ownership is transferred to landless population in settlement work.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4564, category Article
Sulo Järvinen. (1939). Metsähallinnon kalustokirjanpito ja kaluston hoito. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4564. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13971
English title: Bookkeeping and maintenance of equipment in forest administration.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the principles of bookkeeping and maintenance of forestry equipment, which reform was in progress in 1938.

  • Järvinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4562, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1939). Hoitoalueen työohjelman laatiminen. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13969
English title: Drafting a work program for a district.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation presents guidelines for preparing an obligatory work program for a district of state forests.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4560, category Article
L. A. Mäkelä. (1939). Piirteitä Länsi-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13967
English title: Forestry in conservancy of Western Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the reform of localized forest administration executed in 1923 and describes in detail forest management in the conservancy of Western Finland.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4555, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Puutavaran autokuljetuksesta ja sen merkityksestä valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13962
English title: Car transportation of roundwood and its significance to forestry in the state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history of road transport of timber in Finland and discusses its significance and potential to forestry in the state forests.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4550, category Article
V. A. Arola. (1939). Kansaneläkelaista ja sen mukaisesta palkanpidätyksestä. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4550. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13957
English title: National Pensions Act and withholding of salary.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes the principles of National Pensions Act, passed in 1937, and how it is applied in withholding of salary. 

  • Arola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4548, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1939). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1938. 4. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4548. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13955
English title: Professional development courses of foresters in 1938.

Silva Fennica Issue 52 includes presentations held in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs: 

 
Greetings by Mauno Pekkala 

National Pensions Act and withholding of salary 

Assessment of forest growth 

Root systems of trees and forest management 

Nature conservation 

Timber measurement legislation 

Car transportation of timber and its significance to forestry in state forests 

Forestry and tourism 

Charcoal burning 

Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type forests 

Forest regeneration in Perä-Pohjola in northern Finland 

Forestry in the conservancy of Western Finland 

The right to use property belonging to someone else 

Preparation of a works program of a district 

Statistics of felling methods 

Bookkeeping and maintenance of equipment in forest administration 

Reservation of valuable timber-trees in connection to settlement activities 

Views on road and path network 

Maintenance of drainage systems and forest management of forests in drained peatlands 

Regeneration of burned areas 

Forest management of Norway spruce forests 

 

The article includes a German summary. 

  • Metsähallitus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4536, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Metsän uudistumisen tarkkailusta kovilla metsämailla ja ojitetuilla soilla sekä ojien tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13945
English title: Inspection of regeneration of forests in mineral soil forests and drained peatlands and checking of ditches.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches. 

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4535, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1938). Aluehallinnon töiden järjestelystä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4535. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13944
English title: Organization of work in regional administration.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes planning and organization of work in regional administration.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4532, category Article
E. J. Koskenmaa. (1938). Hoitoalueen talous ja tieverkosto. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4532. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13941
English title: Economy of a regional district and road network.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation summarises the state of road network in districts of Forest Service, the costs of road construction and future needs of transport.

  • Koskenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4531, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1938). Asutuslain mukaisesta asutustyöstä valtion mailla ja metsänhoitajan tehtävistä tässä asutustyössä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13940
English title: Execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in state lands and role of a forest officer in managing the work.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands, and the role of a forest officer in managing the settlement. 

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4530, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1938). Ojitettujen soiden metsittämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4530. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13939
English title: Afforestation of drained peatlands.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes afforestation of drained peatlands. 

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4528, category Article
Eino Saari. (1938). Hoitoalueiden ja piirikuntien vuotuisen taloustuloksen laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4528. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13937
English title: Calculating the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes calculation of the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county. 

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4526, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1938). Tervehdyssanat. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13935
English title: Greetings by Mauno Pekkala.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation includes the greetings of Mauno Pekkala for the courses.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4520, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Valtionmetsien metsänhoitotöistä. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14098
English title: Forest management in state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes forest management in state forests in Finland.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4512, category Article
Ahti Mecklin. (1937). Puutavaran kantohinnan arvioimisen perusteista. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14090
English title: Principles of determining stumpage prices.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes determination of stumpage prices in timber sales of the state forests in Finland.

  • Mecklin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4511, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön toteuttamisesta valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14089
English title: Implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the implementation of the Land Settlement Act on parcelling out land in the state-owned lands in Finland.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4510, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1937). Hoitoaluehallinnon tehostamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14088
English title: Improving efficiency of the administration of state forests in Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the productivity of forestry and administration in different districts of state forests in Finland, and how the efficiency of the administration could be improved.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4507, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1937). Uuden asutuslainsäädännön ja erittäinkin valtion metsämaiden asuttamista koskevien säännöksien pääkohdat. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4507. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14085
English title: Main points of the new legislation concerning settlement policy and land settlement in state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes legislation concerning settlement policy in the state lands.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4502, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Havaintoja viimeaikaisista metsänhoitotöistä valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13912
English title: Observations on forest management work in state forests.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the forest management work in the state forests.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4494, category Article
Eino Saari. (1937). Metsätaloudelliset tilastot. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13904
English title: Forestry statistics.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation lists statistics available on forestry.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4487, category Article
Erkki J. Kinnunen. (1937). Metsäseutujen työläisten omavaraistuttaminen elintarvikkeisiin nähden. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4487. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13897
English title: Promoting self-sufficiency in food supply of the farms in the remote areas of Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation studies the food supply and economic situation of the farmers in the remote parts of Finland.

  • Kinnunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4485, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1937). N. s. uusien tilojen muodostaminen valtion metsämaille. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13895
English title: Parceling out new farms in state forests.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes parcelling out of land for new farms in state forests.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4481, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1937). Metsähallinnon tulo- ja menoarvion laatiminen ja käsittely. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13891
English title: Preparation of national budget in forestry administration.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the peparation of national budget in forestry administration.

  • Pekkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4477, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1935). Metsänhoitolaitoksen 75-vuotisjuhla 19. IV. 1934. Silva Fennica no. 36 article id 4477. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9063
English title: 75 years’ jubilee of the Finnish Forest Service on April 19th, 1934.

The article is a description of the 75th anniversary of Finnish Forest Service (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service), held on April 19th 1934. The greetings of the quests, presented in the Commemoration festival and Banquet, are included in the article.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4463, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1932). Tietoja metsänviljelystoiminnasta Suomessa 1923-1930. Silva Fennica no. 22 article id 4463. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9019
English title: Artificial forest regeneration in Finland in 1923-1930.

The article is a review on early forest regeneration and management in Finland. Beginning of the 1900s marks change in attitudes and resources for forest management. The state increased the funding of forest regeneration and improvement in the state forests in 1928. State funding is directed also to forest improvement in the private forests, and organizations established to promote forest management in the private forests are reorganized. For instance, District Forestry Boards were appointed the forest improvement work in private lands, in addition to promotion of private forestry. Sowing increased in the state forests from 772 ha to 1,566 ha, in forests of the forest companies from 3,006 ha to 4,954, and in private forests from 1,417 ha to 1,566 ha in 1923-1926. The figures of private forests are, however, incomplete. The most usual methods are patch sowing and broadcast sowing on snow. Seeds used in sowing increased from 3,357 kg to 14,387 kg, and planting from 413 ha to 1,020 ha in 1923-1930. Almost half of the sown areas were in the state forests, and most of the planted area in the forests of the companies. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the main tree species in artificial regeneration, and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was more popular in planting.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4455, category Article
O Tähtinen. (1930). Katsaus Jokioisten kartanon eli n.s. Jokiläänin metsätalouden vaiheisiin. Silva Fennica no. 14 article id 4455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8989
English title: A short account of the history of the forestry of the Jokioinen Estate.

The Jokioinen Estate was established in 1562 when king Erik XIV of Sweden granted a large area around Jokioinen in the southwest Finland to Klas Kristersson Horn. The estate had several landlords until it was acquired in 1872 by Jokkis Stock Company, and finally sold to the government in 1918. The forestry of the estate was influenced by complications concerning the ownership of the land. A part of the tenants of the estate had originally been independent and owned their farms, but some farms were so-called family-right-farms, which were inherited from father to son, but the farmer did not own the land. A third type of farmers were ordinary tenants, who were directly dependent on the landlord. Especially ambiguous was the family-right-farmers’ right to harvest timber from the forests. The Finnish government acquired the estate to solve the problems and gave the tenants right to buy their farms.

Until the 18th century most of the farmers in Jokioinen area practiced shifting cultivation. This method of farming influenced strongly the forests, and continued until the increased market price of timber made it unprofitable. The forests were also the source of fuel wood for both the farmers and the landlord. The estate had own saw-mill industry since the 18th century. In 1871 a trained forester was hired for the estate. When the government acquired the estate, it comprised 32,000 hectares of land. The state retained 7,000 hectares of the forests. They were managed by a trained forester and administrated under the Board of Agriculture.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tähtinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4449, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1928). Metsähallinnon suonkuivatustoiminnassa saavutettuja kokemuksia sekä suuntaviivoja suonkuivausta koskevan tutkimustyön kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 8 article id 4449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8397
English title: Experiences on draining of peatlands in the State forests in Finland by Forest Service and lines along which research on the draining of peatlands should proceed.

Systematic draining of peatlands begun in the state forests of Finland in 1908. It was considered necessary, because 41.4% of the state forests, 5.6 million hectares, consist of peatlands. Of the peatlands, 1.9 million hectares was estimated to be suitable for draining. Furthermore, paludification still continues in the forest lands. By the year 1926, a total of 52,275 hectares of peatland had been drained in the state lands.

Certain factors decide whether the peatland is suitable for draining: the growth increment capacity after draining, technical difficulties in draining, and difficulties in regeneration. Peatland type indicates the growth capacity of the drained peatland. The peatland should turn at least to Vaccinum forest site type or better type to be worth of draining. If the peat layer is thin, the quality of peat is an important deciding factor. The peatland may also be too expensive to drain due to, for instance, long ditches, main ditches difficult to dig, small inclination, uneven surface, and deep cavities at the bottom. The younger the trees of the stand, the faster the growth of the stand revives. The peatlands usually regenerate naturally provided there is sufficient seed trees, and there is seldom need for artificial regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4447, category Article
Oiva Johannes Lakari. (1927). Valtion metsätalouden tehostaminen. Silva Fennica no. 6 article id 4447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8395
English title: Work for greater efficiency in the state forestry.

The article proposes a plan to improve the efficiency of forest management in the state forests in Finland. The forests are situated mostly in Northern Finland. In 1926 the state forests covered 39.5% of the total land-area of the country, 13,580,611 hectares in total. A proportion of 52.3% of the land was productive forest land, 21.4% forest land of poor growth and 24.8% waste land. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). predominated 56.9%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30.5% and Betula sp. 11.9% of the productive forest land. The fellings have mainly been selective fellings of sawn timber, because the demand for small timber was small. Due to this, there is lack of seedling and young stands. Metsähallitus (Forest Service) has been able to increase the sales of small timber by increasing delivery loggings over standing sales. The net profit of state forestry was 136 million marks in 1929.

Several factors have had negative impact on profitability of state forestry: Major part of the forests are situated in Northern Finland, they are of poorer quality than the private forests, and they are located unfavorable in terms of wood demand. The means to improve financial result of state forest include expanding transport network, such as railroads and floating channels. The yield of the forests can be substantially increased by draining peatlands, improving the effectivity of forest management and increasing the proportion of delivery loggings. Changing the silvicultural practices alone is estimated to increase the productivity of the forests by 50–100%. However, the costs of the peatland draining and silvicultural work are high, and direct profits can’t be expected until later.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4437, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). The organization of forest administration in Suomi. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4437. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8385

A temporary organization for forest service was established in 1851 for the State forests of Finland. It was made permanent in 1859, and a central board, chief forest supervisors, forest supervisors and forest guards were appointed for the state forests. The Forest Research Institute, established in 1917, was subordinated to the Board of Forestry. In addition, the higher forest education was subordinated to Board of Forestry until it was moved to the University of Helsinki in 1908.

In 1921 the administration was reorganized to meet the requirements of developing forestry in the state forests. The Forest Service was divided into two sections: The State Forest Section and the Private Forest Section. The first consists of four divisions and the latter two. The forests under the supervision of the State Forest Section are divided into four districts, and each of these into two or three inspection territories. Under the supervision of the Private Forest Section are the forest schools, the Forest Research Institute, and the forest officials working for the ecclesiastical forests and Provincial Forest Committees. The Forest Research Institute is only nominally subordinated to the Private Forest Section of the Board of Forestry. It has 17 experimental areas in various parts of the country. These areas have been separated from the supervisor-areas of the state forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

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