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Articles containing the keyword 'stem volume'.

Category: Research article

article id 924, category Research article
Minna Pulkkinen. (2012). On non-circularity of tree stem cross-sections: effect of diameter selection on cross-section area estimation, Bitterlich sampling and stem volume estimation in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5B article id 924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.924
In the common methods of forest mensuration, including stem volume models and Bitterlich sampling, stem cross-sections are assumed to be circular. In nature this assumption is never exactly fulfilled. Errors due to non-circularity have been presumed to be small and unimportant but studied little: theoretical and empirical studies exist on cross-section area estimation, but errors in stem volume estimation have not been investigated at all, and errors in Bitterlich sampling are theoretically known only for stand basal area estimation. In the theoretical part of this study, we developed methods for quantifying the systematic and sampling errors that 22 common ways of selecting diameter within non-circular cross-sections induce (i) in area estimates by the circle area formula, (ii) in stand total estimates by Bitterlich sampling, and (iii) in stem volume estimates by a volume equation, by a cubic-spline-interpolated stem curve, and by a generalised volume estimator. In the empirical part, based on the digital images of 709 discs taken at 6–10 heights in 81 Scots pine stems from different parts of Finland, we investigated the variation in cross-section shape, and demonstrated the magnitude of the errors presented in the theoretical part. We found that non-circularity causes systematic overestimation of area and volume, and inflicts potentially systematic error on stand total estimates by Bitterlich sampling. In our data these effects were small, but the finding is not generalisable due the skewed size distribution and poor geographical representativeness of the data. We recommend using diameter derived from girth for both tree and stand level estimation, as it involves no sampling error and produces clearly the most stable systematic errors.
  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail: minna.pulkkinen@iki.fi (email)
article id 194, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2009). Growth and wood property traits in narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.194
We investigated the growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties in 13 narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown at a spacing of 2 m x 1.5 m (about 3300 seedlings/ha) in a field trial established in 1988 in southern Finland on a forest soil. For comparison, we used 3 normal crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) genetic entries grown as a mixture in the same trial representing southern Finnish breeding regions. We found that wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variation than growth and yield traits regardless of crown type. Narrow crowned clones also had, on average, lower stem volume and fibre length, but higher overall wood density. More over, the phenotypic correlations between studied growth and wood properties ranged, on average, from moderate (normal crown) to high (narrow crown). These results were opposite to previous findings for narrow and normal crowned genetic entries grown in narrower spacing (1 m x 1 m) in southern Finland. Thus, this indicates lower plasticity of narrow crowned clones to the increasing growing space compared to normal crowned ones, so, they should be grown at denser spacing in order to fully utilise its space efficiency capacity. However, this field trial was established as a mixture of normal and narrow crown trees, so that 90% of genetic entries were narrow crowned ones, and therefore the crown competition would be much higher for normal crowned trees when the whole trial would consist of that entry alone. In the latter case, we could expect significantly lower productivity of normal crowned genetic entries with this spacing.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 192, category Research article
Heli Peltola, Jaume Gort, Pertti Pulkkinen, Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Jouni Karppinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen. (2009). Differences in growth and wood density traits in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries grown at different spacing and sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.192
In forest breeding, stem volume has typically taken as the most important selection trait, whereas less attention has been given to wood density traits. In this work, we investigated the effects of spacing and genetic entry on the growth, yield and wood density traits in 20 year old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) based on 10 genetic entries harvested from a spacing trial (stand density range 2000–4000 trees/ha) in central Finland. In order to study also the site effects, we harvested additional material from a trial located in southern Finland (stand density of 2000 trees/ha). Compared to growth and yield properties, wood density traits showed a lower phenotypic variation. Phenotypic correlations among different traits were negative, and mostly moderate to high, suggesting that selection for one trait would simultaneously affect the others. In addition, moderate to strong phenotypic correlations were found among different wood density traits. Stem volume (V) and breast height diameter (DBH) were the largest in widest spacing, whereas in the densest one tree height (H) and latewood percentage were the highest. Genetic entry affected H and wood density traits regardless of spacing. When comparing two sites (with same stand density), genetic entry affected H, whereas site affected DBH and wood density traits. Ranking between genetic entries changed depending on the trait, spacing or site considered. Therefore, no overall ranking was possible. However, we could identify genetic entries having a high V and a relatively high wood density, showing potential for future forest regeneration material.
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Gort, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie 247, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Karppinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 247, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Raimo Jaatinen. (2008). Differences in growth and wood properties between narrow and normal crowned types of Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.247
In recent years there has been increased interest in the so called narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula), which is a rare mutant of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), as a suitable wood raw material source for pulp and paper production. This is because it is less sensitive to competition than the normal crowned Norway spruce, and thus, could be more productive especially at dense spacing. In the above context, we investigated how the growth and yield (such as height, diameter, stem volume and ring width) in addition to wood density traits and fibre properties (such as wood density, fibre length and width, cell wall thickness and fibre coarseness) were affected in trees from 9 full-sib families representing narrow crowned Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing of 1 m 1 m in Southern Finland. For comparison, we used normal crowned Norway spruce trees from 6 breeding regions. We found that, compared to growth and yield traits, wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variations. In addition, these variations were smaller for narrow crowned families than for normal crowned genetic entries. Narrow crowned families also showed, on average, higher growth and yield and fibre length, but lower wood density. Moreover, the phenotypic correlations between growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties, ranged, on average, from moderate (narrow crowned) to high (normal crowned). As a whole, the growth and wood properties of narrow crowned families were found to be less sensitive to tree competition than the normal crowned genetic entries used as a comparison.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7204, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1927). Über Stammkubierungsformeln. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 5 article id 7204. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7204
English title: On volume formulas.

Volume formulas have been developed already for long time but there are still some questions to be solved. The volume of a stem can be calculated based on measurements of diameter on various heights or based on mathematic formula. The article presents the formula development for that. The study is based on measurements of 24 pine stands.   

The results of the new formula can be seen satisfactory with the relatively small data of this study. Coincidentally the formally best mean solution of the here compared volume calculation formulas was the one based on Denzin’s formula. There the deviation from total mean is almost zero.   

  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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