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Articles containing the keyword 'stomata'.

Category: Research article

article id 1328, category Research article
Nelly N. Selochnik, Nataliya V. Pashenova, Evgeny Sidorov, Michael J. Wingfield, Riikka Linnakoski. (2015). Ophiostomatoid fungi and their roles in Quercus robur die-back in Tellermann forest, Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1328
Highlights: Dominant ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Q. robur in the post-outbreak region of oak die-back were investigated; Ophiostoma quercus was the most commonly encountered fungus; This is the first report of O. grandicarpum from Russia; The results of preliminary pathogenicity experiments demonstrate that fungi investigated in this study are unlikely to play causal role in oak die-back

Several eastern European countries have reported outbreaks of oak die-back during the 1980’s. Species of Ophiostoma Syd. were isolated from diseased trees and have been suggested to be the possible causal agents of the die-back, but this view have generally not been accepted. In order to monitor the post-outbreak region of oak die-back and to consider the possible role of Ophiostoma spp. in the syndrome, research has been conducted in the Tellerman forest, Voronezh region, Russia between 2005 and 2011. Our study resulted in the isolation of ophiostomatoid fungi from Quercus robur L. trees displaying external signs of desiccation. Fungi were identified based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence comparisons. Three species of Ophiostoma were identified including O. grandicarpum (Kowalski & Butin) Rulamort, a species closely related to O. abietinum Marm. & Butin, O. fusiforme Aghayeva & M.J. Wingf. and O. lunatum Aghayeva & M.J. Wingf. representing a poorly understood species complex, and most commonly O. quercus (Georgev.) Nannf. Pathogenicity of these fungi was tested using artificial inoculations on Q. robur trees. The fungi were shown to be non-pathogenic and unlikely to play any role in oak die-back. These fungi are most likely only components in a complex of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors that have contributed to a die-back of Quercus spp. in Russia.

  • Selochnik, Forest Science Institute of RAS, Uspenskoe 143030, Moscow Region, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: lenelse@yandex.ru
  • Pashenova, V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: pasnat@ksc.krasn.ru
  • Sidorov, Department of Forest Protection and Game Management, St. Petersburg State Forest Technical University, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: sidorov_evgeny@mail.ru
  • Wingfield, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: mike.wingfield@up.ac.za
  • Linnakoski, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3294-8088 E-mail: riikka.linnakoski@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 328, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Markku Lahti, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo, Aino Rummukainen, Hannu Mannerkoski, Leena Finér. (2006). Responses of silver birch saplings to low soil temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.328
Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula) saplings were grown for a third growing season in controlled-environment rooms (dasotrons) at three soil temperatures (5, 10, and 20 °C). All trees grew the first flush of leaves, but the growth of the second flush was almost completely inhibited at the two lower temperatures. The dry weight of the second-flush leaves was 50 times larger at 20 °C than at 5 and 10 °C, with about 100 times more nitrogen. Root growth was less affected than shoot growth. Chlorophyll content, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were lower at low soil temperatures. The value of the cytoplasm resistance estimated from the electric impedance spectra was lower at 5 °C than at 10 or 20 °C. Leaf water potential was highest at the lowest soil temperature, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was only slightly lower in saplings growing in cooler soil. We conclude that the effect of long-term exposure to cold soil on net assimilation and growth was not caused by stomatal closure alone. It is likely to be additionally mediated by the limited nitrogen acquisition at the low soil temperatures, and perhaps additionally by some other factor. As the growth depression of aboveground parts in response to low soil temperature was more significant in silver birch than what has earlier been found in conifers, the relative changes in air and soil temperature may eventually determine whether birch will become more dominant in boreal forests with climate change.
  • Aphalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.lehto@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rummukainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, The Finnish Forest Research Institute ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 348, category Research article
Chunyang Li, Xuejiang Zhang, Xingliang Liu, Olavi Luukkanen, Frank Berninger. (2006). Leaf morphological and physiological responses of Quercus aquifolioides along an altitudinal gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 348. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.348
Quercus aquifolioides Rehder & E.H. Wilson, an evergreen alpine and subalpine shrub species, occupies a wide range of habitats on the eastern slopes of the Himalaya in China. In this study, we measured leaf morphology, nitrogen content and carbon isotope composition (as an indicator of water use efficiency) of Q. aquifolioides along an altitudinal gradient. We found that these leaf morphological and physiological responses to altitudinal gradients were non-linear with increasing altitude. Specific leaf area, stomatal length and index increased with increasing altitude below 2800 m, but decreased with increasing altitude above 2800 m. In contrast, leaf nitrogen content per unit area and carbon isotope composition showed opposite change patterns. Specific leaf area seemed to be the most important parameter that determined the carbon isotope composition along the altitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that near 2800 m in altitude could be the optimum zone for growth and development of Q. aquifolioides, and highlight the importance of the influence of altitude in research on plant physiological ecology.
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn (email)
  • Zhang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liu, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Berninger, Département des sciences biologiques, Cp 8888 succ centre ville, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 531, category Research article
Thomas N. Buckley, Jeffrey M. Miller, Graham D. Farquhar. (2002). The mathematics of linked optimisation for water and nitrogen use in a canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.531
We develop, and discuss the implementation of, a mathematical framework for inferring optimal patterns of water and nitrogen use. Our analysis is limited to a time scale of one day and a spatial scale consisting of the green canopy of one plant, and we assume that this canopy has fixed quantities of nitrogen and water available for use in photosynthesis. The efficiencies of water and nitrogen use, and the interactions between the two, are strongly affected by physiological and physical properties that can be modeled in different ways. The thrust of this study is therefore to discuss these properties and how they affect the efficiencies of nitrogen and water use, and to demonstrate, qualitatively, the effects of different model assumptions on inferred optimal strategies. Preliminary simulations suggest that the linked optimisation of nitrogen and water use is particularly sensitive to the level of detail in canopy light penetration models (e.g., whether sunlit and shaded fractions are pooled or considered independently), and to assumptions regarding nitrogen and irradiance gradients within leaves (which determine how whole-leaf potential electron transport rate is calculated from leaf nitrogen content and incident irradiance).
  • Buckley, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting, RSBS, ANU ORCID ID:E-mail: tom_buckley@alumni.jmu.edu (email)
  • Miller, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Farquhar, Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting, RSBS, ANU ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 530, category Research article
Graham D. Farquhar, Thomas N. Buckley, Jeffrey M. Miller. (2002). Optimal stomatal control in relation to leaf area and nitrogen content. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 530. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.530
We introduce the simultaneous optimisation of water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency of canopy photosynthesis. As a vehicle for this idea we consider the optimal leaf area for a plant in which there is no self-shading among leaves. An emergent result is that canopy assimilation over a day is a scaled sum of daily water use and of photosynthetic nitrogen display. The respective scaling factors are the marginal carbon benefits of extra transpiration and extra such nitrogen, respectively. The simple approach successfully predicts that as available water increases, or evaporative demand decreases, the leaf area should increase, with a concomitant reduction in nitrogen per unit leaf area. The changes in stomatal conductance are therefore less than would occur if leaf area were not to change. As irradiance increases, the modelled leaf area decreases, and nitrogen/leaf area increases. As total available nitrogen increases, leaf area also increases. In all the examples examined, the sharing by leaf area and properties per unit leaf area means that predicted changes in either are less than if predicted in isolation. We suggest that were plant density to be included, it too would further share the response, further diminishing the changes required per unit leaf area.
  • Farquhar, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail: farquhar@rsbs.anu.edu.au (email)
  • Buckley, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Miller, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 591, category Research article
Qibin Yu. (2001). Can physiological and anatomical characters be used for selecting high yielding hybrid aspen clones? Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.591
Stomatal, CO2 exchange parameters and several leaf and growth traits were recorded in a five-year-old hybrid aspen clone trial. The field trial consisted of four aspen hybrid clones (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) and one local Populus tremula seedling source. The mean estimated height of hybrid aspen clones was 1.6 times higher than for P. tremula. Similarly, basal diameter was 1.5 times and breast diameter 1.8 times higher in the hybrids. Differences were observed for physiological and growth traits among hybrid clones and P. tremula, but, only stomatal characters of hybrid clones differed significantly from those in P. tremula. Hybrid clones had larger guard cells (22.9 mm) than P. tremula (19.2 mm), whereas P. tremula had a higher stomatal density (211.3/mm2) than the hybrid clones (164.4/mm2). Among four hybrid clones, net photosynthesis was strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen. Height correlated significantly with foliar nitrogen, but negatively with leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight and stomatal density. The results suggested that yield components could be controlled by many genes, specific to each clone. No single gas exchange or morphological variable can provide a reliable indicator of yield potential.
  • Yu, Department of Plant Biology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: qibin.yu@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5134, category Article
Henry Rufelt, Björn Wiese. (1981). A method for determination of the effects of air pollutants on the stomatal width. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5134. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15361

The water in different parts of a plant forms a continuum throughout the plant body. This makes it possible to record changes in the water content as changes in thickness of any part of the plant. A leaf kept in darkness has been found to change its thickness to a sufficient degree for recordings of changes in transpiration from the rest of the plant. The rapidness of the changes makes it probable that they are mirroring the stomatal movements.

The method has been used for recording of influences of SO2 as air pollutant. It has a couple of advantages over direct measurements of changes in transpiration. One is that the measurement can be used without enclosing the plant in a cuvette. Another is that possibly occurring effects on the hygrometer are eliminated. The method has until now mainly been used for wheat plants but also woody plants as Pinus and Salix have been tested.

  • Rufelt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wiese, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5131, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Satu Huttunen, Teija Väisänen. (1981). The wax structure of the developing needles of Pinus sylvestris progenies infected by Lophodermella sulcigena. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5131. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15188

The development of the stomatal area wax structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied in flushing needles with a scanning electron microscope. The needles were obtained from eleven Finnish plus tree progenies. The needles were taken from trees that were either nearly uninfected or heavily infected by Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) Höhn.

No difference in the early developmental stages of stomatal vax structure were observed between the southern Finnish, central Finnish and northern Finnish progenies. The general structure differed in the stomatal cavity chamber size. The stomatal openings were larger in heavily infected trees than in healthy trees. This might have an influence on the mechanical penetration of the fungal hyphae.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jalkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7661, category Article
Jesada Luangjame. (1990). Salinity effects in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Combretum quadrangulare: ecophysiological and morphological studies. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 214 article id 7661. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7661

The aim of this study was to investigate the ecophysiological and morphological characteristics of two salt-tolerant tree species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Combretum quadrangulare Kurz. A greenhouse experiment with different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) was set up and the results were compared with those of a field study on non-saline and saline soils. The determination of optimum gas exchange and the development and evaluation of photosynthetic models with and without water deficit were also included in this study.

Morphological characteristics under saline conditions showed that shoot height and diameter growth, shoot internode length, root length/biomass, leaf width and length, leaf area, number and biomass, and shoot/root and leaf/root ratios decreased with salinity, while leaf thickness increased with salinity. More growth was allocated to the roots than to the leaf canopy. Ecophysiological studies in laboratory showed that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water potential decreased with salinity, while the CO2 compensation point increased with salinity. Transpiration, dark respiration and photorespiration increased at low salinity but decreased at high salinity levels. In the field study, however, there were no significant differences in stomatal conductance and opening between saline and non-saline soils. Model predictions supported the results of the field measurements. Adaptation to salinity was reflected in an acclimatization of tree structure in the field study. There were both functioning and structural changes of seedlings in the greenhouse experiment

In terms of ecophysiological and morphological characteristics, E. Camaldulensis showed better salt tolerance than C. Quadragulare both in the greenhouse experiment and field study

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luangjame, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7661, category Article
Jesada Luangjame. (1990). Salinity effects in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Combretum quadrangulare: ecophysiological and morphological studies. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 214 article id 7661. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7661

The aim of this study was to investigate the ecophysiological and morphological characteristics of two salt-tolerant tree species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Combretum quadrangulare Kurz. A greenhouse experiment with different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) was set up and the results were compared with those of a field study on non-saline and saline soils. The determination of optimum gas exchange and the development and evaluation of photosynthetic models with and without water deficit were also included in this study.

Morphological characteristics under saline conditions showed that shoot height and diameter growth, shoot internode length, root length/biomass, leaf width and length, leaf area, number and biomass, and shoot/root and leaf/root ratios decreased with salinity, while leaf thickness increased with salinity. More growth was allocated to the roots than to the leaf canopy. Ecophysiological studies in laboratory showed that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water potential decreased with salinity, while the CO2 compensation point increased with salinity. Transpiration, dark respiration and photorespiration increased at low salinity but decreased at high salinity levels. In the field study, however, there were no significant differences in stomatal conductance and opening between saline and non-saline soils. Model predictions supported the results of the field measurements. Adaptation to salinity was reflected in an acclimatization of tree structure in the field study. There were both functioning and structural changes of seedlings in the greenhouse experiment

In terms of ecophysiological and morphological characteristics, E. Camaldulensis showed better salt tolerance than C. Quadragulare both in the greenhouse experiment and field study

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luangjame, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7653, category Article
Ladawan Atipanumpai. (1989). Acacia mangium : Studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characteristics of a fastgrowing plantation tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 206 article id 7653. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7653

Genetic variation in the physiological characteristics and biomass accumulation of Acacia mangium Willd. was studied in both field and laboratory conditions. Variation in the growth characteristics, foliar nutrient concentration, phyllode anatomy and stomatal frequency was analysed in 16 different origins under field conditions in Central Thailand. Family variation and heritability of growth and flowering frequency were calculated using 20 open-pollinated families at the age of 28 months. The effect of environmental factors on diameter growth in different provenances is also discussed.

Under laboratory conditions, such physiological characteristics as transpiration rate, leaf conductance and leaf water potential were measured at varying soil moisture conditions. The responses of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration as well as the CO2 compensation point to temperature and irradiance were also investigated. All physiological characteristics indicated differences among provenances. An attempt was made to relate the results obtained in the laboratory to the growth performance in the field. Recommendations on provenance selection for the planting of A. mangium in Thailand are also given.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Atipanumpai, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7649, category Article
Eeva Korpilahti. (1988). Photosynthetic production of Scots pine in the natural environment. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 202 article id 7649. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7649

The dependence of the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration are studied on the environmental factors and on the control of the plant metabolism with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the natural environment. The importance of the different environmental factors to the photosynthetic production are evaluated. In modelling the dependence of the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration on the environmental factors and on the control processes, a dynamic system analysis approach is applied. Irradiance, temperature and water are explored during the annual cycle. Field measurements of the CO2 exchange and environmental factors over three years are used in the analysis of the rate of the photosynthesis. The effect of different environmental factors on photosynthetic production is evaluated by model estimations using weather data in a 20-year period.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Korpilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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